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Master Mecha 

Vol. XL. No. 1 
Established 1878 

< + . New York 

uary, 1916 


The Arch Increases the Quantity of Steam. 

The Superheater Improves the Quality of Steam. 
The Arch Increases Boiler Capacity. 

The Superheater Increases Engine Efficiency. 
The Arch Superheats the Superheater. 

They Are Absolutely Necessary in Combination. 



New York-Chicago 




\^?i\^T- nA*?V 




January, 1916 



This portable bar is made in 
4 -inch and 4/4, -inch diameter 
by 6 feet long, with cutter - 
heads to bore diameters. 


quickly and easily set up. 
No extra length or weight to 
bother with. 


Fixtures are furnished to re- 
bore cylinders when both heads 
are removed, or with the guide 
head remaining in place. 


with tools, wrenches and 
pully ready for operation when 

Send for catalogue giving more information. 

We will also tell about our other Cylinder Boring Bars, Milling Machines, Valve Seat 
Planers, Radius Planers, Pipe Benders, Circular Planer Tools, Portable Rail Saws, etc. 




450 Railroad Shops Use 
Thermit Because It 
"Delivers the Goods" 

It can be said without exaggeration that the list of rail- 
roads using Thermit includes practically every system 
from the small road having only a few locomotives to the 
largest system having many thousand locomotives. 

Thermit is equally beneficial to all. In that respect it is 
"strictly neutral." 

Frames, side roads, guide yokes, links, driving wheel 
spokes and other sections can be quickly repaired, return- 
ing the enrine to service in from 10 to 12 hours. Frames 
can be welded in place and with very little if any dismant- 
ling to other parts of the locomotive. 

Remember that the greatest railway systems in the world 
use hundreds of thousands of pounds of Thermit. They do 
not use it for any reason except that it "delivers the goods," 
and has proved itself a profitable investment. 

• Full information is given in our new pamphlet No. 2159 
"Thermit Locomotive Repairs," and shows how effectively 
and economically the process can be used. Send for a copy 

Thermit welds in splice of engine frame near cylinder before trimming 


WILLIAM C. CUNTZ, General Manager 


329-333 Folsom St., San Francisco 

7300 So. Chicago Ave., Chicago 

103 Richmond St., W., Toronto, Ont. 



Vol. XL 

Established 1878 



Copyright 1916 

No. 1 



New Year's Greeting 
Railroad Earnings 
Car Repairs on Industrial Tracks 
The Function of Laboratory Tests 
Something for Consideration 

Lackawanna Pacific Type Engines 

Powerful 4-6-2 Locomotives for Heavy 
Passenger Service Over the Grades of 
the Pocono Mountains. 


Steel Box Cars on the P. R. R. 

All steel 100,000 lbs. capacity box cars 
built at Altoona, with heavy steel cen- 
ter sill and smooth exterior surface. 


Sources and Manufacture of Rubber 

Some little known facts bearing on the 
principal material of air, steam and 
water hose, gaskets, insulation, etc. 

Passenger Car Repairs on the Boston & Maine 
A description of the Equipment, facil- 
ities and organization of the New Pas- 
senger Car Repair Shop at North Bil- 
lerica, Mass., where all of this work 
for the road is concentrated. 

Tonnage Rating and Results Therefrom 

Method of computing train resistance 
with cars of mixed capacity, loaded 
and light. 

Tool Foremen's Year Book, 1915 

Pacific Engines for the R. F. & P. 

Two high speed heavy passenger loco- 
motives with 47,400 lbs. tractive force, 
with unusual frame design and special 
materials and equipment. 

Proper Handling of Equipment 

Reasons for making the repairing of 
owner's defects obligatory rather than 

Huge Train Movement Explained 








Use of Cast Wheels Under Freight Cars 

Wheel defects defined and causes of 
formation discussed. Owner's defects 
distinguished from those occurring in 
fair usage. 

Railway Trespassers 

Women Work on Railways 

Denver Joint Car Interchange and Inspection 
By William Hansen, Chief Interchange 

A description of the inspection fa- 
cilities and their effect on reducing 
the cost of Interchange Inspection and 
the number of cars set back. 

Practical Suggestions from Railway Shop Men: 
An Air Riveting Jack 

By F. G. Lister, Chf. Draftsman 

S. P. & S. Ry. 
Piston Heads 

By A. H. Wilkshire, Draftsman 

A. G. S. R. R. 
Hydrostatic Test Pump for Boilers 

By F. G. Lister, Chf. Draftsman 

S. P. & S. Ry. 
Rotary Four-way Valve 

By E. H. Wolf, Air Brk. Machinist 

A. C. L. 
Arch-Tube Beading Tools 

By John P. Powers, Boiler Fore- 
man C. & N. W. Ry. 

New Dining Cars on the Canadian Northern. 
Novel features of construction, includ- 
ing side framing, independent double 
unit vestibule construction, weather- 
proof deck sash, and sound and tem- 
perature insulation. 

New Methods and Appliances 

New Trade Literature 

Personal Items for Railroad Men 












Published monthly by RAILWAY PERIODICALS COMPANY, INC., at Vanderbilt Concourse Building, 52 Van- 
derbilt Avenue, corner East 45th Street, New York ; Telephone, Murray Hill 8246 ; Cable, "Progage, New York." 
Chicago Office, 1635 Old Colony Building; Telephone, Harrison 6360. 

Ernest C. Browx, President. 

C. S. Myers. Vice-President. S. A. Bates, Treasurer. 

•J. A. EuceeAj Business Manager. P. W. Nolting, Secretary. 
J. W. Barbour, Western Manager. 

Benjamin- Norton. Editor-in-Chief. 
G. S. Hodcixs, Managing Editor. L. A. Hoeswell, Associate Editor. 

A Railway Journal devoted to the interests of railway motive power, 
cars, equipment, appliances, shops, machinery and supplies. 
Communications on any topic suitable to our columns are solicited. 
Subscription Price, Domestic, $1 a year ; Foreign countries. $1.50, 
free of postage. Single copies. 20 cents. Advertising rates given on 
application to the office, by mail or in person. 

Make Checks Payable to the Railway Periodicals Company, Inc. 
Copyright. 1016. by the Railway Periodicals Company, Inc. 
Entered at the Xew York Post Office as second-class mail matter. 


(2-1. Iff 


January, 1916 


(Its Relation To Moving Trains) 

Energy is an element which pervades the universe — 
mobile, fluid, restless, resistless and eternal. 

The Scientist, in attempting a definition, says Energy is 
the capacity for doing work. 

The only difference between a train at rest and a train 
in motion is one of Energy. The whole function of the 
Locomotive is to change the Energy of Heat to the Energy 
of Motion. The sole purpose of the Air Brake is to 
return (dissipate) the Energy of Motion to the Energy 
of Heat. 

Energy flows — as a fluid — under pressure. 

The acceleration of a heavy railroad train from rest to 
60 miles per hour— in about 6 minutes of time — is due to an 
enormous flow of Energy (from heat to motion). 

The modern brake is required to return this train to 
rest in 20 seconds. To do so the flow of Energy 

(from motion to heat) must be eighteen times 

As Air Brake Designers and Engineers we must give, 
continuously, the most careful consideration to the problems 
of Energy. 

Westinghouse Air Brake Co. 



v a-<i o 

Vol. XL 

Established 187S 


Copyright 1916 

No. 1 

New Year Greeting 

To our readers and patrons whoever and wherever 
they may be we wish a Happy New Year. May the com- 
ing twelve months be full of happiness and prosperity 
to them; may the past year which has been unfor- 
tunately fraught with many perplexities and annoy- 
ances be forever forgotten, and may the joys of the 
future be limited only by the sky above and as far as 
the North, East, West and South extend. Let us all 
hope that the prosperity in sight will continue for many 
decades, and that the dawn of a new era will not be 
broken in its expansion by interrupting shadows. 

Railroad Earnings 

Since the beginning of the new fiscal year railroad 
earnings have been steadily increasing as compared 
with corresponding periods of the previous year. One 
hundred and sixteen of the largest railroads in the 
country earned gross $176,685,000 in the month of Sep- 
tember, 1915, as against $165,020,000 in September, 
1914. The operating expenses of the same roads in the 
same time were $109,645,660, compared with $109,695,- 
507 for September, 1914. The net revenue for these 116 
roads was, in consequence, $11,714,000 more in Septem- 
ber of this year than for the month of September, 1914. 
October returns show continued increases and every 
week since that month indicates that the railroad busi- 
ness is keeping pace with the improvement in all kinds 
of industries. 

As these statements represent earnings covering all 
sections of the country, it is the best evidence that im- 
provement is general. It is, therefore, gratifying to 
observe that affairs in the business world are certainly 
on the mend. The star of Prosperity has at last arisen 
and is beginning to shed its effulgence abroad. Hope 
now prevails where pessimism and disorder were up- 
permost, and once more joy is taking the place of 

It has been a long, hard, cruel season — these past 
several years. Every business enterprise of whatso- 
ever kind has combatted adversity until it seemed im- 
possible to continue longer. The weary road is finally 
leading to a turn. Under the most exacting require- 
ments, and more than fierce demands, the railroad com- 
panies have struggled courageously, to meet the wants 
of the people and, at the same time, safely maintain 


their vast properties in the interest of security holders. 
Every railroad manager in the country, supported by 
his loyal army of assistants, is entitled therefore to 
more than ordinary commendation for these achieve- 

Those wearing days of care and annoyance are grad- 
ually passing away; but there is much to be drawn from 
this page of history which has just been turned. We 
profit — if we are wise — by our experiences. We learn 
how to enjoy prosperity when it is at hand, and how 
to cope with adversity when it comes upon us ; but dur- 
ing either period we are still wise if we plan for the 
future. We never know what a day may bring forth, 
so that under that apt precept, advanced by the father 
of his country, we must "prepare for war in time of 
peace." We must guard against adversity by using 
our energies and resources to that end in times of pros- 

We are not yet in the seething cauldron of what are 
known as "good times," but we are headed that way. 
There will come the day when the railroads, after this 
long seige of economy, will rush in to provide much 
needed repairs and renewals and betterments and their 
earnings will then warrant it, especially if the needed 
relief in the way of increased rates is granted, and it 
probably will be. There will be a demand for cars and 
engines and bridges and rails and lumber and paint and 
every other known commercial product. Shops will be 
busy full time and beyond. Extra help will be required, 
extensions projected and new buildings erected. And 
this will make toward a general revival in all kinds pf 
trade. In other words, the long expected season of 
great prosperity will open. Securities of all sorts will 
be issued and with money a-plenty extravagance will be 
the order of the day, in place of economy. The great 
influx of gold, resulting from the purchase of war 
materials here, foodstuffs and other commodities, and 
the war in general, is filling the coffers of the banks 
and bankers to overflowing. There will be money to 
borrow and money to lend and money to spend. "Mis- 
sissippi bubbles" will be blown and all manner of 
schemes will be set afloat. The railroads will be among 
the "rainbow chasers," too. Hopeful fiscal agents will 
advise the output of bonds and notes and debentures 
and will encourage improvements and extensions. The 
railroads will gladly shoulder these demands, because 
they will be strong and lusty never mindful of the 
fatigue which always follows excessive exertion. The 



January, 1916 

aftermath must be considered, because this momentous 
season, like all seasons, will close after a time. 
Summer succeeds spring and the cheerless weeks of 
autumn follow the delightful days of summer. 

Now will be the time to prepare for the future; to 
"stop, look and listen" occasionally, as we move into 
and through this glittering field of prosperity. It will 
require many months to supply all the needs for which 
the railroads will spend their money. They have be- 
come sadly reduced, as we know, and will require much 
attention. Wornout equipment will be abandoned and 
replaced; tracks will require a general overhauling, and 
the demands for rails and bridges will be urgent. Ties 
will be renewed and everything on the line done over 
and put in thorough order. And all this not for safety 
only, but in order to meet the enormous traffic which 
will sooner or later tax their every facility. There is 
a likelihood, then, that expenditures may go too far, 
resulting in that excess of good things which produces 
indigestion. When business slackens the railroads will 
waken to the idea that they have overdone things ; have 
borrowed too much and spent too much. Like the 
dancer, they will, in the end, have to pay the piper. 
This is the danger that attends good times. The pessim- 
ist turns optimist and the optimist lives in a still higher 
plane of hope than before. The idea is then abroad that 
hard times will never return ; that prosperity has come 
to stay; that a thousand years of uninterrupted good 
fortune are at hand. This was the case when the 
twentieth century ushered in the most fruitful days 
this country had ever seen, and up to 1907, practically, 
there was nothing in the air to indicate that the season 
would ever wane. Staid and conservative bankers de- 
clared that never again would the old cry of "hard 
times" be heard. The railroads loaded themselves and 
the public with securities which later were wearily 
referred to as "undigested" and every one plunged into 
debt and spent money regardless of consequences and 
the way of the world. We all know what followed. 

To secure eternal peace and everlasting prosperity, 
which we all desire, it will be necessary to remodel 
human nature, and no one but an all wise Providence 
can do that. The time is not yet. It is a mark of good 
judgment, then, for us to carefully consider these 
things so that in the few coming years of joy we may 
learn how to stand this prosperity, as we should, and 
not become obsessed with the belief that the millenium 
with its never ceasing glories has finally dawned. 


Car Repairs on Industrial Tracks 

There are advantages to be gained and a saving to be 
effected for the railway concerned by the inspection 
and repairs to cars which, coming from one road and 
intended for another, are placed on an industrial track 
to be loaded. There are certain difficulties in the way, 
of course, but these are not by any means insurmount- 
able. When inspection is made and repairs done, when 
a car is on an industrial track, it saves two switching 

movements. This may not appear to be a very onerous 
burden to be carried by the receiving road, but it must 
be remembered that such an operation is repeated, per- 
haps on several cars, from day to day during the entire 
year. It is not the isolated instance which makes the 
saving noticeable, it is the cumulative effect of the 
large number of small savings which becomes visible 
as one of the things worth while. 

If, as an example, one may suppose that several cars 
owned by the A. B. Railroad are returned in a city by 
the C. D. Railway and are put upon an industrial track 
for loading without going to the yard of A. B., they 
may have defects for which the owners are responsi- 
ble. These cars come in after a trip on the C. D. Rail- 
way and are forthwith placed for load. If they have 
developed the kind of defects of which we speak they, 
do not bear a defect card, and they should receive the 
necessary repairs. In the ordinary course of events 
they reach the A. B. yard and are marked for the re- 
pair track. The movement to the repair track takes 
place and a second movement is required to bring them, 
back to that yard after being repaired to be put in a 
train. There are the two switching movements, with 
car under load, with the accompanying loss of time 
going and coming to and from the repair track. 

This kind of thing happens, not necessarily all the 
time, but it can happen and does happen. Inspection 
and repair on the industrial track may be the econom- 
ical thing to do, though it may not conform to local 
rule or custom. If the cars reach the A. B. yard direct 
from the C. D. Railway and are inspected and marked 
off they may yet be delivered for load before repairs on 
the assumption that they are coming back to the A. B 
yard, and the yard crew, following the line of immedi- 
ate least resistance, runs them out to the industrial 
track and lets the future movements take care of them- 

A method modified and adjusted to suit local circum- 
stances may at least be worthy of consideration. At 
an industrial track where there is a constant stream of 
business, that is, where some cars are handled every 
day, there are many chances that cars requiring minor 
repairs will somehow or other be put there before the 
repairs are made. Under these circumstances would 
it not be wise to make the repairs while the cars are on 
the industrial track? 

A competent man, perhaps inspector and repairman 
in one, could be detailed to take care of this and other 
similar situations within a limited radius, and if the 
industrial track was one on which a profitable business 
for the railway was done, the matter of saving time and 
reducing the switching movements would be of con- 
siderable importance. Such a repairman, if provided 
with a section man's tool box, with lock and key, could 
keep a few bolts, brasses, wedges, packing, brake shoes, 
brake levers, lag screws, hand holds, etc., etc., and be 
able to look after the needs of the cars with compara- 
tively little trouble. He would use his blue protection 

January, 1916 


flag when at work and the industrial track switch would 
be set and locked for the main line. The chances of 
his being taken unawares would be slight, indeed, and 
practically impossible if proper precautions were taken. 
Work done under these circumstances on a few cars 
with supplies close at hand would not consume much 
time and would eliminate switching movements and loss 
of time. 

If these cars come into the yard to have repairs made 
safety demands that they be placed on the repair track, 
and from this there is no escape. If you have your 
shoes shined while you are being shaved you save time 
and may escape a walk to the next block to get a boot- 
black. You will eventually undergo both these opera- 
tions — why not now? as the advertisements say. 

We have dealt with the two possible methods of the 
delivery of cars to the industrial track. From the yard 
of the owning road, which is the usual way, and from the 
delivering road, which is a possibility. In either case 
the result is the same. The keeping up of supplies by 
the repairman and the replenishing of his tool box stock 
can easily be arranged for by pressing yard engine into 
the service once in awhile. 

The Function of Laboratory Tests 

Criticism often heard among practical railroad men 
of the amount of money and time spent on laboratory 
tests of locomotives raises a doubt as to whether or not 
the function of such a test is generally understood by 
the men who have not had the advantage of laboratory 
work in their preliminary education. 

It can be claimed by an engine man that the amount 
of coal burned in a laboratory test to produce a certain 
draw bar pull at a certain speed gives no indication 
that out on a division the same amount of coal will pull 
the same load where the engine is radiating heat and 
where wind and weather affect the draft conditions. 

What should be understood about a laboratory test 
is that a perfect laboratory equipment makes it possible 
to control and measure each factor entering into the 
performance of the locomotive. Then by holding all fac- 
tors but one constant the effect of varying any one fac- 
tor can be dtermined. For example, the relative effi- 
ciency of two models of valve gear can be determined 
in so far as they affect steam consumption, steam dis- 
tribution, draw bar pull, etc., or the advantages gained 
by a brick arch, or a superheater, or softened boiled 
feed water, each factor as it alone affects the result. 
In such a laboratory test no cognizance is taken of the 
personal element in operation, the locomotive is consid- 
ered apart from its driver — apart from its load. No 
witness to such a test can say that the results are un- 
fair because one day it rained and the rails were slip- 
pery, or that a test train had a leaky air connection 
and demanded more than the usual amount of steam to 
maintain pressure in the reservoir. 

The functions of the laboratory test of a locomotive 
become plain. It is possible to determine — on a per- 

centage of total effectiveness basis — the effect of vary- 
ing any one factor in the locomotive's performance. Or,. 
it is. possible, by duplicating all external conditions, to 
secure a comparative relation between the effectiveness, 
of two types of locomotives under exactly similar 

The exact data secured in laboratory tests do not rep- 
resent the data to be secured in service. The relations, 
and percentages based on laboratory data find their 
wide application in practical operation, not by setting a 
standard by which operating results shall be judged — 
but by indicating how far individual factors which can- 
not be isolated and measured in service affect the prac- 
tical performance of the locomotive. 

Something for Consideration 

Whether Germany is better prepared than the United 
States in time of war, so far as railroad facilities go, 
considering the size of the two countries and their 
average density of population, may best be answered 
by the following comparative figures gathered from a 
recent report of the Bureau of Railway Economics at 
Washington. This report covers the years 1913 and 
1914, respectively, which might be called average years,, 
no later statistics having yet been compiled : 

Germany United States- 
Area in square miles 208.825 2,973,890 

Population 67,00.0.000 99,000,000* 

Total mileage, all tracks 78,0.00 377,000 

Capital per mile $120,000 $66,500' 

Gross revenues $846,000,000 $3,000,000,000 

Cost to operate 69 % 72 % 

Total employes 786,000 1,700,000 

Locomotives 29,500 61.200 

Weight of locomotives, less tenders ; 

tons 61 8» 

Passenger cars (small capacity) U. S. 

large capacity 65,000 33.000 

Freight Cars . . 671.000 2,200,000 

Capacity of freight cars (tons) 11,000.000 89,000,000 

Tons of freight carried 6S0.000.00O 1,000,000,000 

Passengers carried 1,SOO,000.000 1,050,000,000 

Average journey 14 34 

To be especially impressed with the ramifications and 
marvellous extent of the railroads in the United States 
one most consult a map which shows plainly and in 
detail all the lines. He will see at a glance that no 
section of the country is neglected in the matter of 
railroad facilities. From the Atlantic to the Pacific 
and from the Gulf of Mexico to Canada are abundant 
and growing systems capable, in time of necessity, to 
move troops, munitions of war and supplies in every 
direction and between all points with rapidity and 

While distances here are long and the area vast, 
there is nothing to stand in the way of rapid service. 
Allowed suitable rates and fair, honest consideration,, 
the railroads of the country will be enabled to furnish 
additional facilities when needed and be further pre- 
pared to act famously whenever the call comes. Then, 
under the control of a Board of Defense, in which 
should sit representatives from our various large rail- 
road companies, this country can never be placed, in 
time of war, in an awkward position so far as the rail- 
roads are concerned. 


January, 1916 

Lackawanna Pacific Type Engines 

Powerful 4-6-2 Locomotives for Heavy Passenger 
Service Over the Grades of the Pocono Mountains 

Five Pacific type locomotives, believed to be the most 
powerful of the type, have recently been delivered to 
the Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad by the 
American Locomotive Company. 

The general introduction of steel cars in passenger 
service has necessitated the purchase of these heavy 
engines. They have been put in service between Scran- 
ton and Hoboken. This division crosses the Pocono 
Mountains and has a ruling grade between Stroudsburg 
and Pocono Summit of 78 ft. to the mile for a distance 
of 16 miles, with curves of 5 and 6 degs. Trains of nine 
steel cars are being handled over this district on the 
Lackawanna Limited trains Nos. 3 and 6, and this 
means a total train load of 600 tons hauled, at a speed 
of 30 miles an hour. 

On other trains these engines are handling from one 
to two extra cars at schedule time on the grades. Also, 
all helpers on the mountain district have been dispensed 
with, on trains consisting of ten cars or less. Pacific 
type locomotives built three years ago and known as 
the 1,101 class, which have been replaced by these new 
locomotives, only handled 530 tons of train weight in 
the form of eight cars, moved at the same speed. 

The new Pacifies have a total weight, engine and 
tender, of 471,300 lbs. and a tractive effort of 47,500 

superheating surface and grate area. The fire-box 
heating surface is reduced by 5 sq. ft. and 260 sq. ft. of 
water tube heating surface is added, which gives it a 
total heating surface of 3,935 sq. ft. Baffle plates are 
installed along both sides of the dome opening in boiler 
shell to prevent water washing up into the dome when 
the engines are rounding curves. 

An interesting detail is the design of the throttle 
arrangement, known as the Woodard throttle and pat- 
ented by the builders. The throttle rod is placed on 
the outside of the boiler shell and operates the throttle 
by means of a horizontal shaft which passes through a 
stuffing box on the side of the steam dome. The throt- 
tle valve itself has a stem projecting downwardly 
through the throttle box. The opening through which 
the stem passes is made steam-tight. At the lower end 
of the throttle stem there is a horizontal lever, one end 
of which connects through a vertical rod with the inner 
arm of the operating shaft on the side of the dome. The 
stuffing box on the side of the dome is of ordinary con- 
struction, suitable for a rotating shaft. It will be noted 
that this shaft has a motion of rotation only, and is not 
subject to the same objections as a backhead throttle 
rod which is pulled in and out of the stuffing box. 

The throttle rod passes over the outside of the boiler 

Pacific Type or 4-6-2 for the Lackawanna Railroad. 

H. C. Manchester, S. M. P. 

Am. Loco. Co., Builders. 

lbs. Pacifies of the 1,106 class have a total weight, 
engine and tender, of 449,800 lbs. and a tractive effort 
of 40,800 lbs. With an increase in weight of 4.8 per 
cent, an increase in power of 16.4 per cent was obtained. 

A tractive power of 47,500 lbs. on a Pacific type pas- 
senger locomotive requires an exceptionally large 
boiler. This one is of the extended wagon-top type. At 
the first course the barrel measures 79 Vk ins. in diam- 
eter outside, while the outside diameter of the largest 
course is 88 V 2 ins. The barrel is fitted with 272 tubes, 
2 ins. in diameter, and 38 super-heater flues, 5% ins. 
in diameter and 17 ft. long. A combustion chamber 
44 ins. long is included. The fire-box is 126y8 ins. long 
by 104 1 / 4 ins. wide and has a brick arch supported on 
5 tubes. All longitudinal seams are dectuple riveted. 
Tube and flue heating surface is 3,311- sq. ft., fire-box 
heating surface is 332 sq. ft., arch tube heating surface 
is 57 sq. ft., giving a total of 3,680 sq. ft. 

The superheating surface is 760 sq. ft. and grate sur- 
face measures 91.3 sq. ft. One of the locomotives, 
No. 1,131, is fitted with a Riegel boiler. This boiler has 
the same tube, flue, and arch tube heating surface, 

jacket and in through the front of the cab, connecting 
to a special design of throttle lever. This throttle lever 
is so arranged that it has a differential leverage. At 
the beginning of motion the leverage is greatest, and 
the movement of the end of the lever is largest for a 
given motion of the throttle rod. The arrangement, 
therefore, offers a method of obtaining maximum pull 
at the beginning of the motion. After the throttle valve 
is unseated the leverage increases, with a correspond- 
ing decrease in the travel of the lever handle for a given 
lift of the valve. This permits of using the throttle 
lever with enough travel in the cab to keep it down to 
workable limits and at the same time the starting pull 
obtained is sufficient to easily lift the valve. The posi- 
tion of the throttle lever in the cab permits a better 
arrangement of the backhead fittings on the boiler to be 
made than can be obtained with the old style of throttle 
lever. The gauge cocks are unobstructed by the throt- 
tle lever handle, and the water glass and steam gauges 
can be placed in the position usually occupied by the 
throttle stuffing box and fittings of the lever. 

All driving axles and main crank pins are of Cambria- 

January, 1916 


Coffin process steel, with a 3 ins. hole bored the entire 
length after they have been given the Coffin process. 

Some other interesting details are the Manchester- 
Riegel by-pass and drifting valves, the Walschaerts 
direct-drive gear, having the combination link attached 
to the cross-head wrist pin. The Schmidt superheater, 
brick arch, Ragonet power reverse gear, Foulder solid 
back end main rod, Woodard inverted link constant re- 
sistance engine truck, Cole long main driving box; self- 
centering valve stem guide, extended piston rods, radial 
buffer, and vanadium frames. 

Some of the principle dimensions of this type is 
appended below for reference. 

Track — Gauge, 4 ft. 8 % ins. Fuel — Anthracite coal. 
Cylinder — Type, piston; diameter, 27 ins.; stroke, 28 
ins. Tractive power — Simple, 47,500. Factor of ad- 
hesion — Simple, 4.35. Wheel base — Driving, 13 ft. ; rigid, 
13 ft. — total, 34 ft. 5 in. ; total, engine and tender, 67 ft. 
1 in. Weight — In working order, 305,500 lbs.; on driv- 
ers, 197,300 lbs. ; on trailer, 56,000 lbs. ; on engine truck, 
52,200 lbs.; engine and tender, 471,300 lbs. Boiler- 
Type: Extended, Wagon top, O. D. first ring, 79% ins.; 
working pressure, 200 lbs. Fire-box — Type, wide; 
length, 126% ins; width, 104% ins.; combustion cham- 
ber, with length, 44 ins.; thickness of crown, % in.; 
thickness of tube, 9/16 in.; thickness of sides, % in.; 
thickness of back, % in. Water Space— Front, 5 ins.; 
sides, 5 ins. ; back, 4 ins. ; depth (top of grade to center 
of lowest tube), 23% ins. Crown staying — Radial. 
Tubes — Material, Char, iron, No. 272; diameter, 2 ins. 
Flues — Material, hot rolled S. S., No. 38 ; diameter, 5% 
ins. Thickness— Tubes, No. 11 B. W. G.; flues, No. 9 
B. W. G. Tube— Length, 17 ft. ; spacing 11/16 in. Heat- 

MS 3*. mvucvnd 

Design of Throttle Lever for the D. L. & W. 

ing surface — Tubes and flues: Riegel, 3,311 sq. ft., 
ordinary, 3,311 sq. ft.; fire-box: Riegel, 327 sq. ft., ordi- 
nary, 332 sq. ft.; arch tubes: Riegel, 37 sq. ft., ordinary, 
37 sq. ft.; water tubes, Riegel, 260 sq. ft. — total, Riegel, 
3,935 sq. ft., ordinary, 3,680 sq. ft. Superheater surface 
— Riegel, 760 sq. ft.; ordinary, 760 sq. ft. Grate area, 
Riegel, 91.3 sq. ft; ordinary, 91.3 sq. ft. Wheels — Driv- 
ing diameter outside tire, 73 ins.; center diameter, 66 
ins. Wheels — driving material: main, C. steel; others, 
C. steel. Wheels — Engine truck, diameter, 33 ins. ; kind, 
C. iron.; trailing truck: diameter, 50 ins.; kind, C. steel; 
tender truck: diameter, 36 ins.; spoke, solid rolled steel. 
Axles — driving journals: main, 11% ins. x 21 ins.; 

other, 10% ins. x 16 ins.; engine truck journals, 6% 
ins. x 12 ins.; trailing truck journals, 9 ins. x 14 ins.; 
tender truck journels, 6 ins. x 11 ins. Boxes — Driving: 
main, C. steel; others, cast steel. Brake — Driver, West. 
ET No. 6, Amer. WM-3 ; truck, Amer. ; tender, West. ET 
No. 6; air signal, West. L; pump, one 11 ins. West.; 
reservoir, 2-18% ins. x 102 ins. Engine truck — 4 wheel 
Woodard. Trailing truck — Radial self-centering. Ex- 

The Woodard Throttle. Am. Loco. Co. 

haust pipe — Double; nozzles, 3-7/7. 4-4% ins. Grate- 
Style, rocking. Piston — rod diameter, 4% ins ; packing, 
G. iron rings. Smoke stack — Diameter, 18% ins.; top 
above rail, 15 ft. 3 ins. Tender frame — D. L. & W. 
style, 13 ins. channels. Tank — Style, water bottom; ca- 
pacity, 9,000 gals. ; capacity fuel, 10 tons of coal. Valves 
— Type, piston, 14 ins.; travel, 6% ins.; steam lap, 1% 
ins.; ex. clear., 3/16 in.; setting: in full gear for- 
ward, Lead 9/16 in. in full gear back. 


Editor Railway Master Mechanic. 

Sir — In my railroad experience I have often noticed 
that some roads have a lot of trouble with hot boxes, 
and that packing the box a second or even a third tiifie 
does not remove the tendency to run hot. My idea is 
that a good deal of the trouble arises from improper 

If a journal runs hot and is repacked and a new 
brass put in, it may still be hot a few miles from the 
point where the original heating forced it to be at- 
tended to. 

I have noticed a number of times, on one of our great 
trunk lines where journal bearings had been applied at 
three different points, and at the station where the last 
bearing had been put in, this same journal ran hot at a 
station 12 miles from where the bearing was applied. 
The inspector packed this journal, and no more atten- 
tion was given to it. After it had gone 70 miles the 
inspector, who accompanied the car, found the box cool. 
A number of similar cases could be mentioned. All the 
boxes got cool after a proper method of packing had 
been resorted to. 

One reason why the hot-box evil continues is that not 
enough oil is retained in the old packing when it has 
been used a number of times, because all the life has 
gone out of it, so that a certain amount of new packing 
ought to be used with the old but renovated packing. 
Many roads provide an instructor to school and educate 
the men who have been assigned to packing journal 
boxes, and much good work has thus been done. All 
roads do not follow the practice. If it was, I believe 
this hot-box question would be a thing of comparatively 
rare occurrence. C. J. Parks, 

C. C. C. & St. L., Shelby, Ohio. 



January, 1916 

Steel Box Cars on the Pennsylvania Railroad 

All-Steel 100,000-Lbs. Capacity Box Cars Built at Altona, 
With Heavy Steel Center Sill and Smooth Exterior Surface 

The Pennsylvania Railroad has put in service some 
all steel freight cars which are not only comparatively 
light, considering this material, but are most service- 
able and present a neat appearance that one is accus- 
tomed to think could only be obtained with the more 
easily worked material— wood. These cars have a 
capacity of 100,000 lbs. The inside measurements are 
40 ft. 5 ins., width 8 ft. 10 ins., height 9 ft. 1 in. The 
height at the eaves is 12 ft. 10 ins., and the width at the 
eaves is 9 ft. 2 ins. The total weight when the car is 
new is 49,100 lbs. The equipment of the cars consists 
of Westinghouse draw gear, M. C. B. couplers with 
shank 5x7 ins., yoke attachment, No. 2 metal brake 
beams and K2 triple valves. These vehicles are also 
equipped with the United States safety appliance 

A glance at the cars would not be sufficient to give 
one an adequate idea of how the capacity of the car 

at the top by the cover plate is open a distance of 4% 
ins. on the underside. The center sill is made so that it 
is an 11-in. channel at the ends and this construction 
extends back to the needle beams, a distance of 12 ft. 
4 ins. from the end sills. Here the lower side of the 
center sill dips down to its full depth of 20 ins. Be- 
tween the body bolster and this point, that at which the 
first needle beam occurs, the center sill tapers up to 
11 ins. deep. 

The body bolster is composed of two diaphragms, 
which between the center sills contains a heavy centre 
casting which acts as a spacing piece as well. The side 
sill is composed of an angle 6x4 ins., with flange 
turned inwards, and on the outside of this is a bulb- 
angle 4 x 3% ins., the bulb being outermost. The body 
bolster diaphragms are 5 3/16 ins. on top at the center 
and taper toward the side sills. They are 7 ins. deep at 
the center, but come up to 6 ins. at the side sills. Fric- 

Side View of Pennsylvania Steel Box Car. 

may be had, with what appears to be somewhat light 
construction for side sills and ends. The cars, however, 
depend upon a pair of deep reinforced channels as their 
center sills. These take the coupler pulling strains and 
absorb the transmitted buffing stocks. The channels 
with webs turned outward measure 20 ins. deep. They 
are % in. thick and are spaced 12% ins. apart. The 
lower ends of the channels are reinforced by two angles 
4 x 4 x 9/16 ins. These angles are riveted to the center 
sills and their edges, approximately balancing the 4-in. 
flange of the channel, have their edges turned inward. 
The top of the channel center sills has a cover plate 
2 ft. 2 ins. wide, so that it overlaps the channel flanges 
by 2 9/16 ins. on a side. The angles, which are. as 
stated, at the ends of car, are 4 x 4 x % ins. in the deep 
central portion of the sill. The center sill while closed 

tion castings for the truck are carried on the body 

Suitable diaphragms between side and center sills 
appear every 3 ft. 2 ins. between the needle beams. The 
diaphragms are 3 ft. 8 ins. apart between body bolster 
and needle beams. At each diaphragm a suitable spac- 
ing diaphragm is interposed between the members form- 
ing the center sills. The needle beams are composed 
each of two members or diaphragms which taper from 
the full depth of the center sills, viz : 20 ins., to the side 
sills, viz: 6 ins. A cover plate 5 ft. 9 ins. long is riveted 
to the upper surface of the needle beam diaphragms. 
Four longitudinal diaphragms are placed in the center 
of the car, joining the transverse diaphragms at this 
point. These transverse diaphragms are 4 ft. 6 ins. 
apart under the side doors at the center of the car. 

January, 1916 


At a suitable place, and as far as possible removed 
from the contamination of dirt, dust and grease, boards 
are secured to the diaphrapms so that defect cards may 
be tacked on as required. High up on the side doors 
and on the ends of the car wooden pieces have been 
applied for tacking on the various routing cards used 
on the journey. 

The roof of the car slopes from the center so that the 
fall amounts to 4% ins. at each eave. Wooden running 
boards are affixed to the roof and these overhang 13% 
ins. on each end. The running boards, made of three 
strips of wood, have a total width of 18% ins. The 
side posts are pressed steel channel shapes and are 
anchored to the bulb-angles by a rivet passed through 
the bulb-angle and the turned-in end of post. The 
6 x 4-in. angle member of the side sill is riveted to a 



End View of P. R. R. Steel Box Car. 

bent angle which also secures the cover plate which 
makes each side post practically a box in section. 

The truck is of the ordinary diamond pattern with 
pressed steel bolster 15% ins. deep at the center and 
7% ins. at the ends. The lower edge of the bolster is 
curved, and with empty cars the top of the bolster is 
26% ins. above the top of the rail. The truck springs 
at each side are two nests of four-coil springs each. 
The axle is a No. 7 and has a journal 5% x 10 ins. The 
spring plank is a %-in. Carnegie channel, 8 a /4 ins. from 
the rail. It is riveted to the spring-seat casting at each 
end. The arch bars are 1% x 5 ins. and the tie bar at 
the bottom is 5 x % ins. The entire car is composed of 
metal with the sole exception of the boards for defect 
cards and route tickets and the running boards. Our 
illustrations show the side of a Union Line car and its 
appearance at one end. It is needless to say that these 
cars are practically fireproof. 


An envelope has served its purpose, as a rule, once 
and for all time, as soon as it is sealed and sent on its 
way with enclosures. The consumption of envelopes on 
a railroad for correspondence among the different de- 
partments alone runs into hundreds of thousands an- 
nually. A comparatively cheap item it is, too, reckoned 
by the thousand when contracts for stationery are 
made; but when this account is determined at the end 
of the year it results in some extremely interesting 
figures, especially on a large railroad. Cheap manilla 
envelopes of large and small sizes are usually furnished 
and they are used with an unlimited prodigality about 
the general offices and all over the line. 

Efficiency experts apparently have not burdened their 
brains with this seemingly unimportant subject. They 
have delved into the affairs of all departments on 
money-saving errands, lopping off in one way and an- 
other in larger fields; but have frequently left the 
smaller features of cost severely alone. Generally, 
correspondence between the different departments lays 
no claim to privacy and, therefore, need not, necessarily, 
be sealed. Documents and papers relating to current 
business are referred here and there by the president, 
general manager or heads of departments and the re- 
cipients may in turn be obliged to refer them to subor- 
dinates for their attention and reply. Finally all the 
correspondence comes back to its original source by the 
same channel through which it was started. All this 
may require the use of a dozen or more envelopes, which 
once having served their purpose find their way prompt- 
ly to the waste basket. During the day, in various 
directions, hundreds upon hundreds of these manilla 
wrappers are put in service in the same way and help 
to swell the accumulation of old paper, while the 
monthly stationery bills show the expense involved. 

The unfillable bottle was invented for a certain pur- 
pose and has proved its worth; but no tillable envelope 
which would serve its purpose in the opposite direction 
seems to have ever been considered. Here then is an 
opportunity for some clever individual to set his wits to 
work and in a direction which will be of profit to him- 
self as well as the railroad company which may adopt 
the device when properly put on the market. If this 
idea has never been suggested why may not some of 
our readers take the matter up seriously as herein sug- 
fested. Writing across the face of an envelope will 
permanently deface it so that it is unfit to use a second 
time. This is the main feature to be overcome. 

Be courteous always. Courtesy makes the rough 
places much easier and helps to smooth away life's lit- 
tle difficulties. Courtesy is a business asset, a gain 
and never a loss. Courtesy is one mark of a good rail- 
road man. — Howard Elliott. 

A Question of Loyalty 

Senator Underwood, it is reported, has remarked, re- 
ferring to the railroads, the Interstate Commerce Com- 
mission and the idea expressed that the Commission 
ought to be enlarged, that it is time business stopped 
serving 49 masters. Presumably he referred to the 49 
states of the union. It is certainly true that the rail- 
roads today are under the tutelage of that many mas- 
ters to whom, by law, they report and under whom 
they exist. 

The Bible does not allow but one master. In case two 
direct one's affairs, there arises the proposition that 
he must love but one and consequently hate the other. 
If love and hate are sentiments in vogue today among 
the railroads, and they must be so far as their masters 
are concerned, it is time that regulation of the rail- 
roads be so unified that state and government interests 
will not conflict. 


January, 1916 

Sources and Methods of Manufacture of Rubber 

Some Little Known Facts Bearing on the Principal Material 
of Air, Steam and Water Hose, Gaskets, Insulation, etc. 

The hotel guest, who found serious fault with the 
management when he discovered a piece of rubber tire 
in that familiar mixture known as "hash," with which 
he was engaged, was promptly satisfied upon being told 
that "the automobile is gradually replacing the horse." 
And thus we see how rubber is coming into more than 
ordinary vogue. Its general use is almost as elastic as 
the nature of the product. 

From the rubber eraser on the end of a lead pencil 
to the rubber mat, the automobile tire and that all- 
important necessity — the air brake hose — is a varied 
line of daily requirements which few people stop to 
think about. Rubber is quite as important a necessity 
in the world today as copper, iron or any of our table 
requisites, such as sugar or bread. It is a staple, a 
sort of staff of life, so to speak; an article which we 
cannot do without, unless some clever genius can sub- 
stitute for it a synthetic compound or introduce some- 
thing equally good by the exercise of his talents. 

Of course, everything is possible now-a-days, and the 
time may come when dire necessity — our great mother 
of invention — will force us to employ a mixture which 
will entirely supplant What we now know as rubber. In 
our imagination, then, let us visit the source of this 
important need; spend a moment in the countries and 
among the trees or plants which bring it forth, and 
afterward consider the details involved before it is 
finally offered in the markets of the world for specific 
use. We will thereby learn that before one can look for 
a pair of rubber boots, a rubber coat or a lead pencil 
tip he must await patiently until all the details of their 
manufacture have been carefully worked out. It is the 
milk-like juice, or, more properly, "latex," which is the 
foundation of them all. The latex of the best rubber 
plants produces from 20 to 50 per cent of rubber, and 
the rubber of commerce comes from the rubber trees 
of South and Central America, and also from certain 
sections of Africa and Asia. 

It might be said that Columbus discovered the rubber 
tree and the secret of the commercial value of rubber. 
At all events, soon after his memorable voyage Indians 
were found in some places in South America who played 
ball with a resilient substance produced by the coagula- 
tion of the juice from rubber plants. Hence the name, 
presumably, of Indian or India rubber, by which it is 
known to this day. 

We must go to South America to secure the best rub- 
ber, which is commercially named Para. It is so called 
on account of the port of Para, at the mouth of the 
Amazon River, from which rubber was first, and now is, 
exported. The Amazon Valley, Peru, Venezuela, Bolivia 
and Brazil furnish all the so-called Para rubber. Other 
qualities, but inferior, bear the names of Ceara, Ule, 
Mangabeira, Assam and Lagos, depending upon the dis- 
tricts in South America, Mexico, Gautemala, Asia and 
Africa from which the rubber comes. In addition to 
these there are produced a great variety of inferior 
rubber. Plantation rubber (especially cultivated) is a 
name applied to the product which comes mostly from 
Ceylon, Singapore and Sumatra, where the trees have 
been grown from seeds brought from Brazil. 

The methods employed to produce this very important 
commodity are substantially the same, however, in all 
these countries, and, what was once an interesting curi- 

osity, is now an indispensable article of every-day use, 
developed as civilization has advanced and require- 
ments have demanded. The toy ball, the air brake and 
the steam pipe hose, as well as other useful products 
depending upon rubber, all occupy places in the com- 
mercial world, where prices fluctuate with demand. 

The rubber trees or plants are not, as a rule, tapped 
until they are well along in years, say, 12 to 15, and the 
tapping, when carefully performed, does not injure the 
tree. This operation somewhat resembles the method 
employed in securing sap for sugar from the maple 
tree. The milk or "latex" is then treated in such a way 
that, as different layers of it become coagulated, other 
layers are added by skillful manipulation, and the gath- 
ering is then hung out to dry, finally resulting in what 
are technically termed "biscuits." These are pure rub- 
ber. Many of us have doubtless observed that young 
housewives can produce a biscuit of dough which will 
find a stomach to digest it with quite as much difficulty 
as biscuits made of rubber might. 

These biscuits are the raw material which is exported 
and comes to market to be used by the manufacturer in 
such way as the goods of one sort and another which he 
turns out may require. 

"Wild rubber," so called, as distinguished from the 
plantation rubber, contains more impurities than its 
companion, but these are eliminated by washing and 
other treatments. Under analysis we find that the raw 
or pure rubber contains, in a general way, depending 
upon the district from which it comes : Caoucthouc, 75 
to 90 per cent; resin, 2 to 12 per cent; proteids, 1 to 8 
per cent; ash, 1 to 2% per cent, and moisture, % to 3 
per cent. Caoucthouc is the main ingredient, and upon 
the preponderance of this depends the quality of the 
rubber, but until rubber has been vulcanized by heat 
and a union with sulphur, in proportions, it is of no 
practical use for ordinary purposes. Its resilience with- 
out such treatment is too pronounced, and it cannot 
withstand extremes of either heat or cold. 

To Charles Goodyear we are indebted for inventing 
the process of vulcanizing rubber in vogue today. His 
first patent was secured in 1844, but, like most persist- 
ent geniuses, he died in poverty, while others later on 
enjoyed the fruits of his untiring industry. Unlike 
Virtue, Genius is not always its own reward. 

At the factory the "biscuits" are sliced, then ground 
or mascerated and kneaded, until the mass resembles 
a huge sausage. It is later softened by heat and finally 
forced into moulds. The moulded forms are now cut 
into thin sheets and the sheets are fabricated into vari- 
ous articles of commercial use, after being vulcanized 
by the common processes adopted. 

By employing textile fabrics, zinc in some cases and 
canvas of various grades, in combination with rubber, 
the manufacturer produces belting, hose, sheet rubber, 
mackintoshes and all the other rubber goods found in 
the market, including automobile tires and all the odds 
and ends used on a railroad and elsewhere. 

Today vulcanized rubber is used for insulating cables 
and electric wires. If the time comes (but it may not 
for many years, since the growth of the rubber tree is 
almost unlimited) when making rubber becomes a lost 
art, it will require genius of exceptional order to con- 
ceive something of equal merit to take its place. 

January, 1916 


Passenger Car Repairs on the Boston and Maine 

The Equipment, Facilities and Organization of the New Shop 
at North Billerica, Mass., Where This Work is Concentrated 

Since the comparatively recent building of the North 
Billerica shops of the Boston & Maine Railroad, all pas- 
senger car repair and painting work for the entire 
system has been concentrated in this one new shop. 
The experience of all the years of the road's history 
.are embodied in its planning and equipment, and the 
results accomplished are of more than usual interest on 
that account. The shop as it now stands represents the 
-often desired turning over of a new leaf, and building 
afresh from the ground up. 

The shop is divided into three buildings; the first 
.■housing the machine shop and blacksmith shop, the sec- 
ond used for repairs to both car bodies and car trucks, 
and the third for car painting, inside and out. The 
last two, the car shop and the paint shop, each contain 
ten tracks long enough to accommodate three cars with 
space between for work on the trucks after they are 

Bracket for Adjustable Staging 

run out from under the cars. Between the car shop 
and the paint shop is an electric transfer table serving 

The repair shop and the paint shop are both equipped 
with adjustable staging that has been designed and 
made within the Boston & Maine organization, and has 
been adopted as standard for future work. Each "plank" 
of the staging is trussed, to give strength without un- 
necessary weight, and is supported by brackets from a 
vertical "I" beam post at each end. These "I" beam 
posts are 3 by 2% ins. Notches about one foot apart 
are cut in one flange of each beam to support the stag- 
ing, and the brackets are released to move up or down 
by withdrawing a pawl which engages in one of these 
notches when the staging is in use. Each pawl is so 
connected that it can be released from above or below 
the "plank," whichever .s more convenient, and work- 
men can usually adjust the staging without leaving it. 
Counter-weights are provided to compensate for the 
weight of the staging, when it is to be moved up or 
down. A close view of one of the brackets is repro- 
duced. The rod rising from the coiled spring can be 
pressed from above the "plank" to release the pawl or 
the small vertical hand lever just to the left of the 
bottom of the bracket can be used for the same purpose. 

Farther back in the illustration there can be seen the 
trussing of another "plank." 

Cars to be shopped are delivered and stripped on the 
receiving track where they are thoroughly gone over 
and then set on three tracks in the paint shop reserved 
for washing. After being washed inside and out, a 

Portable Air Jack Lifting Car Off Truck 

car is taken across the transfer table to the car shop, 
and run in on one of the ten tracks. As good judg- 
ment as possible is used in the placing of these cars 
on the tracks, to avoid placing of a heavy repair between 
a light repair and the door. After the car is placed, 
portable air jacks are used to lift it while the trucks 
are run out and horses placed to receive the car. 

These portable air hoists were designed and built 
in this shop, and, as the illustration shows, are attached 
to hand trucks which make them very easy to shift from 

Putnam Wheel Lathe With Air Hoist and Service Track 

one part of the cement-floored shop to another as they 
are needed. Compressed air is available for each car 
position, and the time for coupling the air connection 
and raising a car is very short. While in use the jack 
rests on the broad base of the cylinder, and when it 
is to be moved, it is "broken over" to an angle, like a 



January, 1916- 

hand truck, and is rolled on its own wheels to the next 
car to be lifted. 

The trucks are run out between the ends of the cars, 
which are placed far enough apart on the track to leave 
plenty of room for the run out trucks, and the neces- 
sary work of the truck repair forces. The car body is 

Journal Box Grinder With Air Motor Driven Table 

now turned over to the body-repair forces, which are 
divided into two gangs, inside and out. When body 
and truck repairs are completed, the air jacks are again 
used to lower the car to its trucks and it is tested arid 
delivered to the paint shop. 

Small paint work is done in the repair shop, as soon 
as the car is far enough along to permit, such work in- 
cluding touching up and priming of repaired sheath- 
ing, etc., which can be done without interfering with 
the repair forces. 

After the car reaches the paint shop, the first day it 
is cut in; the second it receives a coat of varnish; the 

Spring Compressing Machine With Spring Compressed 

third day the second coat of varnish is applied; the 
fourth day is devoted to trimming and the car leaves 
the shop. In case the paint is in such bad shape that 
a complete new coat of paint is required, one more day 
is allowed for the work. Where the paint must be 
burned off and entirely renewed, three extra days are 

required. This last time would also be consumed if 
new sheathing had been applied. 

The machine shop is equipped with a 42-in. Putnam 
wheel lathe, illustrated, which has an air hoist for 
lifting and centering wheels, and for handling them 
to and from the lathe. Special driving chucks have 
been designed, which grip the wheels in such a manner 
as not to interfere with turning the tread or the flange. 
These chucks grip each wheel at three points, and 
.have only one moving apart at each grip. This gripping 
dog is so placed that the greater the power required 
to turn the wheel, the greater is the grip of the dog on 
the wheel. No adjustments are necessary, and the 
gripping action is automatic in action and time-saving 
in results. This lathe not only takes care of the pas- 
senger car wheel work for this shop, but does this work 
for tender and truck wheels for the locomotive shop, 
and similar work for the outlying inspection points. 

One of the features of this shop, which makes for 
efficiency, is the success with which turntables at in- 
tersecting points in the shop tracks have been avoided. 
One example of this is in handling mounted wheels to 
and from the wheel lathe. Wheels enter at one end 
of the shop, and to reach the lathe it is necessary to 
transfer them to an intersecting track which serves the 
lathe. The turning is accomplished by an air hoist 
set in a concrete pit beneath the floor. A bearing 
which will lift and steady the axle is mounted on the 
piston rod of an air cylinder in such a way that when 
not in use it lies flush with the floor. Then a pair 
of wheels is to be turned, the axle is run over this 
bearing and the air turned on in the cylinder by a foot- 

Ratchet Lever for Tightening Turn-Buckles on Truss Rods 

actuated valve, flush with the floor. The axle and 
wheels are lifted clear of the track and floor, and 
can be turned with one hand, and in almost no time 
at all. 

In the machine shop there are also a Sellers car 
wheel borer, with automatic self-chucking attachment, 
two Bridgeford axle lathes, two Woods wheel presses 
with recording gauges, and the necessary drills, small 
lathes, threading machines, etc., to complete its equip- 

A "Safety" grinding machine for grinding journal 
boxes has been fitted with an operating mechanism that 
saves a great deal of the operator's time. The illustra- 
tion shows a special chuck gripping the box, and in 
the foreground on the right an air motor can be seen 
which is connected by a pinion with a rack on the table 
of the machine to give the necessary reciprocating mo- 
tion to carry the box back and forth across the abrasv/e 
wheel. The lever controlling the direction of travel 
of the air motor has been connected to an arm which 

January, 1916 



rises next to the table, and two brackets, clearly seen 
in the illustration, are fastened to the table at opposite 
ends, which push the arm from side to side at the 
end of each stroke and reverse the direction of table 
travel by reversing the direction of operation of 1he 
air motor, rendering the operation of the machine auto- 
matic. This attachment enables the machine to grind a 
journal box every five minutes — floor to floor. 

In the blacksmith shop, in addition to the regular 
passenger car repair work, all the safety appliances 
material for the freight cars of the whole road are 
manufactured. All forgings are also made here that 
are used in applying the twelve hundred steel sub-un- 
derframes that are being placed under wooden freight 
cars at all freight repair points as fast as that class 
of cars come in for general repairs. The actual under- 
names, that is, the steel center sills and bolsters, are 

Corner of Plating and Lacquering Room 

bought fabricated, but the needle beams, cross-ties, 
coupler yokes, brake reservoir and cylinder brackets, 
etc., are being made here and distributed to the points 
where the underframes are being applied. 

The blacksmith shop is equipped with seven double 
McCaslon forges, a number nine Ajax bulldozer, five- 
inch and two-inch Ajax forging machines, an eye-bolt 
bender and a one thousand pound Niles-Bement-Pond 
drop hammer. 

The forces at work in the whole shop comprise 6 
machinists and 5 helpers, 13 blacksmiths and 15 helpers, 
7 pipers and 5 helpers, 8 upholsterers and 5 helpers, 
6 tinsmiths and 1 helper, 6 cabinet makers, 34 painters, 
14 washers, 11 men in the mill room, 3 in the lacquer 
room, 15 in the stripping and trimming gangs and 21 
laborers. This force is turning out a minimum of five 
cars a day, general repairs and painting. The possi- 
bilities of the shop have not been realized since it was 
opened, as before it had been in operation long enough 
to realize its full capacity, reductions in forces to the 
present complement became necessary. 

In the repair shop a simple and successful spring 
compressing machine has been built against one of the 
columns, consisting of an old driver brake cylinder with 
suitable levers. When an eliptical spring is to be 
placed in a truck, it is first taken to this machine, 
where it is compressed and a clamp, shown in the illu- 
stration, is fitted to hold it until it can be released in 
position. Another time saver in a truss rod turn-buckle 
tightening ratchet, illustrated, which consists of a 
ratchet wheel with a short lever to be inserted in the 
turnbuckle, and another lever containing a dog that 
engages the ratchet teeth. Over the end of this last 
lever a length of pipe can be slipped to give any desired 
length of lever. 

The metal finishing room where plating and lacquer- 
ing is done is shown in part, on account of the advan- 
tageous way in which it is laid out. Broad aisles give 
access to every tank and oven, and the room is un- 
usually well lighted, both by daylight and by artificial 

A view is given of one wall of the paint storage 
room, which is equipped with Bowser tanks and pumps. 

Battery of Bowser Pumps in Paint Store Room 

In the basement are braced and heated tanks for the 
storage of paints, oils, varnishes, etc., and registering 
delivery pumps not only keep an accurate record of 
the paint given out, but greatly reduce the fire risk, 
and give the room a fine clean, open appearance. Over 
each of the pumps, which line three walls of the build- 
ing, is a plain card showing the contents of the con- 
nected tank, and making it impossible for errors to be 
made, between oils or varnishes similar in appearance, 
but differing in purpose. 

Two views are shown of the storehouse, the first 
showing the broad clear center aisle, and the second, the 

Wide Clear Center Aisle in Stores Department 

arrangement of one cross section of the steel shelving. 
The whole stores department is equipped with this 
shelving, and any desired vertical spacing between 
shelves can be quickly made whenever it is advantageous 
to change the spacing. The room is light, and the 
equipment permanent and substantial. 

The whole passenger car repair department is well 
laid out, and the freedom from congestion is one of 
the chief sources of efficiency. All the machines and 



January, 1916 

equipment were new with the shop's construction, and 
are as admirably selected for the work as such unusu- 
ally advantageous circumstances would suggest. 

The writer wishes to acknowledge his indebtedness 
to the men who gave him every assistance in preparing 
this article, including the superintendent of motive 
power, Mr. Wiggins ; the shop superintendent, Mr. 

*y MAST. MEbH. 

Section of Adjustable Steel Shelving in Stores Department 

Jennings; the assistant superintendent, Mr. Nowell; the 
general foreman of passenger car repairs, Mr. Pynne, 
and the foremen and assistant foremen under whose 
supervision the work is going forward. 

Tonnage Rating and Results Therefrom 

Method of Computing Train Resistance with 
Cars of Mixed Capacity, Loaded and Light 

The New York Railroad Club recently listened to 
some remarks by Mr. J. M. Daly, general superinten- 
dent of transportaton on the Illinois Central. The ab- 
stract here presented is in substance his idea on the 
matter. Tonnage resistance has factors ; gravity, wheel 
friction, wind, temperature, speed, track and gross 
weight of cars. Light cars create more resistance, per 
gross ton, in curves, wheel friction, wind and tempera- 
ture than heavy cars do, and allowances must be made 
for cars of different weights. Tests were made of 32 
ordinary freight trains, the average weight of cars, 
per train, varying from 16 tons to 70 tons, and in only 
two cases was the average weight of all cars in trains 
the same. 

The results obtained were on only three trains, but 
these three are representative. 

At 15 miles per hour a 25-ton car has 7 lbs. of trac- 
tive power per ton; at 15 miles per hour a 50-ton car 
has 4 1 / 4 lbs. of tractive power per ton ; at 15 miles per 
hour a 75-ton car has 3% lbs. of tractive power per ton, 
hence it requires double the tractive power to move a 
gross ton of a 25-ton car, as compared with a gross 
ton of a 75-ton car, at a speed of 15 miles per hour. 

At 30 miles per hour a 25-ton car has 9 lbs. of tractive 
power per ton; at 30 miles per hour a 50-ton car has 
5% lbs. of tractive power per ton ; at 30 miles per hour 
a 75-ton car has 4% lbs. of tractive power per ton. 

These results represent the number of pounds of trac- 
tive effort required for each ton of the train, in order to 
keep it in motion, on straight and level track, at uni- 
form speed, and in still air. It does not represent the 
pounds of draw-bar pull used on grades or in curves. 

To undertake to equate the draw-bar pull of each car 
mathematically, would entail too much labor and delay 

to trains, at an initial terminal, hence it has been my lot 
to endeavor to perfect a device that would automatically 
equate and compute the draw-bar pull of each car In 
the train, making proper allowance for all fixed resist- 

To accomplish this, it was necessary to combine an 
adjusting device, with an adding or computing machine, 
in order that yard clerks may use it with speed and 
accuracy. Machines constructed on this basis, permit 
of indicating to a ton all the locatable resistance that 
can be obtained from the most accurate dynamometer 
car test possible, for the reason that the adjustment is 
positive, and in accord with the results obtained from 
such tests on that particular division. By locatable 
resistance, he meant the standard accepted factors, not 
the additional resistance due to defective equipment, 
soft track, wind, or weather conditions. 

On a recent dynamometer test, made in Kentucky by 
the I. C. R., on draft gear appliances he took 25 new 
coal cars, equipped with one design of gear, and 25 
with another, all cars being built at the same plant 
and the same week. These cars were hauled 453 miles 
in the same train. All the cars were loaded with the 
same gross tons of coal, hauled over the same piece 
of track by the same engine under similar weather con- 
ditions. With the University of Illinois dynamometer 
car, the 25 cars of one design of draw gear showed 7 
per cent less resistance in curves than the other. This 
was clearly noticeable by the enginemen. No device, 
however, can detect such unknown factors. 

To install this method it is necessary to know the 
number of feet, per mile, of the ruling grade. It is 
also necessary to ascertain the rating of the engines. 
This can be done by making two or three pulling tests 
with cars weighing approximately 40 tons each. If 
an engine hauls 60 cars of 48 tons gross, its rating will 
be 2,400 tons on the equating machine. 

After the first rating test is made with the 40-ton 
cars, it is immaterial whether cars in future weigh 15, 
20, 40, 60 or 85 tons each, and all mixed in the train. 
The machine is so adjusted as to cause it to equate 
and register the draw-bar pull of each gross weight of 
car in the train. 

Mr. Daly stated as a matter of information that he 
did not wish to be understood as laying claim to the 
discovery of any new factor of resistance to a car or 
a train. His object was to present a simple, accurate 
and economic device that will permit an ordinary 40 
dollar per month clerk to put into practical operation 
the results of higher technical knowledge of the sub- 
ject, and the results obtained from the most thorough 
and accurate dynamometer test that can be made. 
Further, he desired to state that these same results can 
be obtained through the use of a printed chart, show- 
ing opposite the actual weight of each car, its equiva- 
lent tons in draw-bar pull to be used in lieu of actual 
tons. This plan, however, creates additional clerical 
expense and delay to train crews. 

The tendency on roads, in recent years, is to provide 
automatic devices to reduce manual labor to the mini- 
mum — -automatic stokers on engines, electric trucks in 
freight houses, computing and registering machines in 
local and general offices, all of which reduce the cost 
of the service, and obtain more accurate results for the 
company providing them. Why not provide the yard 
clerk with an equating machine, when you stop to 
consider that an accurate equating of your train tons 
will bring to you an increase of from 5 to 8 per cent? 
This in the direction of heavy traffic means a saving 
of from 10 to 16 per cent in train service, in addition 

January, 1916 



to insuring accuracy and a more prompt dispatch of 
trains from important terminals. Every train that is 
permitted to move in traffic direction with 5 per cent 
less tons than the engine should haul creates 5 per 
cent of a train returning in the direction of light traffic, 
all of which should be saved. 

There has been a constant evolution in the rating of 
engines in the past thirty years. Thirty years ago the 
standard capacity of cars was 30 tons, whereas today 
it is 50 tons. With all cars 30 tons each it was an 
easy matter to get them loaded nearly to their capacity, 
and the old basis of having an engine haul a given num- 
ber of loaded cars, and base two empty cars as equal 
to one loaded car, was reasonably correct, until the new 
50-ton capacity cars came into use, which made it im- 
practicable and necessitated going to a gross ton basis 
for rating engines; this was about 1895. 

During 1899, while I was with the Lackawanna, Mr. 
Daly said, we made tests, and before each I made a 
cigar bet with the conductor in charge of the train; 
he won twenty out of twenty-four tests, and then 
gave me his system of adjustment, which was to take 
into account the number of cars in train as well as the 
gross tons, and he demonstrated that with heavy cars 
he hauled more than his rating, whereas with light 
cars he stalled with less than his rating. This made 
it clear to me that it devolved on somebody to de- 
vise ways and means for computing the resistance of 
each weight of car, in order to enable the average yard 
clerk to give to each train its 100 per cent of tonnage, 
which accounts for my spending a lot of time working 
out this plan. 

As officers in charge, it devolves on us, especially 
at this time, to know that every tonnage train, moving 
in direction of heavy traffic, hauls 100 per cent. It is 
clear from the writing on the wall, that the Commis- 
sions are going to devote more attention to economic 
operation of roads in future, as indicated at the recent 
5 per cent hearing. The rate adjustment and competi- 
tive conditions having been in the past 10 years reason- 
ably well-leveled up, future concessions will be obtained 
largely on the basis of "cost" of transportation. 

Tool Foremen's Year Book, 1915 

The 1915 year book of the American Railway Tool 
Foremen's Association has just been received. It is a 
clearly printed book of 140 pages, with illustrations. 
The officers for 1916 are: President, Mr. J. J. Sheehan, 
of the Norfolk & Western Railway, Roanoke, Va. ; vice- 
presidents, Messrs. C. A. Shaffer, of the Illinois Cen- 
tral, Chicago, 111. ; J. C. Bevelle, El Paso & Southwestern, 
El Paso, Tex.; C. T. Brunson, Wabash Railroad, De- 
catur, 111.; secretary-treasurer, Mr. O. D. Kinsey, of the 
Illinois Central, Chicago, 111. . 

The association, now seven years old, was projected 
and established for the purpose of promoting higher 
efficiency in the railway, tool service. Mr. Henry Gtto, 
the retiring president, in addressing the meeting, said 
that the association had come to the point of standard- 
izing and systematizing the methods of making tools, 
checking tools and the use of special devices and jigs in 
locomotive repair shops. To do this work means a gain 
for employers and gives a better basis for commercial 
contracts to the purchasing departments of railways. 
, Mr. B. W. Benedict, director of the shop laboratories 
of the University of Illinois, contributed a paper on the 
"getting the most out of the tools." The contrast, he 
said, between the ancient and modern forms of tools is 
so marked that little confusion results in distinguishing 

one from the other, or in separating obsolete from up- 
to-date practice, but the tool problem of today still lacks 
definite information about service, performance and 

"Special Jigs and Devices" was handled by Mr. C. T. 
Brunson. His paper is well illustrated and is a small 
mine of shop "kinks" and labor-saving devices which 
are easily made and when put in service are time and 
money savers. "Crosshead Shoe Babbitting Jig" was 
the subject taken up by Mr. C. Helms, of the C, M. & St. 
P. This paper is very clearly illustrated by line cuts 
and exemplifies his road's method of accomplishing re- 
sults. Mr. Adolph Elkert, of the M., K. & T., followed 
with a paper in which he showed the M., K. & T. uni- 
versal joint for flue cutting machines and a gang punch 
for jackets. 

Mr. B. Henrickson, of the C. & N. W., read a paper on 
"Dies for the Manufacture of Piston-rod Nuts." Mr. 
Shaffer contributed valuable information in his paper 
on "Special Jigs and Devices," in which a number of 
devices were described and illustrated. The discussion 
which followed added considerably to the list. "Safety 
First" came next, being handled by Mr. R. D. Fletcher, 
of the Belt Line, Chicago. Mr. Gust Gstoettner, of the 
C, M. & St. P., followed, dealing with the same subject. 
Mr. George Nutt, of the C. & G. W., Oelwein, la., also 
took up "Safety First." All these papers supplied in- 
formation concerning labor-saving devices and those 
with protective features for the handling of work by 
men in the shop. The discussion, which was a long 
one, brought out many more comments on and descrip- 
tions of devices of the same kind, so that altogether a 
wide field was covered. 

The "Maintenance of Pneumatic Tools, Special Tools 
and Equipment for Same," formed the subject of Mr. J. 
J. Sheehan's paper, read by the secretary, Mr. J. C. Mc- 
Farland, of the N. Y. C. & St. L., took up the same sub- 
ject, and Mr. August Meitz, of the M., K. & T., handled 
the "Care of Pneumatic Tools." Mr. A. F. Baker, of the 
C.,,N. O. & T. P., continued the subject. Mr. E. V. 
Nabell, of the Southern Railway, closed the symposium 
on this important matter, which was the occasion of a 
lengthy and interesting discussion. 

"Grinding Machine Tools" was the subject presented 
by Mr. G. W. Smith, C. E. O. R. R. Mr. J. B. Hasty, of 
the A., T. & S. F., and Mr. J. C. Beville, of the E. P. & 
S. W., took up the subject of "Distribution of Machine 
Tools," in two papers which brought out an instructive 

The topics for discussion at the 1916 meeting are to 
be: 1, the heat treatment of steel; 2, special tools for 
steel car repairs and the reclamation of material; 3, 
special tools and devices for the forge shop; 4, emery 
wheels as applied to locomotive repairs; 5, jigs and de- 
vices for engine houses. 

The year book may be had from the secretary-treas- 
urer, and it is well worth perusal by those who are in- 
terested in the many labor-saving and safety-producing 
devices now in use in so many railroad shops on this 

In all ages and all countries, reverence has been paid, 
and sacrifice made by men to each other, not only with- 
out complaint, but rejoicingly; and famine, and peril, 
and sword, and all evil, and all shame, have been borne 
willingly in the causes of masters and kings; for all 
these gifts of the heart ennobled the men who gave, 
not less than the men who received them, and nature 
prompted, and God rewarded the sacrifice. — The Stones 
of Venice. 



January, 1916 

Pacific Engines for Richmond, Fredricksburg & Potomac 

Two High Speed Heavy Passenger Locomotives With 47,400 Pounds Tractive 
Force, With Unusual Frame Design and Special Materials and Equipment 

The Baldwin Locomotive Works has recently com- 
pleted, for the Richmond, Fredericksburg & Potomac 
Railroad (Richmond-Washington Line), two Pacific 
type locomotives which, in hauling capacity, are the 
most powerful of their type thus far constructed by the 
builders. The following table is of interest in this 
connection, giving the leading dimensions of six Bald- 
win Pacific type locomotives which each exert a tractive 
force exceeding 42,000 lbs. 

The Richmond, Fredericksburg & Potomac is a 
double-track line connecting the cities of Washington 
and Richmond. The distance is 116 miles, and besides 
local traffic, the road handles all the through northern 
connections of the Seaboard Air Line and the Atlantic 
Coast Line. Passenger trains, especially during the 
winter tourist season, are frequently very heavy, and 
are hauled at an average speed, including from two to 
six stops, at about 36 to 42 miles an hour. Including 
the new engines, four classes of Pacific type locomo- 
tives have been built for this service by the Baldwin 
Locomotive Works. Compared with the first of these, 
Which were built in 1904, the new locomotives show an 
increase in tractive force of 82 per cent. 

The boiler is of the extended wagon-top type, meas- 
uring 80 ins. in diameter at the first ring and 89 ins. 

bination with the Lewis power reverse gear, as fur- 
nished by the Compensating Specialties Company of 
Richmond. This device is operated by compressed air. 
The cylinder is supported in a horizontal position on 
the right-hand side of the boiler, above the rear driving 
wheels. Graphite lubricators are applied to the steam- 

A considerable amount of special material is used in 
the construction of these locomotives. The driving and 
engine truck axles are of heat-treated steel. Nikrome 
steel is used for the main and side rods, the crank pins, 
and the cross-head pins; and Hunt-Spiller metal for the 
cylinder and steam chest bushings, and piston and valve 
packing rings. 

The main frames are of vanadium steel, 5 ins. wide, 
each being cast in one piece with a single front rail. 
They are spaced, transversely, 42 ins. between centers. 
The rear frames were furnished by the Commonwealth 
Steel Co., and are cast in one piece with the back foot- 
plate, trailing truck pedestals, radius-bar cross-tie, and 
other projections and braces. This constitutes an 
elaborate casting, with an over-all length of 15 ft. 4*4 
ins. It has a slab, fit in recesses formed in the main 
frames, and is secured to the latter, on each side, by 13 
horizontal bolts, each 1% ins. in diameter. Throughout 

W. F. Knapp, S. M. P. 

Engine of the 4-6-2 Type for the Richmond, Fredericksburg & Potomac 

Baldwin Loco. Wks., Builders 

at the dome ring. It is equipped with a Security sec- 
tional arch and a 40-element superheater. Among the 
details of construction may be mentioned the dome, 
which is of pressed steel, made in one piece, measuring 
33 ins. in diameter by 13 ins. in height; and the longi- 
tudinal seams of which are welded at the ends and have 
a strength equal to 90 per cent, of the solid plate. A 
complete installation of flexible stay-bolts is used, and 
the front end of the fire-box crown is supported by 
three rows of Baldwin expansion stays. The fire-box 
is carried on vertical plates at the front and back, and 
the boiler barrel is supported by waist sheets at three 
intermediate points. 

A Chambers throttle is applied, and the steam distri- 
bution is controlled by "Jack Wilson" piston valves, 14 
ins. in diameter. The Baker valve gear is used, in com- 

the greater part of its length this rear frame, on each 
side, has a Z-section with walls 12 ins. deep and lVs ins. 
thick. A transverse brace is placed over the rear truck 
pedestals. The holes for the engine-truck radius-bar 
pin, equalizing beam pins, etc., are bushed. The rear 
truck is of the Rushton type, with inside journals. In 
this design the truck swing links are pinned to a pair 
of yokes which constitute part of the equalization sys- 
tem, and these yokes are prevented from moving later- 
ally by the truck pedestals. In the present instance, the 
pedestals are fitted, on each side, with renewable wear- 
ing plates 3-16 ins. thick. There is no cross-connection 
in the driving equalization system, as the driving and 
rear truck journals are in line; and the equalizing 
beams between the rear drivers and the truck connect 
directly with the spring hangers. 

January, 1916 



The main frames are braced transversely by the 
guide yoke, valve motion bearer and waist-sheet cross- 
tie; the last named part being a broad casting placed 
between the main and rear pairs of driving-wheels. 
The front and main driving pedestals are also braced 
transversely. The brace at the front pedestal is used 
as a fulcrum for the driving-brake shaft. 

The arrangement of the running-boards and hand- 
rails is suggestive of the practice found in certain parts 
of Continental Europe. The hand-rails are placed out- 
side the running-boards, the total width over the latter 
being 10 ft. 3 ins. A flight of steps leads from the 
running-boards to the front bumper. This arrange- 
ment adds materially to the convenience and safety of 
the engine crew, and reminds one of the practice of 35 
or 40 years ago. Many of the engines of those days, 
not only had the hand-rail, as shown in our illustration 

Proper Routing and Repairing of Equipment 

Reasons for Making the Repairing of Owner's 
Defects Obligatory Rather than Permissive 

It is generally admitted among men in touch with the 
subject of the proper handling of cars that the present 
practice for handling foreign cars by the transporta- 
tion and mechanical departments results in great loss 
to the railroads. Under the present practice of using 
cars regardless of ownership it is of common occur- 
rence that their absence from home lines is indefinitely 
prolonged. These are the opening words used by Mr. 
E. E. Betts, of the Chicago & Northwestern Railway, at 
a recent meeting of the Western Railway Club at Chi- 
cago. Mr. Betts went on to point out that these away- 
from-home cars run without proper attention from 
one road to another, their condition growing steadily 

Cpmparative table giving important dimensions and specifications of six recent Baldwin Pacific type locomotives exerting 

a tractive force exceeding 42,000 lbs. 

Steam Water Super- Weight Weight 

Cylinders Driv- Press- Grate Heating heating on Total Tractive 

Road ers ure Area Surface Surface Drivers Engine Force 

Chicago, Burlington & Quincy 27" x 28" 74" 180 58.7 3,364 751 169,700 266,400 42,200 

Erie 25" x 28" 69" 200 58. 3,966 879 184,300 281,600 43,200 

Baltimore & Ohio 24" x 32" 74'' 205 70. 3,936 833 166,200* 263,800* 43,400 

Chesapeake & Ohio 27" x 28" 73" 185 59.6 3,786 879 179,900 282,000 44,000 

Carolina, Clinchfield & Ohio 25" x 30" 69" 200 53.8 3,982 955 176,900 280,300 46,000 

Richmond, Fredericksburg & Potomac. 26" x 28" 68" 200 66.7 4,205 975 188,000* 293,000* 47,400 
'"Weights estimated. 

of the 4-6-2 engine on the R. F. & P., but the old type worse until they become a menace to the safety of 

had the front foot-plate guarded by a hand-rail outside trains and dangerous to life and limb. They are then 

the place for walking or standing. It was thus pos- taken out of service. They may be patched up and sent 

sible for a man to come out of one of the cab windows, home for the owner to rebuild or destroy, or perhaps 

walk along the running-board, cross the front foot-plate that is done by the road having the car in its possession 

and return to the cab by the other running-board, and when it finally can go no farther, but in any event the 

have a hand-rail outside of him all the way. owner pays the bill. Ordinary experience teaches us 

These engines are equipped with Schmidt super- that neglect of whatever kind is paid for with com- 

heater; superheating surface, 975 sq. ft.; gauge, 4 it. pound interest. 

Sy 2 ins.; cylinders, 26 ins. by 28 ins.; valves, piston, 14 The wear and tear on freight cars is heavy and de- 
ins, diam. Boiler— Type, wagon top; diameter, 80 ins.; preciation rapid; for that reason the present policy of 
thickness of sheets, 13/16 ins. and 15/16 ins.; working neglect of repairs to cars is not only inimical to the 
pressure, 200 lbs.; fuel, soft coal; staying, radial. Fire- interests of all railroads, but it is wrong in theory and 
box— Material, steel; length, 114% ins.; width, 84% practice and wasteful in effect. 

ins.; depth, front, 83 ins.; depth, back, 67% ins.; thick- Some of the bad results directly chargeable to the 

ness of sheets : sides, % ins. ; back, % ins. ; crown, failure to keep cars in repair are shown in the increase 

% ins. ; tube, y 2 in. Water space— Front, 5 ins. ; sides, in per diem expense and empty mileage and in operat- 

4% ins.; back, 4% ins. Tubes— Diameter, 5% ins. and ing expenses, but undoubtedly the worst features are 

2V 4 ins.; material, steel; thickness, 5% ins., No. 9 W. mec hanical results which fall on the owner. He cannot 

G., 2y 4 ins., No. 10 W. G.; number, 5y 2 ins., 40, 2% ins., seC ure the return of his cars that he may keep them 

230; length, 20 ft. 6 ins. Heating surface— Fire-box, in repa ir, even though he is able and disposed to do so, 

232 sq. ft.; tubes, 3,942 sq. ft.; fire-brick tubes, 31 sq. and otners will not do it for him# 

ft.; total, 4,205 sq. ft.; grate area, 66.7 sq. ft. Driving A car absen t from the home line, say, six years be- 

wheels— Diameter, outside 68 ins., center 62 ins.; jour- comes afflicte d with what are then old defects, some of 

nals, 11% ins. by 13 ins. Engine truck wheels— Diam- them owners > defects, others users' defects. The car is 

eter, front, 33 ma.; journals, 6 ins. by 10 ins.; diameter, finally taken out of serv ice and offered to the "home 

back, 42 ins.; journals, 8% ins. by 14 ins. Wheel base— route " ; that is> a link in the chain by which the car 

Driving, 13 ft.; rigid, 13 ft.; total engine, 34 ft. 1 in.; has & recognized rig ht to return to the owner. The 

total engine and tender 72 ft 4 ins. Weight, estimated home route line rejects the car on account of its con - 

— On driving wheels, 188 000 bs. ; on truck, front 53,000 diti and> ending a settlement of the question as to 

lbs.; on truck, back, 52 000 lbs; total engine 293,000 who . g re sible for its condition and should make 

lbs ; total engine and tender 472,000 lbs Tender- the . ft ig held at the inter change point until the 

Wheels, number, 8; diameter, 33 ins.; journals, 6 ins. by diem accruing thereon is freqU ently many times 

11 ins.; tank capacity, 10,000 gals.; fuel capacity, 15 greater than the CQgt of the repairg wQuld amount to 

tons; service, passenger^ In other cageg) especially in large terminals like Chi- 

* cago, the failure to inspect and properly repair cars 

The Commission, which is likely to be selected to in- and the attempt to pass them from one road to another 

vestigate the Commerce Commission under the Presi- in defective condition creates a heavy terminal expense 

dent's suggestion, will have a trying duty to perform where belt lines are used as intermediate links, and 

when it sets out to get information upon which sound greatly increase the per diem earnings of idle and un- 

recommendations may be made, looking to improvement serviceable cars, 

in the methods of regulating the railroads. The failure to keep cars in repair applies to all rail- 



January, 1916 

roads in greater or less degree. Probably no railroad 
is free from that charge. In some cases it is undoubt- 
edly a studied policy; in others it is chargeable to a 
lack of facilities, indifference and carelessness of em- 
ployes, and various other reasons, but under any cir- 
cumstances it is a mistaken policy, because what in- 
juriously affects one injuriously affects all. One of the 
fundamental principles of the Master Car Builders' 
Rules is that "Each railway company must give to for- 
eign cars, while on its lines, the same care as to inspec- 
tion, oiling, packing, adjustment of brakes and repairs, 
that it gives to its own cars." This virtually makes the 
attention which a road gives to its own cars the stand- 
ard for that attention it shall give to foreign cars. If 
this is a declaration of principles, it is open to inter- 
pretation by the individual ; it is of little or no value 
for the government of such interests as are combined 
in this statement and which the Master Car Builders' 
Association is supposed to protect and to properly pro- 
vide for. It may be that the latitude conferred on the 
individual recognizes his rights above all others, and 
this perhaps is as it should be, but one cannot make a 
fixed rule that will slide, and following out this line of 
thought suggested by these contradictory terms, we 
must conclude that rules intended to govern a com- 
munity of interests must, in the nature of things, be 
abortive if subject to the will and caprice of the indi- 
vidual, and it must go without saying that such rules 
would better be rubbed off the slate. 

The Master Car Builders' Rules make owners re- 
sponsible for and chargeable with the repairs to their 
cars necessitated by ordinary wear and tear in fair 
service, so that defect cards will not be required for 
any defects thus arising, and if we are able to construe 
this rule properly it is based on the idea that cars hav- 
ing defects that owners are responsible for may be 
returned to the owners for repair, and here we believe 
is the cause of all our difficulties where the mechanical 
department is involved, because it virtually permits 
railroads to avoid making repairs to cars and permits 
them to be sent home for that purpose. This seems to 
be a fatal defect in the Master Gar Builders' Rules. 

We reach the point where, in theory, a given rule is 
just and equitable, while in actual practice the rule 
works hardship and loss. This state of things caused 
the creation of the Arbitration Committee. The theory 
of the proximity of owners' connection lines works out 
well on coal cars and others having owners in Chicago. 
It is quite apparent that under such conditions of oper- 
ation the theory is correct and logical, but when the 
actual practice is pictured on box cars as we see them 
shown in car accountants' offices, then we appreciate 
the fatal defect in the M. C. B. Rules on account of 
these rules not containing a positive and definite order 
that proper repairs must be made. 

Box cars are loaded promiscuously by railroads 
which have no direct connections at Chicago. When 
they enter the Chicago territory they are pooled, loaded 
anywhere and everywhere, and their absence from 
owners covers long periods. The result is that cars 
lose the channels of "home" except by circuitous routes 
resulting in excess mileage, plus the unwillingness of 
each handling line to repair them, each railroad basing 
its justification for the refusal to repair cars upon the 
short period the cars are in its possession. The long 
period of absence from the home line soon forces the 
.cars under the sheltering wing of M. C. B. Rule No. 
120 and is nothing more than "let the other fellow do 
it," but he does not do it. In large terminals like Chi- 
cago some one should have arbitrary power to schedule 

cars for repairs under Rule 120 and see that they are- 
properly made. Then the theory and practice under 
M. C. B. Rules 1 and 120 become consistent and ef- 

Another principle fully set forth in the Master Car 
Builders Rules is that cars offered in interchange must 
be accepted if in safe and serviceable condition, the 
receiving road to be the judge. The owners must re- 
ceive their own cars, when offered home for repairs, at 
any point on their line, subject to the provisions of the 
rules. A car may be in safe condition to handle, but 
not be in condition for service, and here is another de- 
fect in the Master Car Builders' Rules. This rule ia 
open to criticism as being indefinite. It confers a 
latitude upon the receiving road which everybody 
recognizes as being eminently proper. If, for any rea- 
son, it does not wish to accept the car, there is no 
standard of principle in such a rule, and it can only 
result in endless disputes, delays, useless expense, and 
just as soon as a road appeals from the decision of the 
receiving line it takes away the right conferred by the 
rule, and the rule then becomes void. 

It is a truth that the mechanical department is in- 
volved in a practice which results in great waste to 
railroad property, because it neglects to make proper 
repairs to cars. It is also a truth that the transporta- 
tion department is involved in a greater waste by the 
present method of handling foreign cars whose move- 
ments are not hampered in any way by mechanical re- 
strictions. We refer now to the practice of making 
foreign cars follow what is known as the home route. 
Illustrations are not wanting to show that the amount 
of unnecessary mileage incurred by railroads in mov- 
ing cars in an opposite direction from home in order to 
get them home is so enormous as to be almost beyond 
belief. The colossal proportions of this waste is be- 
yond our ability to accurately determine or even ap- 

Among the many cases which serve to emphasize the 
point is that of a car which was loaded for Toledo, 
Ohio, via the Pere Marquette at Milwaukee. The car 
went to destination, 340 miles, and when empty was 
returned to the delivering line at Milwaukee. At 
Toledo it was about 660 miles from an interchange point 
with the owners. When it returned to Milwaukee it was 
1,000 miles away. This car was received from the Rock 
Island and returned to that line at Kansas City. Then 
it was 1,500 miles away from home. The Rock Island 
rejected the car on account of its condition, and it was 
hauled back 300 miles to shops in order to make repairs, 
and then the car was 1,200 miles away from home. 
After repairs were made it was hauled empty to Moline, 
111., and delivered to the Rock Island at that point. 
.Then it was 1,200 miles away from home. Each road 
gives the wanderer a lift which sends it farther away 
from home. 

The present practice of handling empty foreign cars 
in an opposite direction from home instead of keeping 
them moving in a homeward direction according to 
their initials is not justified by any requirement or 
necessity the railroads are called on to deal with. This 
is a railroad proposition in which all the railroads are 
interested. They are all suffering from a lack of co- 
operation, and a failure to protect their interests, and 
these practices will have to be entirely abolished if we 
are to bring about changes necessary to prevent a con- 
tinuation of the great losses we are now talking about. 
The speaker continued, we have asserted that if we 
are to secure proper and unrestricted movement of cars 
and be able to employ them to their fullest extent, they 

January,, 1916 



must be kept in repair by the mechanical department. 
This seems to be a simple proposition, and as repairs 
that owners are responsible for can be charged with a 
profit to the road making them, the work should be 
done; otherwise the cheapest, best and most rational 
thing to do, before the car becomes in a dilapidated 
condition, is to send it home direct to the owners and 
let them repair it. The judgment of the mechanical 
department is accepted by the transportation depart- 
ment in all cases where the safety and serviceability of 
cars is concerned. This is as it should be. 

Cars offered in interchange under load not in service- 
able condition should have the load transferred and the 
empty returned to the delivering road, but if the trans- 
fer of the shipment is impracticable some arrangement 
should be made to send the car through to destination, 
and when unloaded, if wanted for a return load or a 
load in another direction, the road using the car should 
make the necessary repairs or should return it to the 
road it was received from to send it horned There 
should be a standard of excellence for a freight car 
which should govern inspection, regulated by well- 
defined mechanical rules containing no obscurities or 
uncertainties. The remedy for the troubles that afflict 
the car supply is to be found in the movements of empty 
cars in a homeward direction by the shortest and most 
direct route. The practice among railroads is now, and 
has been for many years past, to indiscriminately use 
foreign cars without regard to ownership. When a 
road allows its cars to be loaded to points on other 
roads it surrenders all rights of ownership in them, 
except the right to pay for repairs and the right to 
collect the per diem earnings so long as there is a de- 
mand for their service on other lines. 

When there is no demand for the cars the roads hav- 
ing possession of them are willing to recognize the 
rights of ownership, but they do not make any attempt 
to return them to the owners direct. In their desire to 
stop the per diem earnings on the cars and reduce that 
expense they deliver them to the roads they were re- 
ceived from, unless it is more convenient to do other- 

The traffic distributes the cars, and the problem is to 
redistribute them to their owners. This involves to a 
certain extent the movement of empty cars to equalize 
load movements, but it is not necessary that all foreign 
cars should be returned empty. The majority of box 
cars can and should be loaded, but we will probably not 
get away from the obligation to move a certain per cent 
of the equipment empty, as that would seem to be at 
all seasons necessary not only to prevent railroads 
from being short of cars, but to avoid congestion on 
other lines. 

Huge Train Movement Explained 

It is reported that the Pennsylvania Railroad moved 
between 185,000 and 190,000 cars over its Middle 
Division during the month of September, this being the 
greatest car transfer in the company's history. The 
real magnitude of such a movement is but vaguely ex- 
pressed in the large figures given for the reason that 
we have become so accustomed to large figures that a 
few hundred thousand, more or less, make little impres- 
sion upon us. However, the vastness of this achieve- 
ment may be better emphasized by the following pop- 
ular illustrations, their manifest absurdity supplying 
their own apology. 

t . Suppose these cars were 188,000 in number and all 
Vere made to pass by a given point in thirty days 
.(September) ,-, each car would have but 13.7 seconds in 

which to make its transit. Assuming that each car was 
35 ft. long, and all cars were coupled up into one train, 
the length of train would be about 1,262 miles. With 
the caboose, in New York City, the engine would be in. 
Des Moines, Iowa. 

Assuming a two-cylinder locomotive having 30 ins. 
stroke and 56 ins. driving wheels, and carrying 200 
lbs. working steam pressure, the diameter of cylinders 
would have to be 53 ft. each, to haul this train. The 
area of the heating surface would approximate about 
62 acres. The grate area would have to be nearly one 
acre in size. If the fire-box was 72 ins. wide, and in 
order to burn sufficient coal to generate the necessary 
steam for moving this train, the fire-box would have 
to be about 1 2/5 miles long. After raking the fire, the 
handle of the rake or hook would extend back to the 
207th car. 

Using a good average kind of coal, and having the 
firing done economically, the fireman would have to 
throw 1% tons at each shovelful every three seconds. 
The advocates of the automatic stoker may therefore 
feel some encouragement. To feed sufficient water to 
the boiler, the injector pipes would have to be about 5 
ft. in diameter, and both injectors would have to be 
working most of the time. If the engineman should 
whistle the flagman back, and if the sound would carry 
that far, 1% hours would have to elapse before the 
blast would be heard at the caboose and the flagman 
would drop to the ballast. Allowing 6 ins. total slack 
between cars (3 ins. in each direction), the total amount 
of slack would be 18 miles. 

With the slack all extended, if the locomotive was to 
back up at the rate of 2 miles an hour, 9 hours would be 
required before slack was entirely bunched, and the 
locomotive would be standing on the spot where the 
2,610th car had stood. At a sustained speed of 12 miles 
an hour, about 4 days and 12 hours would be required 
for this train to pass a given point. The switchman in 
his shanty would bid "Goodbye!" to the engineer Sun- 
day night at midnight, and the shop whistle would be 
blowing for noon hour the following Friday before the 
watchman could shout "Hello!" to the conductor in the 

Our Railway Securities Abroad 

President Loree, of the Delaware & Hudson, has com- 
piled figures relating to our railway securities held 
abroad, by investors, which are especially interesting, 
at this time. 

On July 31 last, there were $2,223,510,229 of such 
securities in foreign lands. Since March 31 $480,- 
892,135, out of $2,704,402,364.19 then held abroad, had 
been sold back to us, and strange to relate these were 
so readily absorbed as in no wise to disturb our markets. 
As a matter of fact, while this liquidation was going 
on, prices generally, on the New York Stock Exchange, 

As the European war continues there will be a fur- 
ther return of securities; but figures which involve bil- 
lions, in these days, seem to startle no one. Should 
every share of stock and every bond, held abroad, be 
sold back to us, they would all be absorbed here, with- 
out creating even a ripple on the great financial sea 
of the United States. 

■ — * 

The harvest of friendship is gathered only by those 
who have sown the seeds of a kindly purpose and trust. 
Every man should have a fair sized cemetery in which 
to bury the faults of his friends. — Henry Ward Beecher. 



January, 1916 

The Use of Cast Wheels Under Freight Cars 

Wheel Defects Defined and Causes of Formation Discussed 
Owners' Defects Distinguished from Those Occuring in Fair Usage 

Not long ago the Niagara Frontier Car Men's Asso- 
ciation listened to some remarks on the method and 
practices of handling chilled cast wheels under freight 
equipment, by Mr. J. P. Yaeger, of the Lehigh Valley 
Railroad. He believed that the wheel question was one 
of the most important features to be considered about 
the running gear of a car. 

In the matter of shop inspection, whenever a wheel 
is received from the foundry a careful inspection has 
to be made for cracked chill, cracked flanges, cracked 
plates, thin flanges and other defects. It is the prac- 
tice on the Lehigh Valley to take ten wheels of each 
kind at random and a sample of very fine borings of 
each wheel placed in an envelope with the number of 
the wheel and submit them to chemical analysis. 

Wheels get their start in life when placed in service 
under the car and are guaranteed and expected by the 
manufacturer to outlive their service which is usually 
five years under fair usage. If the wheels fail to make 
this guarantee and have defects for which the manu- 
facturer is responsible, such as worn hollow, worn 
through chill, seams, shelled out or cracked plates, the 
wheels are preserved after being pressed off the axle 
and at the expiration of the month, the manufacturer is 
given due notice; a joint inspection is then made by a 
representative of the foundry and the wheel inspector 
to determine what wheels will be replaced. Gentlemen 
from the foundries are usually "from Missouri," they 
want to be shown and it has sometimes been necessary 
to put the wheel under the hammer to convince them 
of the Conditions. 

When cars are received at an inspection point on 
the road, the car inspector should make a very careful 
examination for wheel failures, confining himself to 
MCB Rules 68 to 83. Worn flanges form a very im- 
portant item with reference to safety for the reliability 
of the wheel flange is an exceedingly serious thing. The 
flange directs the truck and therefore one flange or the 
other is in almost constant contact with the rail and 
subject to friction or grinding under considerable 
pressure. This is especially true when traversing a 
curve. The continuous grind in the absence of lubri- 
cation results in flange wear. Worn flanges are usu- 
ally the cause of many derailments that occur in the 
yard where cars are handled frequently. If the point 
of a switch is worn or if there is a slight opening at 
the point, between the two, a dangerous combination is 
formed and the wheel, owing to its worn condition,* 
mounts or splits the point and the result may be a 
costly derailment. 

Broken flanges are mostly due to seams which de- 
velop below the surface of the metal and this is termed 
a blue fracture and cannot be detected until the sur- 
face metal is broken through, disclosing the seams be- 
low. This defect is usually found to exist on wheels 
under the heavier class of equipment, and when strik- 
ing a curve about two-thirds of the flange would break 
off. To make it more clear why this condition should 
exist more on the heavier class of wheels, it is his under- 
standing that when the iron is poured into the mould, 
it first fills the lower part of the hub, then travels 
through the bottom plate and brackets, filling up the 
flange. The section of the mould forming the flange is 
thin and the upper part is formed by the metal chiller. 

It will be readily seen that the metal in the flange would 
be cooled somewhat by passing over the cold sand of 
the mould, and in coming in contact with the chiller. 
The more rapid cooling and contraction of the metal 
in the flange, as compared with that of the tread, tends 
to cause a separation or seam. As previously ex- 
plained this is an inherent defect and develops much 
more quickly on the higher capacity wheels than that 
of the lighter capacity wheels for the reason that the 
contour and conditions being alike, the friction due to 
the increased load would bring this about so much 

Wheels slid flat are easy to distinguish from worn 
through chill by observing the fine hair lines which are 
caused by the separation of the chill due to the fric- 
tion between the wheel and the rail. This is a deliver- 
ing company's defect and should be charged on a defect 
card when received from a connecting line. 

Wheels worn hollow is the amount of wheel wear on 
the tread sufficient to warrant its removal from serv- 
ice. This is left largely to the judgment of the in- 
spector. A good interpretation of M C B Rule 76, 
should provide for wheels being removed when worn 
sufficiently to permit the rim to sink far enough below 
the top of the rail to render it liable to breakage when 
passing over frogs or crossings or when the flange be- 
comes so deep that the apex is likely to strike the bot- 
tom of flange-ways. It is the practice in track work to 
allow a minimum of % in. for flange clearance at the 
bottom of flange-ways in frogs, crossings and guard 
rails. This allows the tread to wear down % in. be- 
fore the flange would strike frog and crossing filler. 
The minimum amount a wheel shall be allowed to wear 
hollow is not specified but it is generally conceded to 
be 3/16 in. In the Master Car Builders' Rules wheels 
may be allowed to wear down % in. before condemn- 
ing them unless worn through chill. Wheels of the 
ordinary taper can become worn % in. from the orig- 
inal contour at the throat before they become worn 
hollow 3/16 of an inch. 

In brake-burnt wheels the tread breaks into fine 
hair lines running across the tread, often covering a 
considerable portion of the circumference, and if kept 
in service the continuous pounding produced thereby 
causes the metal to drop out little by little. The 
shelled out spot is where metal has dropped out of the 
tread in such a way as to leave a raised spot in the 
center with a more or less circular cavity around it. 
Broken rims are usually caused by wheels being worn 
hollow or having seams or a hollow or "blowhole" edge 
outside the line of the chill. 

A wheel worn through the chill. This is a maker's 
defect and can often be discerned by its appearance. 
If the wheel tread is worn irregularly, that is, deeper 
at some place or places than at others, or if worn 
flat it will be found that the chill has been destroyed. 
Breaking the flange off opposite a part where the wheel 
is worn, it becomes at once easy to determine the 
depth of the original chill. If the wheel had been slid 
it would make itself apparent by the discoloration of 
the chill. 

In the discriminative care of wheels there is a dollar 
and cent side of the matter which should not be over- 
looked. An overzealous inspector could send many 

January, 1916 



wheels to the scrap heap which have not reached their 
limit of usefulness. It, therefore, behooves car in- 
spectors and repairers to study the subject and not 
only acquire correct ideas of what each particular de- 
fect is but to know the danger involved in permitting 
■defective wheels to run. The wheel gauge and some 
common sense must be applied in determining whether 
or not any wheel should be taken out or kept longer in 

In the discussion which followed Mr. J. M. Getzen 
pointed out that in the matter of handling wheels be- 
fore using them which if attended to would prevent 
future trouble. He referred to the handling of wheels 
after they are mounted to be shipped from shops to 
the smaller interchange points, where the supply if 
stored on a track that is not spaced wide enough the 
wheel flanges of one wheel come in contact with the 
journal of the following pair and so on down the track. 
Each time these wheels are handled the movement 
dinges or damages the journal. Where there are no un- 
loading devices a skid is used to run the wheels off the 
car. When skids are not available the car is placed 
at a point where there is not the necessary runway, 
the next thing to be done to unload the wheels would 
be to get a tie and drop the wheels onto it. This is bad 
practice, as there are many cases where the flanges 
are chipped, though not noticed immediately, but when 
the wheel is put in service the metal loosens up and 
there is a defect. 

Mr. E. Howe said that the interchange inspector is 
placed with the Master Car Builders' Rules in his 
hands, and it may be mentioned here that there is a lot 
of difference of opinion as to defects of wheels. An 
inspector at one point may pass wheels which he con- 
siders perfectly safe and another man along the line 
will consider them as wheels that should be condemned. 
It is a matter of opinion very largely. As to the ques- 
tion about cracked plates, he thinks there are two rea- 
sons that may be assigned for that. It is more or less 
•due to the metal in the wheel, and again due to heat- 
ing caused by heavy brake applications. 

Mr. George Gibson, referring to overzealous or care- 
less inspection, said: It sometimes happens that a car 
comes into the shop chalked by car inspectors for de- 
fective wheels. After the car is jacked up and the 
truck removed, the wheelman inspects the wheels and 
finds them to be in perfect condition and does not allow 
the wheels to be taken out, as it is his duty to see that 
the company gets as much mileage out of its car wheels 
as possible, without running any risks. All this trouble 
and annoyance, because of inferior inspection, could be 
avoided by getting together all the inspectors about 
every month and teaching them the fine points about 
car wheels. 

Mr. William Shone, vice-president of the association, 
read an extract from a paper presented to the Rich- 
mond Railroad Club by Mr. F. K. Vial, of the Griffin 
Car Co., as follows: The term "shelled out" refers to 
spots on the wheel where the metal has dropped out 
from the tread in such a way that a raised spot is left 
in the center, with a cavity more or less circular around 
it. In this case, in addition to the radial lines of cleav- 
age, there is a cleavage parallel to the surface of the 
tread, and therefore the bottom of the defect is more 
or less smooth, somewhat resembling an oyster shell. 
The cause of shell-outs does not seem to be as self- 
evident as that of comby wheels. The conditions which 
exist and give rise to shell-outs arise from brake action. 

The maximum air brake pressure is adjusted for the 
light weight of the car, hence wheels are not as likely 

to slide under loaded cars. Sliding often occurs just 
before a train comes to a standstill. This is occasioned 
by the greater efficiency of the brake shoe as the veloc- 
ity of the wheel decreases. The greatest frictional re- 
sistance between the wheel and brake shoe occurs just 
as the wheel is about to stop revolving, and often at 
this point exceeds the frictional resistance between the 
wheel and the rail, in which case the wheel begins to 
slide. After the wheel once begins to slide the friction 
between the wheel and the rail is very much lessened, 
and sliding will continue until the brake pressure is 

When the sliding is over a distance of only a few 
feet before the car comes to rest, the term "skidding" 
is applied when a small flat or skidded spot the size 
of the area of the wheel in contact with the rail is 

Mr. Shone said: You will find that a regular shelled 
out wheel always has a raised center and the metal has 
dropped out around it, while the brake-burnt wheel 
shows more or less a series of checks on the tread of 

the wheel. 


Railway Trespassers 

The Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe has recently issued 
a warning to trespassers on railway property. It men- 
tions that there were killed on the steam railways of 
this country 10,302 people last year, and that more 
than half of them — 5,471, to be exact — were what are 
known as trespassers, intruders upon railway property 
without right. They included men, women and chil- 
dren, killed in various ways and under various circum- 
stances. In addition to this large number of trespass- 
ers killed there were 6,354 who were injured in the 
same time and under similar conditions. 

On the average, to bring the matter more forcefully 
to our attention, 16 trespassers are killed every day 
throughout the country and 17 are injured. In the 
past 24 years more than 108,000 people have been killed 
and 117,257 injured while walking upon tracks without 
right or boarding cars when they were moving. To 
bring the matter still more forcefully to our notice, let 
us imagine this great number of killed and injured in 
the past 24 years made up into an army, four abreast, 
in squads of eight, marching at intervals of five and 
one-half feet. To pass a given point this army, more 
than 42 miles long, thus arranged, moving uninter- 
ruptedly at three miles per hour, would require 14 1 / 4 
hours. One's eyes would tire with this vast horde con- 
tinually in sight. No parade, on any occasion, has 
been stretched out as long as this. The great German 
army which invaded Belgium in the early days of the 
present war was no larger, so that we can well appre- 
ciate what the Atchison is doing in the public interest 
when it urges more substantial laws and their rigid 
enforcement against this overwhelming army of what 

might be called peaceful invaders. 


Women Work on Railways 

During the war in Europe the managers of the rail- 
roads, who find it difficult to keep their roads running 
in the absence of their men, say that the women are 
employed in many departments of the business. They 
do manual work in the yards, and on one of the roads 
the women have worked so well that some of the 
stronger and more capable have been put to the cleaning 
locomotives. Enginemen are very careful of their loco- 
motives, but the French engineers are quite satisfied 
with the way the women care for their machines. 



January, 1916 

Denver Joint Car Interchange and Inspection Bureau 

By WILLIAM HANSEN, Chief Interchange Inspector 

A Description of the Inspection Facilities and Their Effect on Reducing 
the Cost of Interchange Inspection and the Number of Cars Set Back 

The Denver Joint Car Interchange and Inspection 
Bureau was organized March 1st, 1912, under an agree- 
ment signed by the management of all the roads inter- 
ested, for the purpose of getting transportation and 
mechanical records of cars interchanged. The old Den- 
ver Car Interchange Bureau, which was merged with 
the new bureau, had been operated by a joint agent, who 
employed one stenographer, one messenger and eight 
interchange clerks. These employees were all relieved 
and the work complete is now being performed by the 

Previous to March 1st, 1912, mechanical inspection 
was made by each individual railroad through its own 
inspectors, and as nearly as can be ascertained at this 
time about twenty inspectors were employed in inter- 
change work. These inspectors and the force employed 
by the Denver Car Interchange Bureau would make a 
total of thirty-one men. 

The present bureau started with one chief interchange 
inspector, one chief clerk, one stenographer, one mes- 

eleven (carbonized paper) for making original records. 
The first copy goes to the chief interchange inspector's 
office to be used in making up interchange reports on 
form ten for the agents, master mechanics and car ac- 
countants. This form ten is the same as form eleven 
except larger in size and filled out from form eleven on 
a typewriter. The second copy of form eleven is held 
over by the inspectors on transfer until the cars have 
been pulled by the receiving lines. The second copy is 
then sent to the chief interchange inspector's office to 
complete his reports. The third copy is secured by the 
agent of the receiving line, and the fourth copy goes to 
the agent of the delivering line. These two copies are 
deposited by inspectors in boxes marked for the various 
agents, whose messengers gather them at different times 
during the day. This form furnishes the agents with 
valuable information as to what through loads and in- 
dustry loads are on transfer tracks, giving them a 
chance for quick car movement if so desired. 
Interchange reports, form ten, are sent to agents, mas- 

Sketch Showing Relative Location of Classification and Interchange Yard in Denver 

senger and nineteen inspectors, employed directly by 
the chief interchange inspector. About thirty days later 
it was found necessary to employ an additional typist 
•for the purpose of working out interchange reports at 
■night, making a total of twenty-four men. After the 
new plan had been in operation a short time and had 
•been thoroughly organized it was found that the in- 
spection force could be decreased to thirteen men, mak- 
ing the average working force of inspectors and other 
(employees a total of eighteen. 

Inspectors at the various interchange tracks use form 

ter mechanics and car accountants of the nine lines, not 
later than 7 o'clock on the morning of the day after cars 
are interchanged. 

The bureau has its own telephone exchange con- 
nected with all yards as well as the city exchange. This 
is used by the inspectors to advise yardmasters and 
agents of receiving lines immediately after perishable 
or live stock has been delivered and inspected, so that 
they can arrange for prompt handling. Shippers and 
consignees also frequently call upon the bureau for in- 
formation in regard to movement of cars consigned to 

January, 1916 



them. They claim that being able to get this informa- 
tion through the bureau is of considerable benefit. In 
addition to the reports mentioned, the inspectors tele- 
phone yardmasters of all lines at seven in the morning, 
twelve noon, six at night and twelve midnight, giving in 
detail the cars and destination of cars that are on trans- 
fers for them at these hours. 

The annual reports for the years ending February 28, 
1913-14-15, show that there has been a considerable de- 
crease in the number of bad order cars set back, as 
well as decrease in general cost of operation. A check 

to the organization of this bureau, and it was found 
that 339 car loads of freight had been transferred. A 
comparison was made for the first six months under 
the new bureau, with the result of 128 loaded cars hav- 
ing been transferred account bad order. As the agree- 
ment covers the transferring of equipment particular- 
ly, and all the roads agreed to abide by the decision of 
chief interchange inspector, this evidently had some- 
thing to do with the decrease in transferring of loaded 
cars, inasmuch as no transfer authorities are given un- 
less it is impossible to repair equipment under load or 

Form 11— S-H-1SBM 




tem ffi 





















—7^ fts>q£7 


gg g£rtj5 

— -ifl 









-Zct*L. f^cU (?*&J2<(&lAsre6t'- 

w'2- r/*?- 


f cn^- ~Z- 




[CI9G and VENTTLAriON record ami apparent condition ol PERISHABLE FREIGHT must be recorded on tnl» blank. 

Pat br The Gederal Manifold Co.. Franklin. Pa., Jan., 190L Th«W. H. Klatler Stationary Co. . A*ta . Denver. Colo. 

Form 11. — On Carbon Paper filled Out by Inspector 

was made of bad order cars set back for the month of 
February, 1912, one month previous to the organiza- 
tion of the bureau, which showed that 704 cars were re- 
turned to the delivering lines account bad order. A 
check was again made of the corresponding month in 
1913 and the result found was that 189 cars had been 
returned to delivering lines, account bad order, during 
that period. 

This decrease can be attributed to the fact that cars 
were handled by one set of employees, giving impartial 
inspection for all lines. It has been the experience for 




4-a s/i 



5.0. Si 
605 B» 



I OO ttlfl01 PIK-ifO Oft» 0\D t 

l-J mCCl CELLED 8'Jt. 

where the delivering line is unable to furnish proper 
material with which to make repairs. 

From the three years' experience in operating the 
bureau it appears that the present system of operation 
of a joint car interchange and inspection bureau is en- 
tirely successful in all respects. It has, however, been 
found necessary at all times to give impartial de- 
cisions, strictly following the M. C. B. Rules, as well 
as Transportation Rules, and particularly the Articles 
of Agreement. 

Bureau digest of annual reports for years ending Feb- 
ruary 28th, 1912, 1913, 1914: 

1912. 1913. 1914. 

Total cars interchanged 513,612 477,093 496,952 
Total expense of bureau $25,353.82 $22,957.92 $22,052.37 

Cost per car $0.0493 $0.0481 $0.0443 

Defect cards issued 
against roads 




'ceo 10 tec \/t 1 

Transfer and readjust- 

ment authority issued 




Cars set back to roads. . 




Per cent of cars inter- 

changed set back. . . . 




Form 10 Filled Out in Office From Form 11 

years that this is not possible under several sets of em- 
ployees of individual railroads, it being hard to find 
two men of the same opinion covering defects on equip- 

A check was also made of the number of loaded cars 
interchanged which were transferred by receiving line 
account bad order during the last six months previous 

While men possess little and desire less, they remain 
brave and noble; while they are scornful of all the arts 
of luxury, and are in the sight of other nations as bar- 
barians, their swords are irresistible and their sway 
illimitable; but let them become sensitive to the refine- 
ments of taste, and quick in the capacities of pleasure, 
and that instant the fingers that had grasped the iron 
rod, fall from the golden spectre. — Cambridge School 
of Art. 



January, 191b 

An Air Riveting Jack 


Chief Draftsman, S. P. & S. Ry. 

An air riveting jack, as shown in the accompanying 
illustration, is being used in the boiler shop of the Spo- 
kane, Portland & Seattle Railway, at their Vancouver, 
Washington, shops, for driving rivets into the crown 
seam of the fire-box. Boilermakers know the incon- 
venience and slow process used in driving rivets in the 
crown seam, where the space is limited and it is neces- 

Section and Plan of Air Riveting Device. 

sary to insert the rivet and clamp it in, during which 
time it is getting cold. 

By the use of the air jacket, which is quickly ad- 
justed to place, the rivet is driven while hot, and the 
jack quickly removed and ready for another rivet. No 
time is wasted, and about 75 per cent, more rivets can 
be driven in the same length of time than with the old 
method. The tool room should be equipped with about 
three of these jacks, each having a different length of 
spindle, to allow for the different spaces in water legs 
in boilers of various classes of engines. This might be 

taken care of, also, by using extensions of different 
length for spindles. 

A release spring might be inserted back of the piston, 
which will automatically release the piston when the air 
is shut off. 

Piston Heads 


Draftsman A. G. S. R. R. 

Several hours of labor are saved on each new piston 
head turned out of the machine shop. This should ap- 
peal to every efficiency man. The illustration repre- 
sents a box piston head that has no holes to be tapped 



0}.D STYLE, 

Plug or Boll. 

Labor Saving Piston Head 

and plugged. When the rod is in place it makes a 
good, tight fit that will not leak, and so carry core sand 
into the cylinders. The lightening core is supported 
through openings into the rod hole instead of by six 
or eight small cores through the face of piston. 

Hydrostatic Test Pump for Testing 
Locomotive Boilers 


Chief Draftsman, SpokanelP. & S. Ry., Portland, Ore. 

When the Rules of the Interstate Commerce Commis- 
sion for the inspection of locomotive boilers went into 
effect in 1911 requiring locomotive boilers to have an 
annual hydrostatic test, it became necessary to provide 
some means for making hydrostatic tests with the least 
possible expense. It is not always possible nor conven- 
ient to have an extra locomotive in the roundhouse to 
furnish steam for pumping water into the boiler. 

A very simple arrangement for making these tests 
has been in use in the Vancouver shops of the Spokane, 
Portland & Seattle Railway Company for over two years 
and has been the means of saving a great deal of labor 
and voided the necessity of tying up an additional loco- 
motive. It consists of an 8-inch air pump equipped as 
shown in the illustration. The air cylinder of the pump 
is bushed to 3 ins. diameter and is used as the water 
cylinder. The air intake and discharge ports are 
plugged and in place of them VA ins. check valves are 

The water is fed into the boiler at hydrant pressure 
of 100 lbs. a square inch. When the boiler is full the 

January, 1916 



air pump is started and run at 80 lbs. pressure in addi- 
tion to the hydrant pressure. The desired water press- 
ure may be obtained by throttling the air, and main- 
tained Until boiler is gone over and caulked. The time 


£"hose from — 


.TO 3 

<-/t-w./ pipe 





Pump for Testing Boilers. 

of running the pump varies from ten to forty minutes, 
depending upon the conditions of the boiler. 

The pump is mounted on a two-wheel shop truck so 
that it may be readily moved to any desired position in 
the roundhouse, and tipped on end ready to be con- 
nected to the boiler. In the piping arrangement care 
must be taken to see that the check valves are put in 
correctly, otherwise the pump will run with no pressure. 
This arrangement may also be used for testing air 
drums or for any other test where hydrostatic pressure 
is required. 

Rotary Four-way Valve 

By E. H. Wolf 

Air Brake Mach. A. C. L., Waycross, Ga. 

Air cylinders are used about locomotives and car 
shops for power for a variety of bending, straightening 
and forming operations. Generally the air pressure is 


ex ha list c a. v/ryS deep 

cast iron 



Rotary 4- Way Valve. 

admitted only on one side of cylinder, but in many cases 
it is used on both ends. In such a case two three-way 
cocks are used to admit air to the ends of cylinder. 
The valve here described takes the place of two three- 
way cocks and is easier to operate and does not leak. It 
is inexpensive to make; the only parts requiring finish 
are the valve and seat, and for this reason they are the 
only parts shown on the sketch. 

The valve may . be used with the cover, key and 
washer, gasket and handle of Westinghouse G-6 en- 
gineer's brake valve, which is in general use. The 
valve seat is cast on, the valve being made of brass. 
The supply ports through both are 11/16 ins. diameter. 
The valve is so placed on its seat that in its central 
position the supply port is between the two cylinder 
ports, — the cylinder ports are then both open to the ex- 
haust to atmosphere. By moving the handle in either 
direction from its middle position the piston is forced 
back and forth by air pressure as desired. The device 
can be used with cylinders up to 18 ins. or 20 ins. in 

Arch-Tube Beading Tools 


Boiler Foreman, C. & N. W. Ry. 

I am sending a blue print of a tool which we use in 
the Escanaba shops of the Chicago & Northwestern 
Railway for beading over the ends of arch-tubes. This 
is used in connection with the long stroke air hammer 
and is especially handy where spring rigging, air 
drums, eccentrics, etc., are very close to the arch-tube 
hole, and where a sledge hammer is quite difficult to use 
by hand. The sketch shows two tools. One is for turn- 
ing the bead over or belling it, or as we say, "spread- 






Detail of Tube Beading Device. 

ing" it. It has a large semi-circular head, and its action 
on the tube is not violent, as it lays it over with a large, 
easy curve. This tool has a holder or guide which 
is screwed into the throat sheet and the spreader, when 
forced in by the hammer, lays over the end of the 
arch-tube in the internal firedoor sheet. 

The other tool fits the same holder which is left in 
place in the throat sheet, and with its recurved contour, 
it finished the bead on the arch-tube neatly and quickly 
and does a good workman-like job. This we call the 
"beading" tool. 

Grade Crossing Accidents 

The Interstate Commerce Commission has reported 
that in the last 10 years there have been 9,479 persons 
killed and 21,917 injured, by being run over at rail- 
way grade crossings. These figures, like those else- 
where mentioned in this issue, relating to trespassers, 
are startling. 



January, 1916 

New Dining Cars on the Canadian Northern Railway 

Novel Features of Construction, Side Framing, Independent Double Unit Vestibule 
Construction, Weather Proof Deck Sash, and Sound and Temperature Insulation 

Seven new diners have recently been delivered to the 
Canadian Northern embodying a number of new fea- 
tures in design and construction, and a number of modifi- 
cations of Canadian Northern standards to meet condi- 
tions which are not found in standard passenger work. 
The cars were built in the Amherst, N. S., Works of the 
Canadian Car and Foundry Company from plans com- 
pletely worked out in the offices of the railway company 
at Toronto. 


The underframe, which is of Canadian Northern stand- 
ard construction, consists of two 15-in. rolled steel chan- 

Main Room of Canadian Northern Diner 

nels 77 ft. IOV2 ins. long, weighing 33 lbs. per foot, fitted 
with continuous top and bottom cover plates, supple- 
mented by an auxiliary top cover plate at the centre of the 
car. The top cover plate is 23 ins. wide, x /i in. thick, 
and 77 ft. 4 1 /s ins. long, the auxiliary cover being of same 
size, but extending 12 ft. 6 ins. each side of centre of car. 
The bottom cover is 23 ins. wide, 5-16 ins. thick, and 68 
ft. 2% ins. long. The draft gear is rivetted directly to 
the centre sills, and is of the Miner A-2-P type, having a 
capacity of 150,000 lbs., with a movement of 2y 8 in., and 
works in unison with the Standard Coupler Company's 
platform attachment, which has a capacity of 42,000 lbs. 
The centre sill construction will resist a buffing shock of 
400,000 with a factor of safety of four and one-half re- 
gardless of the spring buffer or the draft gear. The end 
sills are % in. pressed steel diaphragms, fitted with a top 
cover plate 12 ins. wide by % in. thick. The general ar- 

rangement of the underframe and the most prominent 
characteristics are illustrated, the length of cover plates 
varying in the different types on account of construction 
details. It will be noticed that a unit type of bolster has 
been provided in conjunction with four crossties. It was 
assumed, and from experience gained in the perform- 
ance of a large number of cars in service, it has been 
proven, that it is possible to support the centre sill struc- 
ture from the side girders so as to maintain the initial % 
inch camber at centre of car considering 56 ft. 6 in. 
truck centres. The details of construction have been very 
carefully worked out. The centre sills have had their 
original cross sectional and flange area restored in all 
cases where holes had to be cut for piping, etc., so as to 
maintain a maximum amount of material properly dis- 
tributed to withstand impact. This was also considered 
in providing the connections for the end sill H-beam lo- 
cated immediately behind platform buffer block. 

The centre diaphragms are of %-in. pressed steel plate 
with top cover plates 7 ins. wide, % in. thick, and bottom 
covers 7 ins. wide, 7-16 in. thick extending across the car 
and connected directly to the side sill in each case. 

The floor supports are of 3-16 in. pressed steel with 3- 

End Framing and Vestibule 

in. flange and 4 in. deep all around, with closed corners, 
located to suit the equipment under car, where neces- 

The body bolsters are provided with 5-in. pressed steel 
diaphragms having top and bottom cover plates 24 ins. 
wide tapered to 15 ins. at the ends, which are connected 
directly to the side girders. The top cover is %-in. thick 

January, 1916 



and the bottom plate %-in. thick. A substantial cast 
steel filler casting is provided at the centre of the car to 
form a solid bearing for centre plate. The bolster dia- 
phragms are made with a 3-in. flange clear around and 
spaced 9-in. back to back. Intermediate longitudinal 
floor supports of 3 ins. by 6 ins. 7 lb. Z-bar are provided 
between centre construction of side girder. 

The side girder, which is 7 ft. 8 3-16 ins. in height, is 
formed from a 4-in. 10.3 lb. Z-bar side sill, 3 in. by 2V2 

Each corner of the underframe is tied square and rein- 
forced by 6-in. 10.5 lb. channel diagonal braces extending 
from corner of body frame to intersection between bolster 
and centre sill. The buffer beams are U-shaped press- 
ings so connected as to allow one side only of the vesti- 
bule to be demolished at a time, that is, the two sides of 
the vestibule are independent members. This construc- 
tion has been found satisfactory from a maintenance 
point of view. No windows are used, and no woodwork is 

New Dining Car in Use on the Canadian Northern Railway 

in. by Yi in. floor support angle, 3 x /2 in. by 2% in. by % 
in. truss plank angle, 4 in. by 1% in. by 7-16 in. belt rail 
dropped bar, 36 X A in. by 3-16 in. girder plate, 2 in. by 
% in. letterboard bottom stiff ener plate, 11 in. by *4 in. 
letter board plate and a 3V2 in. by 3% in. by % in. side 
plate angle. The steel framing complete with vestibule 
less trucks weighs 52,000 lbs. 

The end frame of the kitchen end of the car is formed 
from a 4-in. x 13.8 lb. Z-bar corner post on the passage- 
way side, end door post of 4-in. 8.2 lb. Z-bars on the 
passageway side, and 4-in. 7.25 lb. channel on the parti- 
tion side 4-in. 7.25 lb. channel at the kitchen refrig- 

to be found in the vestibule structure except the doors 
and roof. Four tread steps with composition treads have 
been applied, and Canadian Northern pattern and design 
of trap doors were provided. The body and truck are 
locked together by the use of a combination Wood's Rolled 
Centre Plate and Coleman Centre Pin, all fitted with a 
removable cover. 

On account of climatic conditions, it was found neces- 
sary to provide a car of maximum strength in conjunction 
with a wooden roof, exterior and interior, this feature 
was also influened by prevailing shop conditions and 
equipment. The cars have demonstrated their fitness 

Floor Plan of Canadian Northern Dining Car 

erator, and 8-in. 13.75 lb. channel at the side girder on 
the kitchen side. 

At the eating end of the car the framing is similar, 
two 4-in. 13.8 lb. Z-bar corner posts, two 4-in. 13.8 lb. Z- 
bar intermediate, and two 4-in. 8.2 lb. Z-bar door posts 
are employed. The end sill diaphragms are set back so 
as to allow the end posts to pass down in front of them 
and be rivetted directly in place, forming a strong anti- 
telescoping member. The hood framing is so arranged 
as to present a girder construction in end shear, and the 
top deck is entirely protected against fire by light steel 

for service by preserving all the good qualities of a 
wooden car without the nuisance of the slightest measure 
of squeaking, the latter being mainly contributed to by 
the steel construction and an ample use of quilted cotton 
for the contact of all framing and finish. 

So much trouble was experienced in the past that a new 
design of letterboard splice had to be developed which 
has overcome many cases of loose or broken joints be- 
tween the various sections of letter boards. 

In the application of the woodwork to the steel frame 
double dead air space is provided under the sectional steel 
flooring by the use of standard deafening boards and 



January, 1916 

waterproof tar paper and two layers of 3-ply Salamander, 
a single layer of the latter being spread over the centre 
sill, crossties and bolsters. 

The deck is closed in tightly and glazed on account of 
the difficulty of keeping rain out where deck sashes are 
not screwed tightly in place, the prevailing winds being 
north and south over a greater part of the transconti- 
nental route. No. 6 canvas laid in white lead and oil 
forms the outer covering of the roof and 10-oz. deck sill 
flashing is provided full length of car. 

Composition flooring formed from magnesite, sawdust 

General Dimensions 

Gage 4 ft. 8% in. 

Length over body end frame 72 in. 6 in. 

Length over buffers — free 80 ft. 9 x /4 in. 

Width over side sill stringers 9 ft. 10% in. 

Width over buffer angle 4 ft. in. 

Width between deck sills 5 ft. 6 in. 

Height top of floor to bottom of sash 

rest cap 2 ft. 4 in. 

Seating capacity 30 

Light weight of car in working order . 152,000 

Half of Underframe, Showing Vestibule Construction, Bolster and Diaphragm 

and magnesium chloride is spread over the whole interior 
surface of the car, the corners are extended up one inch 
high and round corners provided to aid in keeping the 
car clean and avoid the possibility of water reaching the 
steel frame work. It was considered advisable to have a 
supplementary floor covering of cork one-half inch thick, 





4> $j 

Center Sill Re-inforcement at Pipe Holes 

so that carpets might be removed during the summer 

The exterior of the new cars while not exactly in ac- 
cordance with past practice of the road coincides prin- 
cipally except that a square instead of an elliptical type of 
elevation was decided upon, principally from the fact that 
if cars having steel exterior were to be subsequently in- 
troduced it would be the logical step to take to meet those 


Steel throughout 11 ft. in. wheelbase. 
Wheels of M. C. B. pattern, lipped tires, 36 in. diam- 

Journals 5 in. x 9 in. 

Cast sleel centre nlate support. 


The air brakes are of the Westinghouse Air Brake 
Company's Schedule LN-1812, with slack adjuster, less 
supplementary reservoir, arranged to brake the light 
weight of the car at 90 per cent with 60 lbs. cylinder 
pressure. Air brake and signal hose were tested in ac- 
cordance with M. C. B. latest requirements. and l^-inch 
extra heavy train line pipe was provided. The hand 
brake gear was designed to develop 40 per cent of the 
normal braking power under air operation. B-3-A type 
of Conductor's valve was used with exhaust pipe to at- 
mosphere and cord attachment running full length of 
car body. Schedule K air signal apparatus was in- 


The Gold Car Heating and Lighting Company's 2-in. 
by lin. duplex coil system of hot water circulation was 
installed. A 26-in. diameter heater was used and pip- 
ing arranged so that each system of car piping could be 
split on both sides of car independently of each other 
with cross-over inside of car. In order to thaw out 
drips a 50-ft. length of steam hose is carried in every 
baggage car and connected to a steam valve. Basin and 
sink drips are thawed out by a special device. A very 
efficient end valve locking device avoids any possibility 
of valve becoming accidentally closed. 

January, 1916 




The kitchen is provided with a Sturtevant Electric 
Exhaust set having a capacity of 400 cu. ft. of air per 
minute. The range hood is ventilated by the use of a 
specially designed ventilator which 
has proven a great satisfaction. 

The remainder of the car is fitted 
with Arnoldt 4-in. exhaust ventila- 
tors. A special flush Canadian 
Northern type Taylor thermometer 
is provided in the main room. Win- 
dow screens are fitted to main room 
sashes, and all storm sashes have 
sliding ventilators in the bottom 


A 2.6 kilowatt belt driven gen- 
erator and double bank of storage 
batteries provides current for the 
lamps and fans. A complete steel- 
cased marble switch board is pro- 
vided to operate on current supplied 
from the car generator or train line. 
All lamps are 15 watt capacity. All 
wire is run in steel conduit. The lay- 

deck sash, and all interior glass is of a special design of 
pressed . prism plate glass, the interior lights having 
ground backs to diffuse the light. Storm sash glass is 
of 32-oz. sheet glass. - Sash locks are of Canadian North- 
ern design and pattern. Sash balances and anti-rattlers 

Section Through Lower Deck 

out is one entirely developed on the Canadian Northern 
and admits of easy inspection and yet the conduit it- 
self is not exposed. The junction boxes carry the lamps. 
Candle lamps are provided for use in case of emergency. 
The following Safety Car Heating & Lighting Com- 
pany's fixtures were used : 

Centre lamps No. 3666 

Deck lamps No. 3889 

Passageway No. 1921 

Kitchen No. 2124 

Pantry No. 2115 

Heater and Refrigerator No. 2426 
Vestibule No. 9060 

A very practical design of steel battery box has been 
provided which has been practically snow proof on ac- 
count of the wedging effect of the inspection door 
catches. The hangers ensure an absolutely rigid sup- 
port, besides being very simple construction, consider- 
ing the dimensions of the box, the weight of each of 
which is slightly more than 500 lbs. without the cells. 

All fans are 12-in., non-oscillating type, being con- 
nected up with pin and socket attachment which allow 
them to be removed for repairs. Dummy train connec- 
tors are installed. 


All body sash are provided with 3/16 in. thick pol- 
ished plate glass. Outside and inside Gothics, inside 

Section Through Upper Deck 

are installed for all large body windows. Kitchen win- 
dows are made with glass and screen section. 

Pantasote silk-faced curtains pattern 4-2, color 77 are 
located in the main room and passageway. 



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Kitchen, Showing Range and Butler's Pantry 

Interior Finish and Arrangement 

The use of marquetry has been entirely dispensed 
with, and inlay lines are employed. 

Beam ceiling finish is carried out in main room, pan- 
try and passageway. Woodwork is of mahogany 
throughout except kitchen, which is cherry. Ceiling of 
3-ply poplar veneer, canvas faced, painted pale willow. 

No gimp on chairs, plain and flush, light and strong, 
padded cushion and back. Table light smooth and strong. 



January, 1916 

End Elevation of Steel Work, Showing Vestibule 

Floor Covering 

The main room floor besides being covered with cork 
tiling is fitted with standard carpet and aisle strip. Red 
and green diamond pattern rubber tiling is provided for 
vestibules. Wool border mats are furnished for end 
doors. The kitchen floor is covered with No. 24 cold 
rolled copper and cross slats. 

Water Supply 

Canadian Northern standard air pressure water rais- 
ing system is provided under the car in connection with 
a battery of three overhead tanks in the kitchen. A 

Jarvis filter with cooling tank is connected throughout 
to the water supply and located near the entrance to the 
pantry. The hot water boiler over the range serves the 
dish washing machine as well as the sinks in kitchen and 
pantry. All sink drains are provided with steam thaw- 

Kitchen Details 

Range and heater insulation are both worked out with 
the greatest care. The charcoal is being stored in a 
special compartment adjoining the broiler and the coal 
for kitchen range is carried below the broiler. 

A combination garbage chute which avoids carrying 

Details of Vestibule Platform Construction 

January, 1916 



garbage can is provided, and a deflector is designed to 
avoid any possibility of refuse being blown back into 
the car. A drop door in front allows for the kitchen 
being flushed out. 

Two supply boxes per car are provided and an espe- 
cially good handle admits of locking by seal or padlock. 

Bonn white enamel refrigerators with syphons are 

The vegetable bins in the kitchen are unit locked as 
well as all lockers throughout. The cup warmer is of 
especially good design. The humidor locker at conduc- 
tor's desk is another novel feature. Pressed prism glass 
having matted back is provided as a light burns in the 
cigar locker at all times. 

The Van Dorn Electrical Tool Company, Cleveland, 
Ohio, have recently placed on the market a combination 
electrical tool adapted for use either as a portable tool 

lit" 4M &&;■. 




1 1 

• ''■' i " ■ 1 

■ / « 

jr.' ■ .'■ V. ' 

sk *' 


Tool Used as Portable Grinder 

or a bench tool, designed for both drilling and grinding. 

At one end of the tool the shaft projects and a 6 x %- 

in. emery wheel fitted with a guard can be directly con- 

Tool Used on Stand for Grinding 

nected, making an excellent tool for portable grinding 
as shown in the first illustration. 

A bench grinding stand, making a practical bench 
grinder and lathe head can be used which converts the 
tool into a stationary grinder. The stand for bench 
grinding is heavy and compact. It holds the machine 

firmly. The machine will drill up to y 2 in. in steel. 
When used for drilling an attachment plate is fitted 
over the grinding end to hold the spade handle, feed 

Tool Used as Portable Drill 

screw or pressed plate, according to the character of 
the work. 

The tool is supplied for direct current only and may 
be had for 110 or 220 volts. 

Tool Used on Bench Drilling Stand 

The Weaver Manufacturing Company, Springfield, 
111., have recently put on the market a line of roller 
jaw chucks for straight shank drills from 1/16 to 1 1/32 
in. diameter drills. 

The chuck is designed on the roller chuck principle, 

Weaver Automatic Roller Chuck 

the body of the chuck acting as the outside cam and 
the hardened steel rolls bearing against this cam and 
against the shank of the drill. 



January, 1916 

A solid one-piece cage fitting inside the body is ad- 
justable to bring the rolls to bear at different points 
on the cam for different sizes of drilling shanks. 

The steel rollers do not deform or scar the shank of 
the drill. The greater the pressure exerted on the drill 
the greater the grip of the 
chuck on the drill. 

The Sargent Company, 

1418 Fisher Building, Chi- 
cago, have recently made a 
number of improvements on 
the Loedige Quick-Acting 
Blower Valve that have made 
it of great value in eliminat- 
ing black smoke on locomo- 
tives. A suggested position 
of attachment has been 
worked out, as well as a sys- 
tem of operating levers. 
The illustrations make the 
device and the method of in- 
stallation and operation clear. 
The view inside a locomotive 
cab shows this valve connect- 
ed in the steam line on the 
fireman's side, with a hand 
lever for the fireman and an 
operating rod running across 
to engineer's side. This set- 
ting of the valve is advised 
because from either position 
a simple and easy movement 
of the hand opens the valve 
instantly. This method saves 
time in comparison with 
valves requiring to be turned 
to the open position. 

The second view shows the recommended practice of 
locating steam jets outside of the fire-box. the control 
of which is separated from the quick acting valve by an 
ordinary globe valve. 

ing equipment at the request of the General Managers' 
Association of Chicago and fully reported in the pro- 
ceedings of the Railway Master Mechanics' Association; 
That report recommended the equipment of locomotives 
with the steam jets and shows the Loedige Quick Act- 









The Steam Jets Force Air Into the Fire Box and by the Instantaneous Blow of the 
Loedige Valve All Smoke Solids and Gases Are Consumed 

The new Loedige valve is an improved and simpler 
construction of the Loedige valve which was tested at 
Altoona, Pa., on Pennsylvania Railroad locomotive test- 

Blower Valve and Operating Mechanism in Cab 

ing Blower Valve as the only valve which would meet 
the theoretical and practical requirements of "an easily 
operated — quick opening valve — capable of giving rea- 
sonable graduations of pressure in the blower line." 

This valve operating even 
without the assistance of the 
steam jets at sides of the fire- 
box will generally control and 
prevent showing of black smoke 
and it is doing this on locomo- 
tives which previously had been 
equipped at the expense of sev- 
eral hundred dollars with special 
apparatus which reduced their 
fire-box capacity and did not sat- 
isfactorily prevent black smoke. 

The Loedige valve was devel- 
oped on the Chicago & North 
Western Railway and is standard 
equipment for the purpose on all 
their locomotives, which accounts 
for their position of "first' 'in the 
list of twenty-nine Chicago rail- 
roads in a recent report of the 
Department of Smoke Inspection 
of the city of Chicago, which 
gives their per cent, of density 
6.17 against an average of all 
roads entering Chicago of 11.77, 
three of which run over 20. This 
report is especially interesting 
because there were twice as many test observations by 
smoke inspectors made on the Chicago & North Western 
as on any other railroad in Chicago during that time. 

January, 1916 



American Blower Company, Detroit, Mich., have is- 
sued a 44-page illustrated book on "The Commercial 
Value of Washed Air," in which are described by noted 
authorities the advantages to employer and employee 
of using washed and tempered air. The remainder of 
the book is given to a description of the construction 
and operation of the "Sirocco"- purifying and venti- 
lating system and the sizes and capacities of various 
types of installations. 

American Shop Equipment Co., McCormick Bldg., Chi- 
cago, til., have issued an eight-page circular on oil 
burning rivet heading forges showing portable and sta- 
tionery rivet forges suitable for steel car work, hy- 
draulic rivet and general light forge work. Models are 
shown on trucks and other for permanent places. 

Beaudry & Co., 141 Milk St., Boston, Mass., have re- 
cently published illustrated sheets describing two re- 
cently designed Beaudry Peerless power hammers, 
motor driven. The sheets include descriptions of the 
machines and specifications covering the sizes and 
capacities of the various types. 

The Coale Muffler & Safety Valve Company, 325 East 
Oliver St., Baltimore, Md., have recently issued a 32- 
page illustrated catalogue describing the use and ad- 
justment of the Coale improved muffler safety valve, 
which reduces the noise of escaping steam to a mini- 
mum. Safety and pop valves are described, specifica- 
tions tabulated for valve springs, and instructions for 
installation. There is also described the Riggin full 
opening and closing blower and blow-off valve. 

The Covington Machine Company, 14 Wall St., New 
York City, have issued a 12-page illustrated bulletin, 
No. 11, describing punches, shears, bending rolls and 
other fabricating tools for sheet metal and structural 

The Dake Engine Company, Grand Haven, Mich., 
have issued a 48-page illustrated catalogue for 1915- 
1916, covering their line of air and steam motors for 
jib cranes and hoists, swinging gears, hoisting engines, 
derrick crabs, pneumatic chain and wire hoists, drilling 
hoists, boiler test pumps, steam feeds for saw-mill car- 
riages, etc. In addition to illustrating this line of ma- 
terial, the catalogue gives piece-part names and num- 
bers for replacements, and current price list. 

The Flannery Bolt Co., Pittsburgh, Pa., have recently 
issued their 1916 calendar showing the construction and 
typical installations of Tate Flexible Stay Bolts. The 
calendar is printed with large clear figures, which 
will make it of value in the daily work of readers of 
Master Mechanic. 

Ford Chain Block & Manufacturing Company, 139 

West Oxford St., Philadelphia, Pa., have issued a 16- 
page illustrated catalogue describing the Ford "tri- 
block" chain hoist, as well as screw hoists and differ- 
ential hoists from % to 20-ton capacity. A description 
of their loop hand chain guide is given; also a list of 
parts, sizes, hoist in feet, and prices. 

Goldschmidt Thermit Company, 90 West St., New 
York City, have recently issued the second edition of 
their book on thermit mill and foundry practices. The 
book contains 76 pages and is well illustrated. It de- 

scribes the theory and practice of thermit welding and 
the details of operation for a number of types of weld, 
illustrating the part to be repaired, the method of con- 
structing the mould and the completed weld. Cost of 
welds is taken up, as well as descriptions of the neces- 
sary outfits for doing different classes of work. 

Gerdes & Co., 30 Church St., New York City, have 
issued an illustrated mailing card describing the Ger- 
des hygienic method of direct forced draft ventilation, 
applicable to machine shops with or without balconies 
and to general building construction. 

The Industrial Works, Bay City, Mich., have issued a 
90-page illustrated book, No. 107, on their complete line 
of cranes, illustrating and describing portable and sta- 
tionary cranes of many different types and capacities, 
designed for railroad and construction purposes, pile 
drivers, portable rail saws, transfer tables and various 
accessories. Cranes are shown operating by steam, 
electric and hand power. The completeness of the line 
illustrated and the frankness with which the capacities 
and provinces of the various types and sizes are stated 
is a valuable part of the book. 

The Lincoln Electric Company, East 38th St. and 
Kelley Ave., Cleveland, Ohio, have issued a 24-page 
illustrated catalogue on electric arc welding, which de- 
votes a number of pages to a concise and clear descrip- 
tion of the processes of welding by blacksmith forge 
fire, acetylene torch, thermit and electric methods. 
Welding terms are defined and the balance of the book 
describes the Lincoln arc welder and shows a number 
of examples of welding methods. 

The Newton Machine Tool Works, Inc., 23rd and Vine 
Sts., Philadelphia, Pa., have issued a 36-page illus- 
trated catalogue, No. 50, describing the Newton rotary 
planing machines. The catalogue goes into the theory 
of continuous cut rotary planing and illustrates and 
describes the full line of machines equipped for this 
work. An insert shows various Newton slotters, saws, 
milling machines, boring machines, etc. 

H. A. Rogers Company, 87 Walker St., New York City, 
have issued a 16-page illustrated catalogue describing 
Moncrieff's gauge glasses: Unific brand for high pres- 
sures up to 400 lbs. and Perth brand for lower pres- 
sures up to 200 lbs. The catalogue contains sizes and 
prices as well as data as to the life of gauge glasses. 

The Universal Car Seal & Appliance Company, Lyon 
Block, Albany, N. Y., have issued two illustrated cir- 
culars describing respectively their Universal Gibraltar 
and Universal Simplex freight car door fasteners. The 
circulars give full size line drawings of the locks and 
explain their installation and operation. 

The Western Wheeled Scraper Co., Aurora, 111., have 
issued a 16-page illustrated bulletin on the Western 
automatic ore dump car, describing the Standard West- 
ern Dump Cars with the new ore dumping device, which 
tilts the bed of the car and raises the side with one 
movement. The construction and operation of the car 
is illustrated, as well as different types of service to 
which it can be put. 

Westinghouse, Church, Kerr & Co., 37 Wall St., New 
York City, have issued a 12-page illustrated bulletin, 
No. 20, on the lay-out and equipment of the locomotive 
repair shops of the Chicago & Alton R. R. at Blooming- 
ton, 111. The bulletin discusses the theory of building 
a shop around a predetermined machine lay-out, rather 
than attempting to advantageously lay out machines 
after the shop building has been completed. 



January, 1916 

F. A. Phillips, recently appointed locomotive foreman 
of the Great Northern Ry. at Butte, Mont., succeeds 
there H. E. Stapt. 

W. J. Yingling, recently appointed general foreman of 
the Norfolk & Western at Crewe, Va., succeeds there 
N. W. Norsworthy. 

R. Lloyd, recently appointed locomotive foreman of 
the Great Northern Ry. at Great Falls, Mont., succeeds 
there F. A. Phillips. 

Amnon I. Derr, recently appointed general manager 
of the Morgantown & Wheeling Ry. at Morgantown, W. 
Va., succeeds J. Ami. 

H. S. Rosser, i . jently appointed general foreman of 
the Norfolk & Southern Ry. at Berkley, Va., succeeds 
there J. W. Stickley. 

A. A. Adams, recently appointed locomotive foreman 
of the Great Northern Ry. at Willmar, Minn., succeeds 
there F. J. Kearney. 

F. J. Kearney, recently appointed locomotive foreman 
of the Great Northern Ry. at Melrose, Minn., succeeds 
there W. B. Craswell. 

0. W. Hitt, recently appointed general foreman of the 
Detroit, Toledo & Ironton R. R. at Napoleon, Ohio, suc- 
ceeds there J. H. Suhl. 

1. H. Drake, recently appointed master mechanic of 
the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe at Clovis, N. Mex., 
succeeds Hugo Schaefer. 

L. J. Miller, recently appointed master mechanic of 
the Marshall & East Texas Ry. at Marshall, Tex., suc- 
ceeds there F. N. Norman. 

R. E. Kelly, recently appointed master mechanic of 
the Kansas City & Memphis Ry. at Rogers, Ark., suc- 
ceeds there W. A. George. 

R. E. Anderson has recently been appointed air-brake 
instructor of the Chesapeake & Ohio Ry., with head- 
quarters at Richmond, Va. 

R. M. Boldridge, recently appointed master mechanic 
of the Apalachicola Northern R. R. at Port St. Joe, Fla., 
succeeds there J. P. Dolan. 

J. H. Suhl, recently appointed general foreman of the 
Detroit, Toledo & Ironton R. R. at Springfield, Ohio, 
succeeds there 0. V. Morrison. 

Clyde Medley, recently appointed car foreman of the 
Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul at Deer Lodge, Mont., 
succeeds there J. A. Campbell. 

C. Grant, recently appointed master mechanic of the 
Nacogdoches & Southeastern R. R. at Nacogdoches, Tex., 
succeeds there W. V. Fountain. 

Frank Sowerby, recently appointed general foreman 
of shops of the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul at Deer 
Lodge, Mont., succeeds there S. S. Koehler. 

R. L. Mason, for fourteen years manager of the rail- 
road department of Hubbard & Company, has severed 
his connection with them, and entered the railroad sup- 
ply business on his own account at 1501 Oliver Build- 
ing, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

J. W. Tenney, recently appointed road foreman of 
equipment of the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific at 
Trenton, Mo., succeeds there M. J. McDonald. 

F. J. Yonkers, recently appointed road foreman of 
equipment of the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific at 
Good Land, Kan., succeeds there N. P. Cosgrave. 

W. F. Brennan, recently appointed traveling store- 
keeper of the Chicago & Alton Ry., has served that 
road for the past three years as storehouse foreman at 
Bloomington, 111. 

W. D. Brown, recently appointed general manager of 
the Mineral Point & Northern Ry. at Mineral Point, 
Wis., has been serving that road in the capacity of as- 
sistant general manager. 

J. L. Teemster, recently appointed storekeeper for 
the Kansas City Terminal Ry. at Kansas City, has re- 
signed from his position as traveling storekeeper on 
the Chicago & Alton, to accept his new duties. 

Richard Brooks, recently appointed assistant to the 
general manager of the Western Ry. of Havana and of 
the Havana Central R. R., with offices in the Central 
Station, Havana, Cuba, succeeds M. L. Masteller. 

E. S. Barstow, recently appointed car foreman of the 
Spokane, Portland & Seattle Ry. at Vancouver, Wash., 
succeeding W. P. James, resigned, leaves the position of 
piece-work inspector on the Southern Pacific at Port- 
land, Ore., to take up his new work. 

Wesley Fuller, recently appointed road foreman of 
engines for the Lehigh & New England R. R. at Pen 
Argyl, Pa., entered the service of that road as engine- 
man, and in 1912 was made traveling fireman and later 
assistant road foreman of engines. Mr. Fuller succeeds 
John McMullen, who has been made fuel inspector. 

D. K. Auman, recently appointed master mechanic 
of the Dakota Division of the Great Northern Ry. at 
Grand Forks, N. D., has been in the service of that 
company for a number of years as engineer and travel- 
ing engineer on the Breckenridge Division. Mr. Auman 
succeeds E. English, who has been transferred to the 
Minot Division at Minot, N. D., as master mechanic. 

J. A. Kerrigan, recently appointed general foreman of 
the locomotive department of the Nashville, Chatta- 
nooga & St. Louis at Nashville, Tenn., entered the serv- 
ice of that road in 1899 as machinist in the shops at 
Nashville, and in 1904 was appointed roundhouse fore- 
man. Mr. W. G. Reyer, whom he succeeds, has resigned 
from the service of the company to take up personal 

H. C. May, recently appointed Superintendent of Mo- 
tive Power of the Lehigh Valley at South Bethlehem, 
Pa., entered the service of the Chesapeake & Ohio at 
Covington, Ky. Later he entered and graduated from 
Purdue University at LaFayette, Ind. After the com- 
pletion of his college education he was made a Master 
Mechanic of the "Big Four" at Louisville. Mr. May 
later held the position of Superintendent of Motive 
Power with the Monon Route with headquarters at La- 
Fayette, Ind. He will retire from this position to come 
to the Lehigh Valley, where he succeeds F. N. Hibbitts, 


Vol. XL 

Established 1878 


Copyright 1916 

No. 2 


Editorial Page 

The Steel Boom and Prosperity 33 

Valuation of the Railroads 33 

Boiler Feed Water 33 

Owner's Defects on Cars 34 

Results of a Year in Pennsylvania 34 

The June Conventions 35 

New Railway Equipment for Mexico 35 

Mikados for the Missouri, Oklahoma & Gulf 36 

Baldwin 2-8-2 locomotives with high 
ratio of tractive force to heating sur- 
face, with Rushton drifting throttle 
and Southern valve motion. 

The Chemistry of the Chilled Iron Car Wheel 38 

First of a series of analyses of con- 
ditions of manufacture and service 
resulting in failures classified in code 
of interchange. 

Does Not Like the "No-Kicker" 39 

The Line of Draft 40 

A discussion of draft gear capacity 
and travel, with reference to slack and 
shock in trains. 

Moving Picture Car on the N. Y. C. Lines 41 

Car designed to show employes the 
dangers of careless practices in shop 
and other work as part of safety cam- 

The Baltimore & Ohio's Safety Campaign 43 

Showing how a few ideas well put 
bring good results. 

Proceedings of the Traveling Engineers' Assn. 44 

Resume of the important subjects con- 
sidered in the 1915 proceedings. 

Analysis of Effects of Impure Boiler Feed Water 45 
Extracts of paper presented to the 
railway club of Pittsburgh in which 
the reasons for scale formation and 
corrosion are discussed. 



Engine Decorated Fifty-three Years Ago 

The National Transcontinental Railway Shops 
The construction and equipment of 
the locomotive, machine, boiler, tank 
and smith shops at Winnipeg, Man. 

A Study of Electricity 56 

Fundamental principles as t^.ey apply 
to power for electric locomotives. 

Freight Car Construction, Maintenance and Abuse 57 
Fundamentals and standardization of 
construction discussed. Causes and 
cost of maintenance considered, in- 
cluding operating abuses and owners' 

Women in Charge of Cars 58 

Example of Great Efficiency 58 

Laboratory Test of Baldwin 2-8-0 for I. C. 59 

Tests made after general overhauling 
and then comparisons made with re- 
sult of bringing each working part 
to maximum efficiency. 

Work of American Locomotive Company 61 

The Fuel Department 62 

Details of problems of organization 
and operation of efficient fuel service. 

Serial Transmission of Brake Action 63 

Loss of time, shocks, and slow release 
eliminated by electro-pneumatic brake. 

Resuscitation After Electric Shock 64 

Practical Suggestions from Railroad Shop Men 65 

New Methods and Appliances 66 

New Trade Literature 69 

Book Reviews 69 

Supply Trade Notes 70 

Personal Items for Railroad Men 71 

Published monthly by RAILWAY PERIODICALS COMPANY, INC., at Vanderbilt Concourse Building, 52 Van- 
derbilt Avenue, corner East 45th Street, New York; Telephone, Murray Hill 8246; Cable, "Progage, New York." 

Chicago Office, 1635 Old Colony Building; Telephone, Harrison 6360. 

Ernest C. Brown, President. 

C. S. Myers, Vice-President. S. A. Bates, Treasurer. 

J. A. Kucera, Business Manager. F. W. Nolting, Secretary. 
J. W. Barbodr, Western Manager. 

Benjamin Norton, Editor-in-Chief. 
G. S. Hodgins, Managing Editor. L. A. Horswell, Associate Editor. 

A Railway Journal devoted to the interests of railway motive power, 
cars, equipment, appliances, shops, machinery and supplies. 
Communications on any topic suitable to our columns are solicited. 
Subscription Price, Domestic, $1 a vear ; Foreign countries. $1.50, 
free of postage. Single copies, 20 cents. Advertising rates given on 
application to the office, by mail or in person. 
Make Checks Payable to the Railway Periodicals Company. Inc. 
Copyright, 1916, by the Railway Periodicals Company, Inc. 
Entered at the New York Post Office as second-class mail matter. 



February, 1916 


(Its Relation To Moving Trains) 

Energy is an element which pervades the universe — 
mobile, fluid, restless, resistless and eternal. 

The Scientist, in attempting a definition, says Energy is 
the capacity for doing work. 

The only difference between a train at rest and a train 
in motion is one of Energy. The whole function of the 
Locomotive is to change the Energy of Heat to the Energy 
of Motion. The sole purpose of the Air Brake is to 
return (dissipate) the Energy of Motion to the Energy 
of Heat. 

Energy flows — as a fluid — under pressure. 

The acceleration of a heavy railroad train from rest to 
60 miles per hour — in about 6 minutes of time — is due to an 
enormous flow of Energy (from heat to motion). 

The modern brake is required to return this train to 
rest in 20 seconds. To do so the flow of Energy 

(from motion to heat) must be eighteen times 

As Air Brake Designers and Engineers we must give, 
continuously, the most careful consideration to the problems 
of Energy. 

Westinghouse Air Brake Co. 



Vol. XL 

Established 1878 


Copyright 1916 

No. 2 

The Steel Boom and Prosperity 

It has been pointed out, not without reason, that the 
fact that our steel mills are busy, does not necessarily 
represent the advance of general business throughout 
the country. It ought to be an index of prosperity, 
but just now we are passing through an exceptional 
period in the world's history, where the abnormal de- 
mands of the great war have, for the time, almost eaten 
into the heart of the steel-producing industry. 

There is, however, no doubt that at this time the 
wheels of prosperity are beginning to turn, and busi- 
ness all over the United States has talcen an upward 
trend. The point for construction engineers, mechani- 
cal engineers and supply men generally, is to recognize 
the fact that steel producers and metal workers i:? 
allied fields of endeavor are full of orders arising from 
the demands of war, and if the legitimate and increas- 
ing business of our railroads are to be adequately met, 
it behooves them to make arrangements to place orders 
as soon as possible, so that deliveries will not be delayed 
so as to stagnate actual work. Wherever work is de- 
cided upon, the time ahead is none too long before :•'; 
may be urgently required, therefore it is the part of 
wisdom to prepare for future contingencies with as 
little delay as possible, and when the war does cease 
the transition will not be as abrupt as it otherwise 
would be. 

Valuation of the Railroads 

Since the work of placing values on the railroads of 
the United States was begun, those engaged in this stu- 
pendous task, which will, without doubt, be of no avail 
in the end, have partially examined or surveyed some 
50,000 miles — one-fifth of all the lines now in opera- 
tion. At this rate it will require four or five more 
years to complete the entire work. The surveys, up to 
date, do not include land valuations, which was one of 
the features of the Act of Congress which set this whole 
matter in operation. 

Not to mention the great expense thrust upon the rail- 
road companies to bring the valuation project to an end, 
it might be easily estimated that the government will 
incur an outlay of $15,000,000. And all this for what? 

The valuation notion which originally sought to 
secure the worth of our railroad systems, in other 
words to learn their money value, may have had some 

meritorious object in view; but just how this informa- 
tion can be of service in establishing consistent and 
just rates, which possibly was the ultimate end, is not 
easily comprehended. It seems that, thus far, the valu- 
ations secured show under capitalization rather than an 
excess. Considering the monstrous cry that the rail- 
roads of the country have been grossly over-capitalized 
this showing has caused some surprise. Until the en- 
tire valuation scheme is brought to a finish there will be 
no results obtained that will be of material use. A 
matter extending over so many years leaves the field of 
valuation so uncertain that what might have been a 
true conclusion now, will be false, unjust and abso- 
lutely unreliable five years hence. The foundation of 
this vast public demand is therefore established upon 
speculative problems and uncertainty. 

If behind this move, to determine railroad valuations, 
lies a desire on the part of the politicians to secure 
government ownership of these properties, the people 
may, with reason, rise up against it, for we have so 
many instances of other government owned railroads 
which have resulted in gross mismanagement and waste 
of money that the idea is little short of grotesque. In 
the end, leaving some of these possibilities out of con- 
sideration, it is safe to say that this expensive and 
complicated valuation enterprise will leave the rail- 
road problem exactly where it stood before these enor- 
mous expenditures were incurred. 


Boiler Feed Water 

Scale on locomotive boiler flues has come to be taken 
for granted. Special machinery has been designed to 
rumble the flues and take off the scale, and this process 
has become as much a part of the routine of general 
repairs as cutting and welding the flues or renewing 

Pitting of the flues and boiler shell, but more partic- 
ularly of the water covered surface of the firebox is also 
being taken for granted — being considered inevitable. 

Elsewhere in this issue an analysis is made of the 
reasons for the deposit of scale, and the formation of 
pits, — starting with boiler feed water as it leaves the 
clouds, and following it until it leaves the locomotive 
as exhaust steam. A locomotive boiler may be likened 
to a still in which by boiling off the pure water, the im- 
purities which continuously enter dissolved in the feed 
water, are concentrated until their activity and capacity 



February, 1916 

for damage become very much greater than would seem 
to be indicated by an analysis of the original feed water. 

The characteristic analyses of a number of types of 
feed waters are given, with an explanation of what re- 
sults in the boiler in each case, why such results are sure, 
and the methods used in determining the chemical rea- 
sons for the results. 

A broader understanding of the boiler feed water 
problem will result from studying the actions and re- 
sults of impurities from the standpoint of the chemist 
and the man familiar with the exigencies of railroad 
locomotive work. 

Owner's Defects On Cars 

The question of repairs to what are called owner's 
defects on freight cars has made some progress of late 
years, but is far from being finally settled yet. The 
progress to which we refer is that cars having owner's 
defects may be repaired with M. C. B. standard mate- 
rial, or, of course, with material proper to the partic- 
ular design of car. This is some advance on the orig- 
inal idea that a car where the repairing company had 
no material on hand belonging to the car, it was forced 
to send for it. 

In course of time the system now in vogue grew up. 
An army of inspectors booked defects on cars received, 
so that they could pass them home in the same condi- 
tion. There was in fact a sort of tacit agreement not 
to make the rapairs unless compelled to do so, and to 
let owner's defects take care of themselves. 

All this works well enough as far as the reduction 
of time and material on foreign cars is concerned. It 
is true that the handling company could make the re- 
pairs and charge the owners with the cost according to 
the rules, and not be out of pocket, but the argument 
against this is simple enough. It is in effect that the 
handling company does not want to put its men on 
work of that kind, even if paid for it. The company is 
in the position of a tradesman or shopkeeper who has 
all the work he can do with his staff, and so refuses 
new orders. 

A railroad, unlike the tradesman, cannot refuse "new 
orders" in the shape of a car having owner's defects, 
because it must receive the car, but it does not make 
the repairs for its own reasons. If a car was offered in 
interchange for which the delivering company was re- 
sponsible, it would give a defect card or- make rapairs 
before delivery. Any argument which involved the idea 
.that its men were busy enough on its own equipment, 
would then not hold at all and repairs would be made. 

Here we have the making or not making of car re- 
pairs governed by two different ideas, and those who 
advocate passing cars with owner's defects, would prob- 
ably hold that by this distinction, a company would not 
have to do as much work as it would if repairs to 
owner's defects were compulsory. This is quite true as 
far as it goes. 

To offset this view, it may reasonably be said that the 
present system involves a very large clerical force and 

it takes up time to get the record where that is deemed 
necessary and to transscribe it, and it subsequently in- 
volves time in looking up the record and sometimes it 
involves correspondence. 

The joint inspector is the final arbitrator in all such 
cases, and this official has most justly been the recipient 
of genuine appreciation. It is to his good judgment 
and ability that the whole system works as it does, and 
he is not responsible for the money value or the want of 
it, which may inhere in the system. In a recent ad- 
dress Mr. W. S. Laycock said in speaking of the average 
car inspector, that he should bear no grudge; a man 
cannot inspect cars with a grievance, whether against 
a foreman, the operating department, or about his re- 

The question of compulsory or optional repairs to 
cars having owner's defects is likely to call for re- 
adjustment perhaps in the near future. We all know 
what the system is now. Making these repairs a part 
of the duty of the handling company would tend to re- 
duce clerical work. It would make records less im- 
portant than they are now, and might promote the use 
of the hammer and the wrench rather than the note 
book and the pencil. 

These are advantages which would become more ap- 
parent after the compulsory repair system had been 
in vogue some time, but there is an advantage which 
would operate at once and would be of direct value 
in the maintenance of cars. Owner's defects on cars 
kept in service do not mend themselves, and though the 
present system may facilitate the movement of cars, the 
defects tend to grow worse, and when they reach a cer- 
tain stage may help a defect to grow into one for which 
the handling company is responsible. Some roads pass 
owner's defects without record, believing that repairs 
may be made wherever found, but other roads make 
records so that in case owner's defects at last involve 
their own responsibility they will have something to 
show for their contention that part only of a serious 
defect belongs to them. There is no real way to test 
the effectiveness of the compulsory repair theory ex- 
cept to subject it to the service test of actual every- 
day railway work. It is likely that it would be satisfac- 
tory, and seems to be worth a trial. 

Results of a Year in Pennsylvania 

The investigator of accidents for the State Public 
Service Commission of Pennsylvania shows, by a recent 
report, that during the year which ended June 30, 1915, 
60 per cent, of all the fatalities occurring on the rail- 
roads in Pennsylvania were due to trespassing on rail- 
road property. Nine hundred and ninety-nine persons 
were killed on the steam railroads in that time — 609 
of them trespassers, and there were 105 more who lost 
their lives at grade-crossings. 

Of the vast number of passengers carried by the rail- 
roads in that year, only two passengers were killed in 
train accidents, and it turned out after investigation 

February, 1916 



that in these instances there was neither negligence on 
the part of the railroad company nor its employes. 
While the total number of accidents of all sorts for 
the year showed a considerable increase, fewer train- 
men and passengers were injured than during the 
previous year. This reflects great credit on the part 
of the railroads, indicating efficiency and close atten- 
tion to the matter of safety. If people will trespass, 
however, they should assume all the responsibility and 
not go beyond themselves or ask for redress when their 
heedlessness results in misfortune. 

railroad men and supply men in contributing to the 
value of the convention, returns to them many fold in 
the profitable results of the co-operative efforts of all. 

The June Conventions 

The usual preparations for the June conventions are 
being carried on with unusual enthusiasm, warranted 
by the belief that the pendulum is commencing to swing 
toward better times. 

The Master Car Builders' Association, which meets 
this year June 14-16, is giving consideration to a num- 
ber of subjects that should result in valuable data and 

The American Railway Master Mechanics' Associa- 
tion meeting, June 19-21, has a number of distinctly new 
subjects to consider, among which, the design, main- 
tenance, and operation of electric rolling stock, Mr. 
C. H. Turner, committee chairman, will be watched with 
unusual interest on account of the increasing impor- 
tance of this subject in the future of steam road devel- 
opment. The equalization of long locomotives, Mr. S. G. 
Thompson, committee chairman, is a matter the impor- 
tance of which has been growing with the lengths of 
our more powerful engines. 

The Railway Supply Manufacturers' Association re- 
ports that indications for the largest and best attended 
convention are founded on twice the applications for 
space at this time that were recorded at this time last 
year. The first space allotment, which will take place 
at 10 A. M., February 18, in the office of the association, 
2136 Oliver Building, Pittsburgh, Pa., will undoubtedly 
dispose of the most attractive locations, and as applica- 
tions for space will be considered in the order of their 
receipt, manufacturers who contemplate exhibiting in 
June will do well to be represented at this meeting. 

The convention will be held at Young's Million-Dollar 
Pier, under the same arrangements as last year. The 
decorative features of the pier will be entirely new, 
although the color scene of green and white will be 
preserved. The arrangement of Aquarium Court is ma- 
terially different and greatly improved over last year, 
and the aisleways will be under roof. The Annex will 
be improved by enclosing the greater part of the build- 
ing with glass sash and by using new matting on all 
aisles. In Machinery Hall there will be no dividing 
railings and the floors will be especially cleaned and 

The mechanical departments of railroads look for- 
ward each year to the June conventions as the big step 
in advance of the railroad year. The interest shown by 

New Railway Equipment for Mexican Trade 

One of the greatest obstacles to the reopening of 
the business in Mexico, says a government commerce 
report, is the shortage of railway equipment. The rail- 
ways are greatly in need of more locomotives and a 
very large number of freight and passenger cars. It 
is believed that when a new supply of locomotives and 
freight cars is obtained, the railways will then operate 
a sufficient number of trains to meet the growing de- 
mands resulting from improved conditions. 

Many American and foreign mining men have re- 
turned to Mexico in the hope of opening up and oper- 
ating their properties, but some of them believe that it 
will be impossible for them to operate until the rail- 
ways are more adequately supplied with cars, so that 
they will be able to move the products of the mines to 
the smelting plants or to the ore markets. They state 
that as soon as they can obtain cars for their ore, most 
of the mines in this part of the Republic will reopen, 
which will cause the smelters to resume, and will fur- 
nish employment to thousands of laborers. The smelt- 
ing plants cannot reopen until they receive a proper 
amount of ore, and the various industrial plants, which 
depend upon the mining interests for much of their bus- 
iness, will await activity among the mines and smelters. 

It is understood that arrangements are being made 
to furnish a sufficient number of locomotives and cars 
to supply these demands, and it is believed that this 
will result in considerable improvement in all lines of 
business, and will give employment to a very large 
number of men. 

While conditions in the agricultural districts are not 
as good as they were in normal times, the crops have 
yielded a considerable amount since the period of last 
summer's famine. Americans in this part of the coun- 
try were never treated with greater consideration than 
they are to-day. General good feeling prevails. Our 
machine toolmakers and railroad equipment supply 
firms have here a good opportunity to do a good deal 
of very profitable business, and the opportunity thus 
afforded should not be allowed to slip away, but 
promptly utilized, and to the full. 


A complete revision and detailed classification of the 
names of importers and merchants in Central America 
and West Indies made by the American consular officers 
in co-operation with the Bureau of Foreign and Domes- 
tic Commerce, has been published as a section of a new 
edition of the World Trade Directory. The lists have 
been brought up to date and are presented in uniform 
style, with a finding index. A new feature is the list- 
ing, so far as the information could be obtained, of the 
American and other foreign agents of Central American 
and West Indian importing firms, and of the names of 
the parent firms of branch houses located in various 
Central American and West Indian cities. 



February, 1916 

Mikados for the Missouri, Oklahoma & Gulf Railway 

Baldwin 2-8-2 Locomotives With High Ratio of Tractive Force to Heating 
Surface. With Rushton Drifting Throttle and Southern Valve Motion 

The Baldwin Locomotive Works has recently built 
four locomotives of the Mikado or 2-8-2 type for the 
Missouri, Oklahoma & Gulf Railway. These engines 
are of modern dimensions, as compared with the larg- 
est locomotives of their type; but considering the 
weight limitations imposed, a very satisfactory design 
has been produced. It is interesting, in this connec- 
tion to compare the leading dimensions of these en- 
gines with those of a class of consolidation type of loco- 
motives, twenty of which were built by The Baldwin 

ing surface that the boiler would contain, if saturated 
steam were used; and one square foot would then be 
provided for every 8.65 lbs. tractive force. That is, in 
proportion to the tractive force developed, the steam- 
ing capacity of the mikado type, gauged by the heating 
surface, is approximately 45 per cent greater than that 
of the consolidation. This high relative steaming ca- 
pacity is a great advantage in heavy service, as it re- 
duces to a minimum the chances of steam failures. 
For an increase in locomotive weight of 42 per cent, 


Locomotive of the 2-8-2 Type for the Missouri, Oklahoma & Gulf Railway 

James Carr, Mast. Mech. 

Locomotive Works for this road during the years 1909- 
1912. This comparison is as follows: 







U nj 

'01 ty 


fl 3 

u a u 

l. a o 

A u 

X H 






X P. 





an <u 


> •- 



20" x 











23" x 










The consolidation type of locomotives use saturated 
steam, and develop 12.6 lbs. tractive force for each 
square foot of total heating surface. The mikado or 
2-8-2 type of engines use superheated steam, and as- 
suming that each square foot of superheating surface 
is equivalent to IV2 square feet of water evaporating 
surface, the total equivalent heating surface becomes 
5,035 sq. ft. This is approximately the amount of heat- 

Baldwin Loco. Works, Builders 

the mikado type shows an increase in heating surface, 
using the equivalent value, given here, of 108 per cent 
as compared with the consolidation engine. 

The boiler of the mikado type, shown in our illus- 
tration, has a straight top, and is built with longitudinal 
seams having a strength equal to 90 per cent of the 
solid plate. The furnace equipment includes a brick 
arch and a power-operated fire-door. The front end of 
the firebox crown sheet is supported by two rows of 
Baldwin expansion stays. In this design, the nut on 
the upper end of the radial bolt is seated in a die- 
forged stirrup, which is screwed into the outside shell. 
After the nut has been screwed up, to give the desired 
tension, it is set into the bolt with a punch. This stay 
is strong and simple in construction, while it provides 
the necessary flexibility and uses ordinary stay bolt 
taps in the boiler shell. 

System of Equalization Used on Baldwin 2-82 Locomotive 

February, 1916 



The throttle valve is of the improved Rushton type, 
with auxiliary drifting valve. The steam distribution 
is controlled by piston valves 11 ins. in diameter. The 
Southern valve motion is applied, and the gears are 
controlled by the Ragonnet power reverse mechanism. 
This device is operated by compressed air, and relieves 


Rushton Drifting Throttle Valve 

the engineman of considerable labor in handling the 

The rear truck is of the Hodges type, and is equalized 
with the third and fourth pairs of driving wheels. 
Back of the fourth pair, the locomotive is cross equal- 
ized by two transverse beams which are connected by 
a central vertical link. This construction tends to pre- 
vent any transverse rocking action from being commu- 

nicated from the driving-springs to the rear truck 
springs, or vice-versa. 

These locomotives have electric head-light equipment. 
Train numbers can be displayed in a suitable frame 
mounted on the smoke-box, and these numbers are illu- 
minated at night. 

The tender frame is composed of 12-in. channels, and 
the tank is semi-cylindrical in cross-section. A coal 
pusher is provided so that the fuel can be mechanically 
moved within easy reach of the fireman. The tender 
trucks have cast steel side frames and triple elliptic 

The following table contains the leading dimensions 
of these locomotives: Gauge, 4 ft. 8% ins.; cylinders, 
23 ins. x 28 ins.; valves, piston, 11 ins. diam. Boiler — 
type, straight; diameter, 82 ins.; thickness of sheets, 
% in.; working pressure, 180 lbs.; fuel, soft coal; stay- 


II 1 ■ , 1 


1 1 

ii i i < ; 

; | 

i i i 


-^ — 


Cross Equalizer and Hangers 

ing, radial. Fire Box — Material, steel; length, 114 
3/16 ins.; width, 72 1 / 4 ins.; depth, front, 81% ins.; 
depth, back, 67% ins.; thickness of sheets, sides, 5/16 
in.; thickness of sheets, back, 5/16 in.; thickness of 
sheets, crown, % in.; thickness of sheets, tube, % in.. 
Water Space — Front, 5 ins. ; sides, 4 ins. ; back, 4 ins. 
Tubes — Diameter, 5% ins. x 2 ins.; material, steel; 
thickness, 5% ins., No. 9 W. G., 2 ins.; No. 12 W. G.,; 
number, 5% ins., 38, 2 ins. 265; length 18 ft. 6 ins. Heat- 
ing Surface — Fire box, 208 sq. ft.; tubes, 3,540 sq. ft.; 
firebrick tubes, 30 sq. ft.; total, 3,778 sq. ft.; super- 
heater, 838 sq. ft.; grate area, 57.2 sq. ft. Driving 
Wheels — Diameter, outside, 52 ins. ; diameter, center, 
46 ins.; journals, main, 10 ins. x 12 ins.; journals, 
others, 9% ins. x 12 ins. Engine Truck Wheels — 
Diameter, front, 30 ins.; journals, 5 ins. x 10 ins.; 
diameter, back, 36 ins.; journals, 7% ins. x 10 ins. 
Wheel Base — Driving, 14 ft. 3 ins.; rigid, 14 ft. 3 ins.; 
total engine, 32 ft. 4 ins. ; total engine and tender, 65 ft. 
7% ins. Weight — On driving wheels, 176,600 lbs.; on 
truck, front, 20,200 lbs.; on truck, back, 34,100 lbs.; to- 
tal engine, 230,900 lbs.; total engine and tender, 385,- 
000 lbs. Tender — Wheels, number, 8; wheels, diameter, 
33 ins.; journals, 5% ins. x 10 ins.; tank capacity, 8,000 
gals.; fuel, 13 tons; service, freight. 



February, 1916 

The Chemistry of the Chilled Iron Car Wheel 

First of a Series of Analyses of Conditions of Manufacture and 
Service Resulting in Failures Classified in Code of Interchange 

Not long ago at a meeting of the Richmond Railroad 
■Club, Mr. F. K. Vial, chief engineer of the Griffin Wheel 
Company, presented a paper on "The Chilled Iron 
Wheel," which is perhaps the most scientific, and most 
fully detailed presentation of the whole chilled iron 
car wheel question which has ever been brought to the 
attention of railroad men. In presenting a digest of 
this valuable contribution to the literature of the sub- 
ject, we have not reproduced the phraseology used in 
the paper, but have endeavored to give the significance 
of the researches and the results of the close study of 
the subject that Mr. Vial has brought out. We have, 
however, made, where possible, some observations and 
offered explanations which may assist our readers in 
the realization of the difficulties which have been sur- 
mounted in the task of exhaustively analyzing the 
chilled iron wheel. 

The paper opens with the statement that about eight 
million tons of iron are required to make the twenty- 
five million car wheels used in railway traffic. Iron in 
some form is the only suitable metal for the manufac- 
ture of car wheels, but the requirements which rail- 
road service presents are so various that was it not for 
the wonderful properties which lie domant in this metal, 
and brought out by scientific treatment, the use of 
chilled iron for this purpose would not only be danger- 
ous, but actually impossible. Pure iron is too soft and 
ductile and of so low a tensile strength as to be entirely 
unfit for modern railroad car wheel use. The combina- 
tion of iron and carbon, however, affords a means of 
.successfully meeting the various requirements of ser- 
vice in such a way as to make it practically an ideal 
substance to use in car wheels. 

Its tread is sufficiently hard to withstand the very 
heavy wear it is exposed to, while carrying concentrated 
loads at high speeds, yet it is the least destructive in its 
action on the rail. It enables a brake shoe to be used, 
having a high co-efficient of friction, which gives great 
retardation, and reduces brake shoe wear to a minimum. 
Added to all this, the hub of the wheel is required to 
firmly grip the axle when pressed on the wheel-seat, 
with the requisite tonnage. These requirements, which 
call for a hard tread, and a soft hub, might well dis- 
courage the manufacturer, if the secret by which it may 
all be accomplished, had not been revealed to him. A 
•careful chemical analysis of the composition of the iron 
and carbon makes plain the reason for the desirable 
action of the metal in forming the wheel. 

In the paper Mr. Vial exhibits a section of a chilled 
iron car wheel from hub to tread, and also speaks of a 
similar section of a steel wheel. The chemical analy- 
sis of each section of wheel shows the metal in both 
cases to be an alloy of iron and carbon, containing what 
are here regarded as impurities, viz: silicon, man- 
ganese, phosphorous and sulphur. Both are therefore 
in the same group, but the chilled iron wheel contains 
3.50 per cent of carbon and the steel 0.70 per cent. Put- 
ting this in ordinary figures, it appears, if one dollar 
be the total value of chilled iron, there would be 3.50 
cents worth of carbon; while in the steel the carbon 
would be represented by .07 cents. 

The distribution of the carbon varies in the chilled 
iron wheel so that by the use of a chill mould, tread 
and hub are made to differ. The metal when in the 
molten state holds the carbon in solution. The compar- 

atively sudden cooling of the mass, in the neighborhood 
of the chill, "sets" the chemically combined carbon and 
iron in the form of carbide of iron, Fe 3 C. This alloy is 
very hard, exceeding that of high carbon tool steel. In 
the zone forming the tread, the carbon is all combined 
with the iron, and is distinctly a pronounced, stable, 
alloy. The atomic weight of iron is 56 and that of car- 
bon is 12, so that the three atoms of iron required to 
take up one of carbon, makes the molecular weight of 
the compound 180, of which fourteen parts by weight 
are iron, and one is carbon. This compound is called 
cementite, and of this the tread of the wheel is formed. 
Cementite is white in color and is exceedingly hard. 


NO- 1 

TOOL STEEL ^*#¥'|*]2$ 



-No. 1—3.5% Combined 

No. 2— 2% Combined 

No. 3—1% Combined 


NO. 4— .70% COMBINED 

No. 5— .00% Combined 


Section of Chilled Iron Wheel 

The beauty of the process seen in the behavior of this 
alloy is revealed by the analysis of the metal taken at a 
point about % of an inch below the tread surface, No. 2. 
A sample at this point shows 2 per cent of combined 
carbon or cementite, mixed with 1.5 per cent of graph- 
ite. This is a form of carbon made up of flat, hexa- 
gonal crystals, and is practically the same material as 
the "lead" of our pencils. Here the total amount of 
carbon is the same as that at the tread where no graph- 
ite existed, but at % of an inch below the surface, at 
point No. 2 in our illustration, the carbon appears as ce- 
mentite and graphite, and uncombined or pure soft iron 
called ferrite. The presence of the cementite in lesser 
quantity, and in close and intimate relation to the un- 
combined iron or ferrite and the graphite, gives the 
wheel hardness, but in a less degree than at the chilled 
surface of the tread. 

The hardness of the tread exceeds that of high car- 
bon tool steel, while the composition of the metal at this 
point, that is, % of an inch below the tread surface, ap- 
proximates so closely to high carbon tool steel as to be 
practically equivalent. In this case if it was possible 

February, 1916 



to remove the graphite, so as to leave the cementite and 
the ferrite, as they stand together, constituting 98 V2 
per cent of the total metal, and submit this material to 
a metalographist, he would report that it is identical 
in composition with high carbon tool steel and that he 
■could not distinguish it from steels made by the ce- 
mentation or the crucible process. This zone is one of 
liigh carbon tool steel, through which is distributed 1.5 
per cent of graphite. A similar conception might be 
that of a fragrant smoking mixture, through which bran 
had been distributed, and compressed into a solid cake. 
The whole corresponding to the composition of this 
metal zone of the wheel. If it was possible now to re- 
move the bran from the cake, the close relation of the 
Virginia tobacco and the Latakia would restore the 
fragrant mixture, and would be like the high carbon 
tool steel containing the cementite and the ferrite. 

Another sample of metal taken from a point IV2 ins. 
"below the tread surface, No. 3, would consist of about 
the same quantity of iron as before, but with 1 per cent 
of combined carbon (cementite) and 2% per cent of 
graphite, and of course, some ferrite, would also be 
present. If the graphite could be removed as we have 
supposed in the previous case, our metalographist would 
"be compelled to affirm that the sample was in every way 
equal to the composition of the highest carbon steel rail, 
or was from a piece of steel made by any of the pro- 
cesses known in steel manufacture. 

Further down, a sample at point No. 4, would show 
little change in the character of the metal, the differ- 
ence being that there would be more graphite and less 
combined carbon (cementite). Here the combined car- 
"bon would be about 0.70 or 0.80 per cent, and if the 
graphite was removed and the remaining material an- 
alyzed by the expert as before, he would undoubtedly 
report it as equal to the steel commonly used in rolled 
steel wheels, ordinary rails, etc. 

The last sample, taken at point No. 5, and therefore 
drawn from the hub, would probably contain 96 x /2 per 
cent of iron and 3% per cent of graphite, there being 
in this region no combined carbon (cementite). If an- 
alyzed as the previous samples have been supposed to 
Tiave been analyzed, that is with the graphite removed, 
the expert would identify the sample as equal to dead 
soft steel, being without combined carbon. The mate- 
rial, as examined by the expert, minus the graphite, 
would be ferrite pure and simple. The composition of 
the hub is therefore such, that when bored out to the 
proper size and forced on the wheel-seat with the press- 
ure required, is found to grip the axle so firmly as to 
make a safe and permanent fit. 

Considering these tests of the samples taken from 
various portions of the wheel, it is evident that the com- 
position of the different zones is made up of from 96 1 /2 
to 100 per cent of the total metal in the wheel and that 
what remains varies from to 3V2 per cent of graphite. 
With the graphite taken out, a specimen of most ex- 
quisitely graded steel exists, shading up by impercepti- 
ble degrees, through all the various forms of wrought 
iron, structural and medium steels to high carbon tool 
steel. The graded hardness of this ideal specimen has 
no equal in the steel industry. It responds to the most 
•exacting and varied requirements, beginning, as it does, 
with the hardest known composition for wearing sur- 
face, backed by metal equal to the strongest grade of 
steel, and shading down to an easily machined and 
tightly holding metal, at the hub. 

From this it is easy to see that from the chemical, 
physical and metalurgical standpoints, the chilled cast 
iron car wheel far outranks anything so far produced, 
which is thoroughly homogeneous throughout. The 

graded hardness of the chilled iron railroad wheel is 
precisely what an experienced maker would choose, so 
far as science goes today, if he was to use a chart show- 
ing the physical properties of the iron-carbon group, 
or indeed, the properties of the entire range of known 
metals, and selected, with free choice, the properties 
best suited for each part of the railroad car wheel. The 
gradation of structure suited to function, is one of the 
most beautiful and most perfect that has been found by 
means of any experiments in the whole realm of metal- 
urgical research. 

Does Not Like the "No-Kicker" 

Editor Railway Master Mechanic. 

Sir: In the November number of your valuable mag- 
azine I find an article by Mr. William Shriver, on the 
"Dynamiter" and what it eliminates, The account 
reads as if the device was going to kick itself into a 
prominent place in the air brake world, but it does not 
go half far enough, I mean the "No-Kicker." It 
should eliminate leaky brake cylinders, long and short 
piston travel and all possibility of train line leaks. 
These trifles are neglected as a matter of course, if the 
"No-Kicker" can overcome these every-day conditions, 
it will automatically eliminate the necessity for its 
own use and the result of undesired quick action. 

Who ever heard of a train buckling, surging and 
giving all manner of shocks when the brake power was 
equal on each car? Did not Mr. Westinghouse invent 
the quick action tripple valve so as to set the brake on 
each car quickly enough to prevent the slack from run- 
ning in or out. Has not this tripple valve been im- 
proved by adding the quick service port? If the brake 
power is equal on each car, will it be possible to throw 
the flagman from one end of the caboose to the other? 

We have enough neglect in the up-keep of the brakes, 
as it is, without adding anything more. If anything is 
to be added to the brake equipment, some kind of an 
alarm or red danger signal will do. It should be so ar- 
ranged that it will flutter before the eyes of the air 
brake inspector or whoever is responsible for train 
line leaks or unequal piston travel or leaky brake cyl- 
inders. More people should read Mr. W. V. Turner's 
"Thunder" on air brakes. He puts the responsibility 
for shocks where it belongs. Until the time of Mr. 
Turner's investigations, the cause of all shocks was 
shifted to the engineer or to the "Dynamiter." I am 
not itching to get into print and will sign as a reader 
of your valuable magazine. 

Ft. Worth, Tex. 


The G. T. P. steamships operating in the North 
Pacific Coast waters have covered over eighty thousand 
miles during the season of 1915. This is considered 
one of the most remarkable records in the coastwise 
trade. Running between Prince Rupert and Seattle, the 
steamship "Prince Rupert," between June 8 and Novem- 
ber 4, steamed 40,717 miles, almost twice the distance 
round the world. Her sister ship the "Prince George" 
covered 40,840 miles. The average distance run per day 
by these vessels was 395.86 miles, and the average 
speed per hour 16.49 knots. In order to keep their 
schedules, these steamships often steam over 18 knots, 
reeling off better than 400 miles in a day. The service 
is being maintained between the transcontinental trains 
of the company at Prince Rupert and the cities of Vic- 
toria, Vancouver and Seattle throughout the winter. 



February, 1916 

The Line of Draft 

A Discussion of Draft Gear Capacity and Travel, 
with Reference to Slack and Shock in Trains 

Some very instructive remarks were made by Mr. H. 
C. Priebe at a recent meeting of the Car Foremen's 
Association of Chicago. In dealing with the buffing 
shocks he said, among other things, that the M. C. B. 
committee stated that the intensity of end force is as- 
sumed to be equivalent to 250,000 lbs. static, which may 
be concentrated on the center line of draft gear or dis- 
tributed between the draft gear and end sill. The 
point of contact between horn of coupler and striking 
plate is assumed to be 2 ins. above top of coupler shank. 
For a shank 5 ins. deep the distance from center line of 
draft gear to assumed point of contact of coupler horn 
is 4V2 ins. The proportion of end force acting on 
striking plate is assumed to be 250,000 lbs., less the re- 
sistance of the draft gear when the horn of coupler 
touches the striking plate. Hence, when the coupler 
shank is 5 ins. deep and horn of coupler is allowed to 
touch the striking plate before draft gear is solid, the 
end force of 250,000 lbs. is effective on a line located 
a certain distance above the center line of draft gear. 
This is the first time, to my knowledge, that any 
mechanical body has ever conceded that the center line 
of end force is above the center line of coupler. This 
is as it should be, as there is no draft gear that I know 
of that is of sufficient capacity to entirely absorb this 
end force. 

Go out and see what we find in every-day service. 
Take a level yard, where the switching is usually done 
by a switching crew of three men. Do you find any of 
them setting brakes to diminish impact with other cars? 
Do they switch cars at less than four miles per hour, or 
an ordinary walk? How long would a switchman re- 
main in service that could not "hit the ball"? Go to the 
hump yard, and, while conditions there are improved 
because they aim to keep sufficient men there to ride 
all cuts of cars that go over the hump, every once 
in a while a cut will get away and the result is dis- 
astrous. On the road a smash is entirely due to the 
slack in the train. 

The strongest argument against the spring gears is a 
supposed recoil, but recoil we must have or we have 
no draft gear. If the recoil were as great as some 
people think it is, disaster would follow. No one hesi- 
tates to place sufficient springs in the trucks of cars to 
properly carry the load. The movement of standard 
truck springs has a range amply sufficient to furnish 
the resilience required to properly carry the load on a 
good roadbed, and if we would furnish the same re- 
silience in the capacity of the draft gear, with approxi- 
mately the same travel, we could then come nearer to 
eliminating our road trouble, and by placing a reliable 
car inspector in classification yards to report all dam- 
age done to cars by rough handling, then and not until 
then may we hope to attain 100 per cent efficiency. 

What seems strange is that many people overlook the 
fact that in train service there are always two draft 
gears between two cars, and every time the travel of the 
draft gear is increased one inch the movement between 
two cars is increased four inches, at the same time 
doubling the slack, which is causing more trouble 
than all of the other causes combined. 

To illustrate this more forcibly, take a modern fric- 
tion draft gear, many of which have a travel of 3% ins. 
These are placed in a car with the horn of the coupler 
3% ins. from the striking casting. This allows the 
coupler to move in SV^ ins. and out 3V4 ins. from the 

normal position, allowing each coupler to move 6V2 
ins., and as there are two couplers between two cars, 
there is 13 ins. of actual movement, without considering 
clearance between knuckles, which will average another 
inch, making a total of 14 ins. between each two cars 
in a solid steel train. 

A train of 100 cars has 116 ft. 8 ins. of movement 
between cars, of which there is 62 ft. 6 ins. of slack 
and 54 ft. 2 ins. of resistance when new. After a year 
of service the gears have lost another inch of resist- 
ance from friction wearing surfaces and there is but 
37 ft. 2 ins. of resistance and 79 ft. 2 ins. of slack, and 
so on until we have nothing but slack. The result is 
the increasing cost of freight car repairs. The fact of 
the matter is we are trying to absorb momentum with 
the draft gear, that should be controlled by the brakes. 

My experience has been that whenever an engine 
failed to start a train with resilience enough to equal 
one revolution of the drivers, she was unable to take 
the train to destination. 

It is not a question today of having sufficient draw- 
bar travel to start freight trains, but it is a question of 
having an engineer who can start a train without break- 
ing it in two, due to excessive draw-bar travel. The 
resistance should be increased and the draw-bar travel 
should be reduced to produce results without depending 
on the engineer's judgment as to how much slack he 
can take with safety. 

Good results were obtained when the resistance 
in the end of the cars exceeded the carrying capacity of 
the cars. Today the trouble is that the capacity of the 
car exceeds the capacity of the draft gear. To prove 
this observe in a yard how about 90 per cent of the draft 
gears can be and are stretched out dead by a locomotive 
having a tractive effort of less than 70,000 lbs. 

As an example, take a train, about dusk, and at a 
speed of about 12 miles an hour. Suddenly a red light 
was seen a few car lengths ahead. The engine was 
abruptly stopped and there came a most severe shock. 
The red light disappeared and green came in view. It 
had all been caused by a man with a red and green 
lamp, hearing the train, turned to look and inadvert- 
ently displayed the red light. The shock damaged two 
cars so badly they had to be chained up to bring 
them in. 

Some people call this shock recoil of draft gear, but 
this is not the case. It was the slack in the train, for, 
as the head end of the train had stopped and the rear 
end was still running, the force of that moving rear 
end tonnage is what caused the shock. 

The steel center sills in a car brought to the notice 
of the arbitration committee had a cross sectional area 
of 17.9, or nearly 18 sq. ins., and otherwise were within 
the recommended ratio of stress. Had this been a 
wooden center sill car it would have broken the com- 
bination. The steel sills had a greater strength than 
two 5x9 ins. wooden sills, and when more than two 
wooden sills are broken it denotes unfair usage. But it 
is different with steel underframes, as ruled by the arbi- 
tration committee in this case. 

On the other hand, had the above steel center sill con- 
struction been built in combination with two 5x9 ins. 
wooden center sills, it would have had a strength equal 
to that required for all steel tank cars, or 30 sq. ins. 
The mere saying of 30 sq. ins. between bolsters does 
not cover it. It should be continuous for the full length 
of the underframe, and it should be based on the same 
fundamental principles used by the present recom- 
mended underframes for new cars other than tank cars. 

February, 1916 



Moving Picture Car to Promote Safety on the N. Y. C. Lines 

Car Designed to Show Employees the Dangers of Careless 
Practices in Shop and Other Work as Part of Safety Campaign 

The Interstate Commerce Commission's Report, No. 
56, for the months of April, May and June, 1915, has 
just been distributed. It contains a very close analysis 
of the collisions, derailments and other accidents re- 
sulting in injury to persons, equipment or roadbed aris- 
ing from the operation of railways used in interstate 
commerce. In this report the term "industrial acci- 
dents," covers accidents not connected with train oper- 
ation but occurring to railway employes, other than 
trainmen, on railway premises. This includes all those 

engines. It is 1,297 on duty, and 72 off duty. Coupling 
or uncoupling cars claimed a total of 425 injured. All 
these were on duty, and the operation referred to in the 
report does not include injuries with reference to air 
or steam hose. It is coupling accidents fair and square. 
Other accidents on or around trains was the cause of 
injury to 358 persons on duty, and to 36 persons not on 
duty. The bursting of, or defects in, locomotive boil- 
ers or boiler attachments caused the death of 2 persons 
and injury to 84. 

'Movie" Car for Display of Safety Educational Pictures on the New York Central Lines 

accidents which take place in railroad shops, round- 
houses, repair tracks and other similar places. 

The totals for this, the second quarter of the year 
just passed are 2,058 passengers, employes and others 
killed. At this rate the annual total would be 8,248, 
but in any case the number for this quarter, viz., 2,058 
killed would be over 22 a day for 90 days. The number 
of persons injured in this quarter was 38,336. These 
are heavy totals for three months, but when the analy- 
ses is pushed further, and where the totals of killed 
and injured among railroad employes, are set down, 
the mellancholy import of the result obtained is defi- 
nitely revealed. 

In the three months under review, a total of 355 em- 
ployes were killed, and this amounts to nearly one man 
a day. Of the killed all were on duty at the time of 
their death, except 26. The heaviest casualty group is 
that where 83 were killed by being struck or run over 
by engines or cars outside yard limits, 62 lost their 
lives from the same cause inside yards, and 54 met 
their doom by falling from engines or cars. Those not 
on duty who were killed from these causes were com- 
paratively light, being respectively 9, 8 and 3. 

When we come to employes injured, the total mounts 
up to 7,982, and of these 180 employes were not on 
duty when injured. The total divided by the number 
of days in the three months, viz. : 90 days gives an 
average of over 88 injured persons each day. In this 
case the greatest number of injuries occurred while 
doing work about trains. This totaled 3,720, all being 
on duty, and does not include this kind of work in shops, 
engine houses or switches. The next heaviest figure 
represents those injured in getting on or off cars or 

From the figures given in the report, sad as they un- 
doubtedly are, it is nevertheless justifiable to believe 
that accidents in shops and round-houses are, by com- 
parison, infrequent, though they do take place. It is 
therefore fair to conclude that safety appliances and 
safety methods are making some progress, and for this 
the mechanical department has a right to feel good 
cause for satisfaction, while they nerve themselves to 
greater activity in the interests of economy not only of 
dollars but in the higher value of human life and limb. 

Some of our larger railways have taken up this work 

( : 

■ W 

I ' ■rffil 

\ ■ 



>■..■. m 


Display of Picture Inside of "Movie" Car 

of safe operation seriously and in earnest. In our Au- 
gust, 1915, issue of "Railway Engineering and Main- 
tenance of Way," we had occasion to mention the ac- 
tivity of the New York Central lines in their work of 
reducing the trespass evil. The trespassers are not 
exclusively tramps and hoboes, the great majority are 



February, 1916 

employes of manufacturing concerns. These men walk 
on the track in preference to the highway. The N. Y. 
C campaign was one of education directed to facto- 
ries, schools and to the local magistrates who try cases 
of trespass. 

In another field of safety work the New York Cen- 
tral has pressed the moving picture film into its service. 

■ 'SB t . •* 

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* M El ■ i£ JnKi 

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Workmen Looses an Eye by Neglecting to Wear Goggles 
Provided by the Railway 

A picture entitled "The House That Jack Built" has 
been produced by this railway, and .the story was writ- 
ten and the scenes devised by Mr. Marcus A. Dow, the 
general safety agent of the road. He has taken great 
pains to employ competent and clever people in the 
production of this picture. Mr. C. E. Davenport merits 
commendation for the manner in which the scenes are 
staged. Twenty-five actors and actresses were em- 
ployed. Of the principals, the work of Mr. A. Thomas 
.as Jack, and Miss Iva Shepard as his wife, are excel- 

Injury to Foot Owing to Nails in Board Carelessly Left on 

Shop Floor 

lent, as is also that of Mr. George Henry, who portrayed 
the conductor and was a booster for "Safety First." 

The New York Central lines will show this film to 
the employes of the road and their families in a spe- 
cially fitted "Movie" car, which will travel over the sys- 
tem, stopping at all yards and shops for daily exhibi- 
tions. Employes will be required to take the time to 
"see the show," with the view of teaching them the 
lessons in safety so impressively brought forth in this 
interesting and instructive series of scenes. 

The title of the story is taken from the Mother Goose 
rhyme of that name, and in the unfolding of the scenes 
the lines of the old familiar verse are cleverly inter- 
twined with the scenes. Jack Foster, a brakeman, who 
is a fine type of man in character and appearance, and 
has saved his money, is building a new house. Husband 
and wife are delighted over the prospect of moving into 

their new place. Jack, although a fine fellow, is seen to 
have one fault, that of carelessness while engaged in 
his railroad work. He is taken to task by the conductor, 
who is his close friend. His wife overhears the con- 
ductor tell Jack that sorrow will eventually cross the 
threshold of his home if he does not give up taking 
chances. The wife, haunted by visions of his careless- 
ness, sees in her mind's eye a train collision due to her 
husband's neglect in failing to go back with his flag a 
sufficient distance to protect his train, which is stalled. 
One of the most realistic collisions ever seen in the 
"movies" is presented in a faithful reproduction of that 
awful form of accident. "Happiness was the malt that 
lay in the house that Jack built." Carelessness is 
shown to have been "the rat that was eating happiness, 
the malt, that lay in the house that Jack built." 

Thoughtless Workman Struck by Moving Car 

Among the scenes at a typical safety rally, one sees 
the result of carelessly leaving nails sticking up in a 
plank in a railroad repair shop passageway where 
a person might step on them; a shopman is seen to 
lose an eye because he refused to wear the safety 
goggles provided for his protection ; a carpenter loses 
a linger while working at a buzz saw with the guard 
removed from the saw; a brakeman is knocked off 
the roof of a box car when a coupling is made, while 
standing carelessly too near the end; a brakeman who 
went between moving cars fell and his arm was run 
over in plain view of the audience; an employe stand- 

Man Stunned, Helpless, Leg Cut Off by Wheel 

ing between the rails and attempting to get on the fo< 
board of an engine, falls under the engine and is kill; 

The psychological aspect of many of the acciden. 
which take place was shown by a man quarreling at 
breakfast with his wife. He goes to the shop haunted by 
the memory of angry gestures and harsh words. With 
his mind thus absorbed he becomes practically oblivious 
of his surroundings. As he walks across the tracks, his 
body is there, but his mind is far away, and he is not 

February, 1916 



Result of Carelessness — "Flagging from the Back of the Caboose" 

in full control of his faculties. He is struck down by a 
moving car and crippled for life. 

We have looked at the hard figures of the commission 
report, and we have seen an honest attempt to mitigate 
the suffering and death of employes by a great rail- 
way. The kindly and sympathietic spirit which has 
grown up around us is here intelligently directed to 
secure a lasting good. It may be that later on other 
pictures forcing the dread result of careless or irre- 
sponsible action will be brought out, so that he who 
runs may read. The good work now to be done may 
render this unnecessary, but if need be the safety cru- 
sade, in able hands, may startle the thoughtless by a 
forceful vision of the grim reaper and the army who 
fall beneath his ruthless scythe, or they may yet be 
shown the figure of Atropos, who with relentless shears 
cuts the thread of strong and vigorous life; and in a 
moment we see only a windswept hillside and its thickly 
clustered graves. 

— * 

The Baltimore & Ohio's Safety Campaign 

Showing How a Few Ideas 
Well Put Bring Good Results 

"Safety first" and "efficiency" are trite watchwords, 
"but, once adopted for excellent reasons, there is no like- 
lihood of their becoming out of date. They instill care- 
fulness and are good mottoes to follow at all times. 
The benefits thus far accomplished by frequent repeti- 
tion are indeed many, and will be lasting. 

The Baltimore & Ohio are going right on vigorously, 
and have set an example in this direction which is most 
•commendable. Under the supervision of W. S. Hoover, 
the B. & 0. superintendent of police at Cincinnati, the 
company is sending hand bills broadcast among schools 
and homes, headed "Nevers," which originated with E. 
L. Tinker, of Leslie's. In small towns, and in neigh- 
borhoods bordering a railroad, in large cities, the iron 
liorse and moving trains have furnished a novelty for 

children that never wears out. Called thither by the 
interest always to be obtained there, the average child 
will risk life and limb in its hunt for excitement and 
amusement. The railroad seems to be a never-failing 
source of pleasure and an attraction even to those of 
larger growth. 

The "Nevers" run as follows: 

Never cross the tracks by night or day without stop- 
ping to listen and look each way; never walk along the 
railroad ties — you can't always trust your ears and 
eyes; never hop a freight, for nothing quite heals the 
wound received under the grinding wheels; never, on a 
hot or sunny day, sit beneath a box car to rest or play. 

Never crawl under a car of freight, when the cross- 
ing's blocked — play safe and wait; never play games 
around the tracks at the station- — there are much safer 
places to seek recreation. 

Never leave on the rail any spikes or bars, because in 
this way you may wreck the cars; never a railroad 
bridge should you cross, a train may come and result in 
your loss ; never pick up coal 'round the railroad yard, 
a train may catch you off your guard. 

The present campaign is resulting in much good. The 
list of accidents and the death rate, too, have been sub- 
stantially curtailed. Mr. Hoover invites suggestions to 
aid him in his campaign not only from employes but the 
public as well. Fences have been put up, in places, to 
prevent trespassing. Crossings are being more care- 
fully protected, and all kinds of efforts are being made 
to prevent accidents everywhere on the line. 

There is no virtue in pain, suffering, sacrifice or un- 
happiness for its own sake. This illusion of asceticism 
is vanishing from the human mind. Sacrifice on the 
part of the individual is valuable and valid only when it 
results in higher present or future happiness for the 
individual or some one else. There is no virtue in pain, 
physical or mental, except as a step to a greater good for 
ourselves or others. — W. W. Atkinson. 



February, 1916. 

Proceedings of the Traveling Engineers' Ass'n 

Resume of the Important Subject 
Considered in the 1915 Proceedings 

The report of the annual proceedings for the year 
1915 of the Traveling Engineers' Association, has just 
come from the press. This organization has been 
steadily growing in importance since its inception in 
1893. The total membership on August 1, 1915, was 
1,063, and at that date the treasurer reported a bal- 
ance in the bank with all debts paid. The growth and 
influence of this association has been remarkable. It 
started with only a few members, gathered together 
in Dr. Sinclair's office, and to-day its members come 
from the Atlantic and Pacific coasts, the Gulf of Mex- 
ico and from the railways of Canada. The president 
in 1914-1915 was Mr. J. C. Petty of the Nashville, 
Chattanooga & St. Louis. The secretary is Mr. W. O. 
Thompson, whose address is New York Central car 
shops, East Buffalo, N. Y. Mr. Thompson also holds 
office this year. 

Passing over the opening exercises, we come to the 
paper "The Effect of Properly Designed Valve Gear 
on Locomotive Fuel Economy and Operation." The 
paper was presented by Mr. W. E. Preston of the 
Southern Railway. It occupies thirty-seven pages and 
is a most thorough explanation and scientific present- 
ment of the whole subject, taking up as it does, not 
only the various valve gears in use, but dealing with 
tractive force, horsepower, the amount of coal used on 
an engine and the general principles of computing, 
and the calculations applied. 

The paper on "Difficulties Accompanying Prevention 
of Dense Black Smoke and Its Relation to Cost of Fuel 
and Locomotive Repairs," was read by Mr. C. C. Shaw 
of the International & Great Northern. The paper 
was not a long one, and included mention of coal 
burning engines and locomotives where oil was used. 
One of the points brought out in the discussion was 
that where the officers of the road were dead against 
black smoke it had a very good effect on the men all 
the way down and did a good deal to stop the produc- 
tion of heavy, dense black smoke. 

A paper read by Mr. L. R. Pyle of the Soo Line, 
on "Recommended Practice for the Employment and 
Training of New Men for Firemen." The new man, 
he believed, should be well grounded in the reason 
for doing the work as he will be asked to do it. A 
representative of the company should have a chance 
to start him right and not leave him to the mercy of 
some engine crew to get his ideas. A plan of instruc- 
tion was outlined which any road interested in the 
subject could easily try. Moving pictures, it was sug- 
gested, might be used as a means of instruction. 

A paper on "Scientific Train Loading and Tonnage 
Rating" was read by Mr. A. G. Kinyon of the Seaboard 
Air Line. The paper dealt with the best method by 
which to obtain maximum tonnage haul for an engine 
over an entire division, taking into consideration the 
grades at different points on the division. In this 
paper draw bar pull of locomotives was taken up, 
speed factors for saturated and superheated engines 
were given, internal and external train resistance and 
the determination of train weights were gone into 
very thoroughly. The car factor method of tonnage 
adjustment, weather ratings, with examples and in- 
structions, also the kind and capacity of cars were 
carefully set forth. 

Mr. J. E. Ingling of the Erie Railroad presented 
the paper on the "Advantages of Superheaters, Brick 

Arches and Other Modern Appliances on Large Lo- 
comotives, Especially Those of the Mallet Type." 
Among the modern appliances were mentioned the su- 
perheater, the pyrometer, the drifting valve, the brick 
arch, the mechanical stoker, the grates, the coal passer 
on tender, the automatic fire door, power reverse gear 
and the flange oiler. Speaking of drifting valves, the 
committee believed that some means should be pro- 
vided to admit a sufficient amount of steam to cylin- 
ders and valve chambers on suprheater engines and 
on those having large cylinders. While there have 
been several types of drifting valves tried, the commit- 
tee says in the report "there has not been one developed 
which will meet the requirements mentioned, that is a 
drifting valve which will open automatically when the 
throttle is closed and engine drifting, and automatic- 
ally close when the engine stops, regardless of the po- 
sition of the reverse lever. Unless a drifting valve 
will close automatically when the locomotive stops, it 
is not a safe device." Taking up the subject of brick 
arches the report stated that "we apply arches now 
to get more power, without increasing fuel consump- 
tion, where formerly we used them to reduce the fuel 
consumption, for the same power output." 

A paper followed, "How Can Road Foremen of Engines 
Improve the Handling of the Air Brakes on Our Mod- 
ern Trains?" This paper was read by Mr. C. M. Kidd 
of the Norfolk & Western. It clearly pointed out the 
need of instruction constantly given by the road fore- 
man of engines to the enginemen, in the course of his 
travels. He himself should have a thorough knowl- 
edge of the subject so that he could handle and ex- 
plain brake action under all circumstances. 

The officers for 1915-1916, elected at this convention 
were Messrs. J. R. Scott, president; B. J. Feeny, first 
vice-president; H. F. Hanson, second vice-president; 
W. L. Robinson, third vice-president; G. A. Kell, fourth 
vice-president; A. G. Kinyon, fifth vice-president; Da- 
vid Meadows, treasurer, and W. 0. Thompson, secre- 
tary. The topics for the 1916 convention to be held 
at Chicago next September is as follows : (1) What 
effect does the mechanical placing of fuel in fire-boxes 
and lubricating of locomotives have on the cost of op- 
eration? (2) The advantages of the use of super- 
heaters, brick arches and other modern appliances on 
large engines, especially those of the Mallet type. (3) 
Difficulties accompanying the prevention of dense black 
smoke and its relation to cost of fuel and locomotive 
repairs. (4) Recommended practice and make-up and 
handling of modern freight trains on both level and 
steep grades to avoid damage to draft rigging and lad- 
ing. (5) Assignment of power from the standpoint of 
efficient service and economy in fuel and maintenance. 

Some interesting figures were placed before the as- 
sociation by Mr. F. W. Brazier of the New York Central 
Lines. The locomotives in the United States number 
63,378; passenger cars, 62,674; freight and company 
service equipment, 2,474,013; employes, in the United 
States, 1,800,000. The standard passenger engine of 
twenty years ago cost about $13,000 and weighed 116 
tons. To-day the Pacific type, 4-6-2, costs about $25,- 
000 and weighs 215 tons. Passenger cars were wooden, 
vehicles; to-day they are steel. 

To correct deficiencies, remedy defective faculties; 
overcome peculiarities, and bring the mind into sym- 
metry and poise, so that it will express its maximum of 
power, will form a large part of the education of the 
future. — O. S. Marden. 

February, 1916 



Analysis of Effects of Impure Boiler Feed Water 


Extracts of Paper Presented to the Railway Club of Pittsburgh, in 
Which the Reasons for Scale Formation and Corrosion are Discussed 

It is believed that water as it leaves the clouds is in a 
practically pure condition, and that the first opportunities 
for its contamination arise immediately following the be- 
ginning of its descent to the surface of the earth. In 
falling through the atmosphere, either as rain or other- 
wise, it takes up certain substances. Naturally these 
substances taken up are dependent upon the substances 
■contained in the atmosphere through which it falls, which 
in turn are to a large extent due to the industrial con- 
ditions existing upon the surface of the earth. But there 
is one substance always present in the air, and that is 
-carbon dioxide (CO.,) or carbonic acid gas. Men inter- 
ested in the production of power from the combustion of 
coal realize that C0 2 is the constituent of flue gases or 
stack gases upon which can be based an opinion of the 
accuracy or the perfection of the combustion going on 
in furnaces. In a district where bituminous coal is the 
-chief fuel, and where this fuel is largely impregnated 
"with sulphur, which is the case generally with the middle 
states bituminous coal, the sulphur, in the process of 
combustion is also converted into another gas. This sul- 
phur gas naturally impregnates the atmosphere and is 
dissolved by water falling through the air, and eventually 
converted into sulphuric acid which is of such a character 
that when in even a weak solution in water it will dis- 
solve metallic iron very rapidly. There is also present 
in the atmosphere, at all times, another class of sub- 
stances commonly known as the ammonia class, but not 
present in sufficient quantity to give the characteristic 
odor. The atmosphere carries some of this in practically 
all neighborhoods at all times, consequently more or less 
of this class of substances becomes a part of the impuri- 
ties contained in natural waters. 

Assuming now that the water has passed down through 
the atmosphere and has reached the immediate surface of 
the earth, it has taken up some carbon dioxide (C0 2 ), 
some ammonia, undoubtedly some sulphur gases, and 
probably some oxygen (since the air is made up, to the 
extent of twenty per cent of this gas) — all of these 
gases being in solution in the water itself. 

What happens at the immediate surface of the earth? 
That depends upon the litter or refuse which covers the 
surface of the earth upon which the water falls. If the 
surface is strewn with decaying or rotting vegetable mat- 
ter, such as timber, leaves, twigs, etc., it takes up more 
carbon dioxide (C0 2 ) because the process of rotting of 
• timber, for instance, is nothing more nor less than a 
slow process of combustion, identical in character in every 
chemical respect with that which is going on underneath 
boilers. If the water falls upon a surface strewn with 
animal matter such as the stockyards district in Chicago, 
it takes up more ammonia at this point. Then, again, 
animal fats like tallow and lard are made up in part of 
fatty acids, and these fatty acids are rather soluble in 
water, and are readily taken up in moderate quantities 
by water coming in contact with them, and are extremely 
destructive to metallic surfaces. These are only a few 
of the substances that are commonly taken up just at 
the surface of the earth. 

If this water is followed down through the channels 
of the earth another class of substances is taken up. 
'The bulk of the substances taken up previous to this were 
.gaseous in form. Some solid matter is, however, usually 

taken up at the surface of the earth, but it usually con- 
sists of organic substances, which will not be discussed 
in detail at this time. 

Water is the greatest solvent known; that is, water 
will dissolve some of more substances and more of some 
substances than any other liquid known. There is prac- 
tically nothing that is absolutely insoluble in water. 
This can not be said of any other substance that might 
be considered as a solvent. The solvent action of water 
is further influenced by the substances which it has taken 
up through its travels down through the strata of atmos- 
phere, at the immediate surface of the earth, and while 
traveling down through the earth. For example, con- 
sider carbonate of lime (ordinary lime stone). If dis- 
tilled water were passed down through a layer of lime- 
stone, it would not take up or dissolve a qauntity ex- 
ceeding 3% grains per gallon. But upon analysis of 
water samples from time to time quantities as high as 
53 x /2 grains are found. This means that 50 grains of 
the carbonate of lime in solution in this gallon of water 
is there simply because of the presence of carbon 
dioxide (CO.,) which had been previously taken up 
from the atmosphere or from the immediate surface of 
the earth, due to the decay of vegetable matter or 
otherwise, since 50 grains of carbonate of lime in 
such a water is held in solution by the carbon dioxide 
gas present. And this particular gas being very read- 
ily eliminated from water with a rise in temperature, 
the carbonate of lime must go out of solution when 
the water is heated. Water even at 140 deg. Fahr. will 
give up a considerable portion of this carbon dioxide 
(CO,), and if maintained at 212 deg. Fahr. for a suffi- 
cient length of time will give up all its free and loosely 
combined carbonic acid gas, which would result in 
throwing out of solution these 50 grains of carbonate 
of lime, leaving in solution the 3% grains only. 

Following the travel of the water through the under- 
lying strata of the earth, it takes up many other and 
different substances, mostly solid and mineral in char- 
acter. If the water in traveling down through the 
earth comes in contact first with a deposit of carbon- 
ate of lime commonly known as limestone, it will take 
up or dissolve a quantity of carbonate of lime above 
3% grains per gallon depending upon the amount of 
carbon dioxide it has previously accumulated in pass- 
ing through the air and over the immediate surface 
of the earth, and the length of time the water remains 
in contact with the limestone. If in traveling through 
the earth it comes in contact with a deposit of sulphate 
of lime, or what we know in its natural state as gyp- 
sum, we would naturally expect that the sulphate of lime 
or gypsum would be the predominating substance in the 
water. That is true in a sense. It is not necessarily 
true, however, because of this fact; if the water had 
previously come in contact with a deposit of carbonate 
of soda (soda ash) it would not dissolve or take into 
solution any appreciable amount of sulphate of lime. 
On the other hand, if it had come in contact with a 
deposit of salt (chloride of soda) before passing 
through the deposit of surphate of lime (gypsum), it 
would take up a very much larger amount of sulphate 
of lime than otherwise would be the case. The amount 
of the different solid substances a water will dissolve 



February, 1916 

is to a considerable extent influenced by the kinds and 
quantities of other substances previously taken up and 
present in the water. 

This chart shows all the substances which are found 
in practically all water, those containing other sub- 
stances being by far the exception: 

Chart No. 1. 


Carbonate of Iron 


\ Carbonate of Lime 
/Sulphate of Lime 
j Carbonate of Magnesia 
'Sulphate of Magnesia 

In presence with excess 
>of Carbonate of Lime 
/Sulphate of Soda 

Incrusting or 

Scale forming solids 

-^ /Non-Incrusting or 

Corrosive or Foaming ^Chloride of Soda (Salt) 




Carbonate of Soda 
/Chloride of Lime 
^Chloride of Magnesia 

Silica is nothing more nor less than ordinary, white 
sea sand, so to speak. Over 99 per cent of white sand 
is silica. Passing down to carbonate of lime, school 
crayon is the most common or ordinary form of this 
substance. Another common form of this substance is 
ordinary whiting. 

Sulphate of lime is well known as plaster of paris. In 
its native condition it is known as gypsum. Sulphate of 
magnesia is an interesting salt from more view points 
than one. It is commonly known as Epsom salts. 

In the second group, sulphate of soda, chloride of 
soda, carbonate of soda, chloride of lime, etc., is found 
chloride of soda (common table salt). Common salt is 
absolutely essential in the scheme of human economy. 
To chemists it is one of the very best examples of 
what can be done in the way of changing the chemical 
and physical properties of substances by chemical re- 
action. Chloride of soda or common salt is made up 
of two substances, one of them metallic sodium, which 
is vicious from every angle, and chlorine, which is even 
more obnoxious. Metallic sodium is so active that it 
decomposes water and ignites the hydrogen that is 
liberated, and gives off a report similar to an explosion. 
Placed on the skin it would in a very few seconds bore 
down through the skin and finally go clear to the bone. 
It is extremely poisonous when taken internally; in fact, 
it is so objectionable that the chemist himself uses ex- 
treme caution in handling it. The other substance, 
chlorine, is a gas and is more obnoxious, more ob- 
jectionable and more poisonous than metallic sodium. 
These two poisonous substances will unite chemically 
in certian proportions, and produce a substance that is 
not only harmless, but absolutely essential to the wel- 
fare of the human family. Such possibilities are true 
in connection with the salts common to boiler feed 

The next substance, sulphate of soda, is simply a 
combination of metallic sodium and sulphuric acid. 

The substances on the chart are divided into two 
classes; incrusting or scale-forming solids, and non- 
incrusting or corrosive and foaming solids. All those 
substances shown under the first classification can and 
do enter into scale formation, these substances being 
the silica, carbonates of lime and magnesia, sulphate 
of lime, and sulphate of magnesia in the presence of an 
excess of carbonate of lime. Those coming under the 
second classification, due to their extreme solubility, 
cannot and do not enter into scale formation ; namely, 

sulphate of soda (Glaubers salts), chloride of soda 
(common salt), and carbonate of soda (soda ash). On. 
the other hand, however, when present in water in 
relatively large quantities, they do give rise to foaming,, 
corrosion, and many other types of troubles. The 
chloride of lime is rather inactive, and the chloride 
of magnesia will be considered later. 

The most rational way of explaining the causes of 
some of the more common ill effects of boiler feed wa- 
ters would be to consider the analyses of waters from, 
several different localities, representing different types, 
which have been used in practice a sufficient length of 
time to show the effects of those waters when nothing 
whatever was used to counteract or change their ill 
effects, and to mention the theories that have been, 
advanced to account for them, and the investigations, 
that have been made to confirm or refute them. 

Analysis No. 1. 

Silica 502 Grains Per Gallon 

Oxides of iron and alumina 093 " " ;< 

Carbonate of lime (chalk) 234 

Sulphate of lime (gypsum) .... None " " 

Carbonate of magnesia 407 " " " 

Chloride of soda (common salt). 3.600 
Sulphate of soda (Glauber's 

salts) 8.214 

Carbonate of soda (soda ash) . .22.789 

Undetermined matter 180 " " 

Total 36.019 

The substances named on the charts are so arranged 
that those shown below the horizontal line never enter 
into scale formation, and those above do enter into 
scale formation, when present in sufficient quantity or 
relatively large proportions. Those below give rise to 
troubles of their own kind, more particularly foaming,, 
corrosion, etc. The selected waters are rather heavily 
impregnated with substances, for the reason that it is 
easier to interpret quantities in whole numbers than in 

This water will foam, as experience has shown. Why 
does it foam? The larger portion of the non-scale- 
forming solids consists of carbonate of soda (soda ash). 
Carbonate of soda is nothing more nor less than soda 
ash. Statements are made to the effect that a water de- 
void of suspended matter will not foam. This water 
does foam, and as far as the suspended matter is con- 
cerned it contains none. Neither does it contain a 
sufficient amount of any substance that, when submitted 
to the conditions extant in the interior of a steam, 
boiler, would give rise to any appreciable amount of 
suspended matter during an ordinary run between wash 
outs. There is a total of 73 grains of the soda salts. 
They are soluble to the extent of several hundred grains 
per gallon, consequently they soon reach a point where- 
they induce foaming, due to the fact that they change 
or increase the surface tension of the water in the 
boiler itself. A little matter of 22.78 grains of car- 
bonate of soda does not appear to be much. But con- 
sider a stationary boiler developing 500 horsepower con- 
tinuously for 24 hours a day; it would evaporate about 
45.000 gallons of water. The 22.78 grains per gallon is 
equivalent to 3.25 pounds per thousand gallons, there- 
fore we would have 146 1 / 4 pounds of carbonate of soda 
in the boiler at the end of 24 hours. Imagine the boiler 
operating fourteen days or two weeks ; and there would 
be 2,047 x /2 pounds in a boiler containing about 3,500 
gallons of water. The result is a very concentrated so- 

February, 1916 



lution remaining in the boiler, which would foam with- 
out question, and it did so from the second day follow- 
ing washout, at which time there was in the boiler not 
to exceed 130 pounds of the carbonate of soda. 

Then another very deleterious condition arose here, 
namely, the distintegration and softening of gaskets, 
which in turn resulted in a leaky condition. Any chem- 
ist knows that the gaskets upon the market today are 
largely made up either of asbestos or asbestos compo- 
sition, or rubber or rubber composition. Asbestos is a 
mineral product; chemists know that it is soluble to a 
considerable extent in a strong alkaline solution, that 
is, a solution of some of the soda salts. Asbestos as it 
exists in gaskets is in a very fine, fibrous condition, con- 
sequently when this strong alkaline solution comes in 
contact with it, the alkali naturally dissolves these 
fibres and causes a breaking down or change in the 
properties of the gasket itself, resulting in trouble. 

As for the gaskets of the rubber type, any ordinary 
rubber placed in a strong boiling solution of carbonate 
of soda, or caustic soda, and allowed to remain there 
for 48 hours, will change very materially in character. 
It loses its elasticity, it swells to several times its origi- 
nal size in diameter, and it becomes of the appearance 
of cold glue or gelatin. 

Analysis No. 2. 

Silica 1,576 Grains Per Gallon 

Oxides of iron and alumina 280 " " " 

Carbonate of lime (chalk) Trace " " " 

Sulphate of lime (gypsum) .. .44.989 

Carbonate of magnesia 11.339 " " " 

Sulphate of soda 2.404 

Chloride of soda (common salt) 4.590 
Undetermined matter 096 

Total 65.274 

About 58 grains out of 65 are made up of scale form- 
ing salts, and about 45 out of the 58 are sulphate of 
lime. Naturally this water would be expected to give 
rise to the formation of a large amount of scale, and it 
did. The scale was made up of sulphate of lime to a 
very large extent. The peculiar trouble in this case 
was serious corrosion underneath the scale. It is not 
uncommon for some to assume that if the surface of 
a boiler is covered over with scale, corrosion would 
be practically impossible. In statonary practice it is a 
common expression that 1-32 in. of scale over the in- 
terior of a boiler is to be preferred to taking chances 
with corrosion. This position must of necessity be 
considered erroneous. Upon a thorough investigation 
it was found that corrosion actually did take place and 
to a very serious extent, and this condition gave rise 
to greater anxiety than the scale formation itself. 

In arriving at some rational explanation as to what 
actuallly did take place, a careful analysis of a por- 
tion of the scale lying next to the metal, which was 
apparently originally a part of the surface of the 
metal, shows that there was an action going on which 
compared identically with the action of sulphuric acid 
upon iron. Sulphate of iron was found on analysis of 
the substance taken off of both the surface of the tube 
and the side of the scale which was originally in con- 
tact with the tube. The water itself was not acid, 
contained no free sulphuric acid, and consequently the 
corrosion must be the result of a liberated product. The 
theory advanced was that the sulphate of lime consti- 
tuting the greater part of the scale lying in direct 
contact with the metal reached a temperature, when 
the scale had become of sufficient thickness, which 

caused a decomposition of the sulphate of lime, liber- 
ating sulphuric acid. This sulphuric acid in turn at- 
tacked the metallic iron, giving rise to corrosion. The 
sulphate of iron formed as a result of the corrosion, 
being an extremely unstable salt, that is, one that does 
not stay together very readily, breaks down in the pres- 
ence of temperature and moisture, and again liberates 
sulphuric acid, leaving behind the iron in the form of 
iron oxide. The sulphuric acid again acts upon the 
metallic iron, producing more sulphate of iron, which 
is in turn converted into oxide of iron. 

It may be asked why the sulphuric acid leaves the 
oxide of iron to go to the metallic iron. In chemistry 
it is more true that every individual substance has an 
affinity, than it is in the human family. Metallic iron 
has a greater affinity for sulphuric acid than does oxide 
of iron, consequently a new portion of sulphate of 
of iron is formed. This is what chemists call a cyclic 
or continuous action. The acid liberated from the 
scale, acting on the metallic iron, decomposing, acting 
again and again on the iron, and resulting in corro- 

How was this theory proved to be correct? To bring 
about decomposition it was necessary to have temper- 
ature, because sulphate of lime does not decompose 
below a certain temperature. With the use of mechan- 
ical devices the scale formation in this boiler in which 
the experiment was carried on was turbined down to 
one-half its original thickness, and it was found that 
as long as the scale was kept down to one-half the 
thickness which it ordinarily formed in a given length 
of time, no corrosion underneath the scale formation 
took place. The evidence showed that the cause of the 
trouble was first a liberation of sulphuric acid, in turn 
due to the high temperature at the point of contact of 
the scale with the surface of the metal, which prima- 
rily was due to the thickness of the scale. Therefore 
with the prevention of scale formation to a great ex- 
tent, the temperature at the point of contact was re- 
duced below the point necessary for the decomposi- 
tion of the sulphate of lime, the liberation of sulphuric 
acid, and consequently the corrosion in this case was 
obviated. The correctness of the foregoing conclusions 
were confirmed in practice. 

Analysis No. 3 

Silica 595 Grains Per Gallon 

Oxides of iron and alumina.. 1.116 

Carbonate of lime (chalk) 8.783 

Carbonate of magnesia 4.569 

Sulphate of soda 1,836 

Chloride of soda (common salt) 3.040 
Undetermined matter 088 

Total 19.027 

This water illustrates the correctness of the state- 
ment that foaming can be due to suspended matter. 
Foaming is not always attributable to suspended mat- 
ter, as there are numerous cases to show that feed 
waters containing other substances, do foam without 
question. This water contains 19 grains of solid mat- 
ter, of which all but about 5 grains would be classed 
as scale forming substances. As a matter of fact this 
water does not under many conditions give rise to more 
than a small amount of scale formation. The carbo- 
nates of lime and magnesia when precipitated from a 
water of this type go out of solution in a very finelj* 
divided, oozy, or what might be termed a gelatinous 
condition, in which form they are not to a very great 
extent retained in a heater, but pass therefrom to the 



February, 1916 

boiler in the form of suspended matter, where, due to 
their light gravity, they travel very readily with the cir- 
culating water. The small particles of these incrusting 
substances soon begin to generate steam from their 
own surfaces, which results in the body of water in the 
boiler assuming the condition of a seething mass, which 
finally results in a foaming condition. In other waters 
containing these same substances in virtually the same 
quantities, and also containing even a moderate amount 
of sulphate of lime, foaming is not usually experienced, 
owing, no doubt, to the fact that the sulphate of lime 
when thrown out of solution is much heavier than the 
carbonate of lime, and readily settles upon the interior 
surfaces of the boiler, and in so doing carries with it 
mechanically a considerable part of the precipitated 
carbonates, the mixture readily attaching itself to the 
surface of the boiler in the form of incrustation. 

An experiment was carried on for the purpose of de- 
termining whether or not the foaming experienced in 
this case was correctly attributable to the precipitated 
carbonates, as follows: the feed water was treated in 
such a manner as to remove about one-half of the car- 
bonates of lime and magnesia shown by analysis No. 3, 
and then pumped into the boiler, and it was found that 
it was possible to operate the boilers over a period of 
sixty days, with no trouble in the form of foaming. 
Further experiment developed the fact that the same 
results could be obtained by changing the carbonates 
into other substances by chemical reactions, and at a 
much lower cost. 

There is another condition that arises from the use 
of waters of this kind. Since the carbonate of lime is 
thrown out of solution in a very finely-divided and light 
condition, and gives rise to trouble in the form of foam- 
ing and priming, we may correctly assume that the 
steam space in these boilers is full of these floating 
particles, in which condition they would naturally 
carry over with the steam. It is commonplace in dis- 
tricts where waters of this kind are used to have com- 
plaints to the effect that it becomes necessary to open 
up the cylinders of the engines every so often, in order 
to remove more or less of a black, putty-like substance. 
Analysis of many samples has shown that this so-called 
putty-like substance was nothing but a mixture of 
cylinder oil and carbonates of lime and magnesia, prin- 
cipally the former. The oil itself carries none of these 
substances, consequently there is no other possible way 
of its coming into the cylinders except that it be car- 
ried over mechanically with the steam. Even though 
there is no foaming or priming, the finely divided car- 
bonates of lime and magnesia carry over and are con- 
stantly rubbed together with the cylinder or valve oil, 
and produce this putty. This trouble has been over- 
come by changing the nature of the precipitated sub- 
stances by chemical reaction. 

Analysis No. 4 

Silica 28.382 Grains Per Gallon 

Oxides of iron and alumina. . . . 3.760 

Carbonate of lime (chalk) 398 

Sulphate of lime (gypsum) .... 1.879 
Carbonate of magnesia 372 

Sulphate of soda Trace 

Chloride of soda (common salt) .850 
Undetermined matter 216 

closes only one of this kind. Silica is ordinary sea sand. 
The total amount of solids in this water in solution is 
35.8, of which 28 grains is silica. It is hard to realize 
that 28 grains per gallon, or four pounds per thousand 
gallons, of ordinary sea sand would go into solution. 
But in this case it is in solution. The part that silica 
plays in the enamels on bath tubs indicates the tenacity 
with which it adheres to metallic surfaces. In the case 
of the bath tub it is put on under high temperature, 
but silica for that purpose is an entirely different form. 
This silica is a gelatinous form, the fusing point of 
which is very much below that of the silica in the form 
used in enamels, and as a matter of fact the boiler in 
which this was used was coated with an enamel just 
like the enamel on the bath tub, except that it was 
brown in color, due to the iron oxide it contained. 

This analysis suggests another point that it is well 
to mention here. A chemist meeting people and dis- 
cussing the analysis of water every day, frequently 
hears the question asked, "Why not filter it?" even 
though the water in question was perfectly clear and 
therefore contained no suspended matter. You will 
notice that while this water carries but 35.8 grains of 
matter in solution, it carries 113 grains in suspension. 
All of the 113 grains were removed by filtration before 
proceeding with the analysis or determination of the 
kinds and quantities of substances contained in solu- 
tion. This confirms the statement that the 28 grains 
of silica was actually in solution. It is impossible to 
remove from a water by any method of filtration, any- 
thing that is contained in solution, except that you 
treat the water with chemicals beforehand and con- 
vert some or all of these substances into an insoluble 
form, in which form they go out of solution and then 
constitute suspended matter. It is impossible to re- 
move from water by filtration without chemical treat- 
ment anything that you cannot see with the naked eye, 
barring bacteria which may be removed by some of the 
so-called bacterial filters, but they are not supposed 
to be considered in connection with waters for techni- 
cal purposes. 

Analysis No. 5 

Silica 525 Grains Per Gallon 

Oxides of iron and alumina. . .093 

Carbonate of lime (chalk) 222 

Sulphate of lime (gypsum) .... 5.273 
Carbonate of magnesia 5.388 

Chloride of magnesia 5.151 

Sulphate of soda Trace 

Chloride of soda (common salt) 8.790 
Undetermined matter 065 

Total soluble mineral solids. .25.507 

Analysis No. 6 

Silica 1.168 Grains Per Gallon 

Oxides of iron and alumina... .105 

Carbonate of lime (chalk) 5.559 

Sulphate of lime (gypsum) . . . 3.786 

Carbonate of magnesia 3.021 " " 

Chloride of magnesia 2.731 

Sulphate of soda Trace 

Chloride of soda (common salt) 5.723 
Undetermined matter 145 

Total soluble mineral solids.. 35. 857 
Suspended matter 113.413 

This analysis is a curiosity. A record of over 150,- 
000 analyses covering that many different waters dis- 

Total soluble mineral solids.. 22.238 

These two analyses (Nos. 5 and 6) are of interest for 
the reason that they confirm the contention that the 

February, 1916 



ill effects of a water are not exclusively attributable to 
the quantities or kinds of substances contained, but 
usually more particularly to the relative amounts of 
these substances contained. The water as per analysis 
No. 5 naturally gave rise to scale formation in consid- 
erable quantities, but the most objectionable feature 
was that of corrosion. This water was and is now being 
used in locomotive service, and it is a well-known fact 
that the flue sheets corrode so rapidly that it is seldom 
possible to operate a machine more than six months 
without replacing them. The most serious corrosion in 
this case took place principally above the water line. 
Why? The water carries a trifle over 5 grains of 
chloride of magnesia and virtually one-fourth grain of 
carbonate of lime. Chloride of magnesia under a tem- 
perature of even 250 deg. Fahr. decomposes and liberates 
hydrochloric or muriatic acid. Muriatic acid is volatile 
and carried with the steam when in even very dilute so- 
lution readily attacks iron. All these facts strongly 
confirm the conclusion that the corrision which took 
place could correctly be traced back to the chloride of 
magnesia in the feed water. 

It was found upon further careful investigation that 
steam and moisture taken out of the boiler at a point 
well above the water line had a decided acid reaction, 
and that acid was positively proved to be muriatic, and 
consequently a product of the decomposition of chloride 
of magnesia, which constitutes further evidence of the 
correctness of this theory. 

Referring to analysis No. 6, another water that car- 
ries chloride of magnesia, but gave rise to no corrosion, 
it is a well-known fact that when carbonate of lime is 
present in water to a sufficient extent, with the chloride 
of magnesia, it will combine with the muriatic acid 
liberated, and neutralize it, producing chloride of lime, 
and in this way prevent the corrosion by the muriatic 
acid, which would otherwise take place. 

The water as per analysis No. 5, contained a little 
over five grains of chloride of magnesia and only ap- 
proximately one-fourth grain of carbonate of lime, 
while in the case of the water as per analysis No. 6, 
there were five grains of carbonate of lime and but two 
and three-fourths grains of chloride of magnesia. In the 
former case the ill effects of the acid were not offset by 
another substance contained in the water, while in the 
latter they were. The action of water in a steam 
boiler is not always dependent upon the total amount 
of substances contained, nor the kind contained, but 
frequently upon the relative amounts of the different 
substances present. 

Analysis No. 7 

Silica 310 Grains Per Gallon 

Oxides of iron and alumina 081 " " " 

Carbonate of lime (chalk) .... None " " 

Sulphate of lime (gypsum) 380 

Carbonate of magnesia Trace " " " 

Chloride of magnesia 258 " " " 

Sulphate of soda 261 

Chloride of soda (common salt) .533 " " " 

Undetermined matter 046 " " " 

Total 1.869 

Here is a water that has been passed on by chemists 
many times, and pronounced an ideal water for boiler 
purposes. It contains but 1.8 grains of total solid mat- 
ter. A nipple taken from the cold water side of a feed 
water system in a stationary plant, which had been in 
service less than six months, shows excessive corrosion 
in the form of Bitting, several pits perforating the 

specimen completely. As a matter of fact, for a num- 
ber of years it was found necessary in practice to re- 
place the cold water portion of this system once in 
every six or seven months; and with all this going on 
in this part of the system, no corrosion took place in 
the boiler. Since nothing was passing through this 
portion of the system, but the cold water, and keeping 
in mind that water under many conditions will dissolve 
more or less of all metals such as gold, silver, lead and 
iron, and under most conditions will dissolve more iron 
than of other metals, the first step in the investigation 
is to assume that the corrosion could be correctly at- 
tributed, at least to a considerable extent, to the water 

With this in view, an investigation was carried on as 
follows : four samples of water were taken from the fol- 
lowing points : the original source of supply, the inlet to 
the pipe system, the outlet of the system, and the pet 
cock at the bottom of the water column. Very careful 
determinations of the quantity of iron in solution were 
made and it was found that the amount of iron con- 
tained in the sample from the inlet corresponded with 
that contained in the samples from the orginal source, 
but in the sample from the outlet, two and one-half 
times as much iron was found. These figures represent 
the amount of iron actually in solution, and do not in- 
clude any which might have been in suspension, there- 
fore show conclusively that the water did actually dis- 
solve or take up iron in passing through the pipe system. 
The amount of iron in solution in the sample from the 
boiler proves that in passing through the pipe in ques- 
tion, the water had taken up as much iron as it could 
hold in solution, or in other words was saturated, and it 
could not dissolve any more after leaving the point in 
the pipe system at which it had become saturated, con- 
sequently could not and did not exert a corrosive action 
in the boilers. 

If this is a solvent action, why did it not take place 
uniformly over the entire surface, rather than in the 
form of pitting? If we take a piece of boiler plate and 
bring it to a high state of polish, and put it under a 
high power microscope there is evidence that the com- 
position of iron or steel is not continuous or uniform. 
A chemist's report covering a sample of iron or steel 
does not state the amount of iron contained, but rather 
the content of carbon, silicon, manganese, sulphur, 
phosphorus, etc. Each of these substances, as they ex- 
ist in the metal of the sheets or tubes, are chemically 
combined with a certain amount of the pure metallic 
iron or other metals, forming new substances charac- 
teristic of themselves, which are very different from 
the pure or uncombined iron itself. The balance of the 
metal is made up of uncombined iron, commonly known 
as ferrite. Since, then, the sheets or tubes are not of 
continuous or uniform composition, and knowing that 
practically no two different substances are soluble to 
the same extent, it is safe to assume that the com- 
pounds of iron which were the most soluble in the wa- 
ter in contact with their surface would first of all dis- 
solve to the greatest extent, which would result in the 
corrosion showing in the form of pitting rather than 
taking place to a uniform extent over the entire surface. 

There have been three principal theories governing 
the corrosion of iron and steel advanced during the past 
several years which have, of necessity, a direct and im- 
portant bearing upon what takes place in steam boilers. 
These are generally referred to as the electrolytic or 
galvanic, the carbonic acid, and the peroxide theories. 
The electrolytic theory has virtually displaced the 
other two, and some discussion of it will make the 
cause of corrosion more comprehensible. 


February, 191& 

Science holds that every substance in existence is 
either electro-negative or electro-positive to every other 
substance. It is not uncommon in boiler practice to 
have present a noticeable galvanic current, which, if 
this theory is correct, must result in corrosion. There 
are three essentials to a galvanic cell : an electro- 
positive substance or pole, an electro-negative substance 
or pole, and an electrolyte or carrier. As shown here- 
tofore when referring to the non-continuity of iron or 
steel there are even in a small area of sheet or flue, the 
necessary different substances to act as the two poles, 
and the presence of a layer of water over the surface 
will act as the carrier. There are the necessary ele- 
ments of corrosion. If the water carries more or less 
common salt, or some other substances, the current- 
carrying capacity of the water is enhanced and the ten- 
dency to corrosion relatively increased. 

Sight must not be lost of the fact that with a prop- 
erly equipped locomotive the boilers are directly con- 
nected with brass fittings, copper ferrules and at times 
other metallic accessories, to say nothing of the differ- 
ence in the character of many flues, or the flues and 
shell, or both, all of which tend to promote corrosion in 
some form or other. The wrought-iron or steel flues or 
tubes in a boiler, may be as good as it is possible to 
produce, but sufficiently different in their composition 
or continuity, or both, to bring about a possible condi- 
tion leading up to electrolysis. 

Since as previously stated there are three essentials 
to an electrolytic action, it stands to reason that if 
one of these can be eliminated the trouble would be 
overcome. It is not possible to prevent two substances 
acting in the capacity of the two poles of a battery, un- 
der favorable conditions, but it is possible to so change 
the water being used as a feed supply as to destroy its 
ability to act as an electrolyte, and thereby prevent 

No attempt has been made in describing these typical 
cases to prescribe remedies. It would be necessary to 
submit samples of water before a remedy could be rec- 
ommended. There is no one substance or preparation 
known that can be correctly classed as a specific, or that 
can cure all kinds of troubles, even when confined to a 
very limited territory. 

It is not rationally assumed that waters from the dif- 
ferent sources, even in a small district, are at all the 
same in character, and an endeavor to furnish a satis- 
factory remedy on such an assumption would be similar 
to your family physician prescribing for a member of 
your family without seeing the patient. 

It is impossible to annihilate matter, consequently 
all of the solid matter carried into the boiler must re- 
main there, either in solution or suspension (in the 
form of mud), or in the form of scale proper, until the 
time of washout and cleaning. It is not possible by 
treatment of the water to entirely prevent all accumu- 
lation so far as the so-called soluble salts are con- 
cerned, but it is possible with the use of a proper treat- 
ment, to ward off at least to a very large extent all trou- 
bles due thereto. If a certain amount of solid matter is 
contained in the water in a boiler, and any amount of 
other soluble solid matter is added to it there will be 
contained in the boiler a quantity corresponding to the 
sum of all, in one form or another. 

Remedy for the ill effects of boiler feed water lies 
along the line of analyzing a specific water, and adding, 
in the light of that analysis, chemicals which will neu- 
tralize the ill effects of chemicals in the feed water. 
This neutralizing action must be so planned that its 
products shall be harmless and easily removed from the 

Engine Decorated Fifty-Three Years Ago 

When the late King Edward VII was married to the 
Princess Alexandra of Denmark on March 10, 1863, 
there was the utmost rejoicing throughout the United 
Kingdom. The Great Eastern Railway supplied a 
"single" to draw the royal, train that took the happy 
couple on their honeymoon. This engine was built by 
Messrs. Fairbairn & Co. to designs by the late Robert 
Sinclair, M. I. C. E. The decoration of the engine and 
tender were unique, and were so elaborate that the 
railway was compelled to bring a man from France to 
do the work, as their own painters were not equal to the 
task. The engine was painted a light cream color, and 
the wreaths and festoons of flowers were in their nat- 
ural hues. 

The engine which is shown in our illustration was a 
light machine as compared with those used on our rail- 

Decorated Engine of 1850 

ways to-day. It weighed, with its tender, 51 tons, or, 
as we would now say, engine and tender weighed 114,240 
lbs. The English ton is 2,240 lbs., which accounts for 
the weight being more than 51 of our tons. The cylin- 
ders were 16 x 24 inches, and the diameter of the 
"single" driver was 7 ft. 1 in. At a speed of sixty miles 
an hour the driving wheels would turn 237 times in a 

Some of the English engines of this class, which 
were called "singles" on account of the one pair of 
driving wheels, had an arrangement by which when 
running down grade the drivers could be lifted verti- 
cally, just clear of the rails, and the engine then drifted 
or coasted on the small front and rear wheels. This re- 
moved friction and the consequent wear of parts. It 
also did away with the lubrication usually necessitated 
by the turning of the driving wheels, as the main rods, 
valves, pistons, and their rods remained stationary. 
The plan, although it appeared feasible, did not make 
much headway in the mechanical world. The "singles" 
have been gradually replaced by more powerful engines 
as the weight of traffic increased. The boiler pressure 
was 120 lbs. to the square inch, and this gave the engine 
a tractive effort of 6,480 lbs. This is the amount of 
weight which this engine, moving along the track, 
could pull up out of a well. 

We can easily see that this locomotive could not 
vertically lift one of even the light coaches of those 
days, but an engine is only required to exert its pull 
upon cars which have their weight borne by the track, 
and the whole of the locomotive force is occupied in 
simply overcoming the resistance to rolling the train 
along the road. The little bright colored engine looks 
quaint and odd to us to-day, but it serves' to mark the 
progress made, for it is 53 years ago since it made the 
honeymoon trip for a king. 

February, 1916 



The National Transcontinental Railway Shops 

The Construction and Equipment of the Locomotive, Ma- 
chine, Boiler, Tank and Smith Shops, at Winnepeg, Man. 

Considering the Transcona shops in general, they 
are well built, the steel work is good. The shops are 
bright with natural light, and the open lattice girders 
of the roof trusses below the skylight do not cast any 
shadows on the floor. The drainage from the roofs is 
carried down waste pipes inside the buildings and dis- 
charge into the sewer. The inside position of the 
waste pipe prevents freezing in winter. The skylights 
are ample. The shops are situated at the town of 
Transcona, about 5 miles east of Winnipeg, Man. 

The grouping of the buildings is so arranged that 
those necessary for locomotive repair work are as near 

handles material close up to the door of each. Between 
the shops the girders are carried on triangular steel 
bents, the inner faces of which are vertical so as to 
provide an unbroken lifting and carrying space for 
the crane. 

The layout of the plant is such that the roundhouse 
is the building farthest south, and is at the end of the 
midway. The motive power offices are close to the 
roundhouse, and are opposite the stores building. The 
midway runs north and south and the locomotive shops 
occupy the southerly half of the property. On each 
side of the midway the car and coach shops are north 

View of Machine Shop, National Transcontinental Railway, Winnipeg, Man. 

together as practicable., and those in which car and 
coach repair work is carried on stand together. The 
central midway, served by a ten-ton electric crane, 
with 62-ft. span, unites all the shops as far as the con- 
veyance of material is concerned, while the space be- 
low the crane is tranversed by industrial tracks for the 
movement of material by hand. 

The placing of the shops with one end of each on 
the midway has the advantage of permitting the ex- 
tension of the shops at their other ends, and it has 
also allowed the buildings to be placed so that the space 
between the sides of the shops has been reduced to a 
minimum. This is an advantage at Winnipeg where 
the winter is severe as it reduces the distance to be 
traveled in handling material between shops and brings 
the length of the midway to a minimum. The girders 
carrying the midway crane are supported on steel 
columns close against the shop walls, so that the crane 

of an entrance track passing the high level water tank. 
This and a track north of the coach shop afford two^ 
methods of access to the midway for material and other 

The powerhouse is in the center of the whole group 
of buildings and was placed there so that electric trans- 
mission and other losses may be as small as possible. 
The foundry and the smithy being used by the loco- 
motive and car departments, are placed on each side 
of the midway. North of the locomotive shop and 
south of the car shops. They thus occupy the interven- 
ing space between them. Material can therefore be 
readily moved north or south from them according to 

The artificial lighting of the shops is by mercury 
vapor lamps which in the shops are placed above the 
cranes. This form of light does not give heavy or 
sharp shadows and there is no shadow cast by thr- 



February, 1916 

lamp itself, as is the case with arc lights. The cranes 
are made with open lattice girders so that light passes 
through the members and the shadows from the parts 
do not reach the ground. There are electric light 
receptacles on each of the posts so that lamps at the 
«nd of protected wires may be carried about and tem- 
porarily placed to suit the convenience of workmen. 

electric cranes in the plant) there is an arrangement 
which automatically prevents the load being hauled 
up into the drum. When the lower or lifting hook 
pulley reaches a predetermined point as it is being 
wound up, it throws out a limit switch on the "lifting" 
circuit, and this cuts off the current. The fall of a 
solenoid core results, and as this is attached to the arm 

General Layout of Shops and Yard at Transcona, Man. 

Steam, water, compressed air and drinking water are 
'conveyed in pipes throughout the shops. Various colors 
are used so that each line and its contents, may be 
readily identified. The pipes in the midway are placed 
in a tunnel large enough to permit a workman to 
reach any of them. The same distinctive color is used 
in all the shops. The connections for each shop are 
taken from the main line pipes in the midway and are 
laid in tile conduits packed with asbestos sponge. This 
material does not deteriorate and forms an insulating 
medium which keeps in heat of steam and hot water 
and prevents the absorption of heat by the cold water 

■..-'■ ; ' 

bh9 IBs BHI 1 


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of a lever, it draws up a powerful band brake. There is 
also a mechanical brake. The load therefore cannot 
be "overwound" and the intentional release of the 
brake is necessary before the load can be lowered. The 
various switches and contacts are covered so that the 
operator is protected from accidental contact with 

There are twenty-five pits in the erecting shop, two 
being on the entrance tracks, one of which is kept open 
for the entrance and departure. of locomotives so that 
the shop may be said to have twenty-four working pits. 
The position of the pits is at right angles to the length 
of the shop. This arrangement requires that an en- 
gine, when being placed or removed, must be lifted by 
the 120-ton crane, high enough to pass over the other 
locomotives already on the pits. This method has the 
advantage of doing away with a transfer table outside 
the shop and so avoiding the first cost of the table and 
eliminating the operating charge which must neces- 

View of Midway N. T. R., Winnipeg, Man. 

pipes. Oil for fuel is conveyed to the furnaces in the 
forge, locomotive and boiler shops, and is driven by 
the pressure of air supplied to the storage tanks. The 
yards and buildings are protected against fire by a 
water system having hydrants, hose and nozzles at- 
tached. Fire hydrants for the yard (in which there 
is always some cars and more or less burnable ma- 
terial) are placed at convenient points and are housed 
so as to be available at any season of the year. 

The Locomotive Shop 

The locomotive department contains the erecting shop 
and the machine shop. These two are in one building, 
-612 ft. by 170 ft. There are three bays or longitudinal 
areas in this shop. The first is 70 ft. wide and in this 
the locomotive pits are placed. This shop is served bv 
two electric cranes. The upper one is a large 120-ton 
Morgan crane, the girders of which are solid plates, 
and this is the only crane in the plant so constructed. 
The lower crane is a quick-moving Booth crane of ten- 
ton capacity. Each crane is operated by an A. C. motor 
•of special design, and on each (and in fact on all the 

Runways for Heavy and Light Cranes, N. T. R. Shops, 
Winnipeg, Man. 

sarily be high where the cold is severe and the snow- 
fall, if not heavy, is sufficiently dry to drift readily. 
Facility in placing a locomotive is secured by the fact 
that one crane does all the work. There being no other 
operator, no misunderstanding between crane men can 

The locomotive headed toward the wall has its front 
end opposite a window and near a jib crane, one crane 

February, 1916 



being placed on each alternate wall post. The jib 
crane enables workmen to lift smokestacks, steam 
chest covers, smokebox doors and fronts and to handle 
superheater pipes, etc., without calling upon the ten- 
ton travelling crane. This arrangement enables the 
10-ton crane to be kept constantly at the work for 
which it was intended, viz. : that of carrying material, 
without having its use confined for a time on what 
may be called the "local" work of erectors. The pres- 
ence of the jib cranes thus adds to the efficient serv- 
ice of the ten-ton travelling crane. When the wheels 

Countershaft Hanger, Transcona Shops 

are taken out they are rolled clear of the locomotive 
and are picked up by the 10-ton crane and brought 
to the wheel department, which is centrally located. 
This location of the wheel department only causes one- 
half the shop length to be travelled by wheels belong- 
ing to engines furthest off, and the whole method of 
wheel handling does away with wheel rolling and hand- 
ling to be done by men. 

The pits are supplied each with a pair of pit jacks 
which rest on the rails. The steel frames containing 
the jacks can be moved along the rails as required. 
These frames and jacks do away with blocking which 
would otherwise have to be used and this helps to keep 
the shop clear of encumbering material. 

The space between each pit contains a workbench, 
with a wooden top, to which the vises are attached and 
the space underneath is used as a locker for tools. 
This locker has four panels composed of wire netting. 
When the tools are locked up under the bench they 
cannot be stolen, but the wire panels enable a foreman 
to see if the interior is tidy and if it is free from oily 
waste, overalls, or other material. The receptacle may 
also be inspected by the night watchman and in the 
event of fire the hose can be applied and water reach 
the interior of the locker through the wire netting. 

Machine Shops. 

This shop is equipped with machines of the latest 
design. The old time lathe and slotter have, for many 
operations, been replaced by machines designed to per- 
form certain kinds of work at higher speed and with 
greater facility, in handling material. 

There are machines for general use in the various 
departments such as those for pistons, motion and 
crosshead work, for tool, bolt, rod, brass, boiler tank and 
repairs, etc. The machines have been placed so that 
the general movement of parts from one machine to 
another, or from one department to another shall be 
such as to reduce handling to the lowest terms and 
prevent as far as possible the legitimate movement of 
material being followed by any counter movement what- 

A uniform method of setting the machines has been 
adopted which insures rigidity. The great majority 
of machines stand on reinforced concrete foundations 

extending to a depth of about 11 ft. The machines are 
held by bolts bedded in the concrete. The foundation 
is built up to within half an inch of the 3-in. plank 
floor of the shop. Each machine has been levelled on. 
its foundation and placed so that the machine pulleys 
are exactly in line with the main shaft or counter- 
shaft pulleys as the case may be. After the machine 
has been set and bolted down, grouting was run in round 
the base of the machine flush with the floor, and slightly 
sloping up to the base of the machine. This slight, 
slope is provided for the removal of water due to any 
condensation or moisture, so that the base of the ma- 
chine would be kept dry as possible, and the machine, 
being bedded in grouting, would stand solidly in its. 
position without any tendency to work loose on the. 
bolts. Grouting with the same slight slope was put in 
round the shop columns, so that there would be no 
tendency for an accumulation of water or moisture to- 
rust or eat into the base of the columns. 

The main line shafting for one set of group-driven 
machines is in perfect alignment with that of the next. 
set. The object being in case of emergency to enable 
one group to be driven by the group motor of the other. 
If No. 1 motor breaks down, one length of shafting 
can be taken down, a coupling applied and the section. 
of shaft replaced and the two halves of the coupling 

The hangers for the shop shafting, either main or 
countershaft, are bolted to channel steel turned on 
edge with webs on the inside. These channels are 
clamped up to the steel I-beams of the gallery or roof. 
Small cast iron pieces with flat tops, rest on the bevel 
surface of the I-beam flanges. The bolts when tight- 
ened up hold the small channels in place close against 
the I-beams. The clamping bolts themselves are pre- 
vented from any slip or movement by being held to- 
gether with a plate and bolts. The arrangement is 
shown in the accompanying illustration. The lining 
pieces and plates with the exception of the cast iron 

Steel Car Shop, N. T. R., Winnipeg, Man. 

packing pieces, have been picked up from scrap about 
the shop. These hanger carriers are easily removed 
and are capable of use anywhere about the shop. 

The Tank Shop 

The tank shop is equipped with eight tracks and one 
entrance track. This shop is at the extreme east end 
of the building and the boiler shop is next to it. These 
two shops are in an area walled off from the machine 
and erecting shop. The rivetting tower is, however, 
in the extreme south corner of the machine shop. 

The arrangement for operating the 20-ton electric 
crane for the rivetting tower is satisfactory. The crane 
control for raising, lowering and traversing is placed on 



February, 1916 

the rivetting platform, so that the movements of the 
crane are governed by a man on a level with the work, 
and who is within speaking distane of those handling 
the boiler and who can see what is going on without 
the necessity of depending on signals. The chance of 
misunderstanding is thus eliminated and work can be 
more expeditiously done. 

In the tank shop the axle lathe is placed in a pit, 
which is properly drained. The level of the centers of 
this machine are at approximately the same height 
above the floor as an axle with wheels. The wheels 
can be rolled into the lathe without their having to be 

Machines in the Shop 

The majority of the machines are either Canadian or 
English manufacture, and are very good examples of 

Interior of Power House. Bank of Transformers. N. T. R., 

Winnipeg Man. 

their class. Those which have come from the United 
States have been selected on account of their good 
qualities and a conscientious effort has been made to 
secure the best possible equipment. 

At all the larger radial drills pits have been pro- 
vided so that articles of odd shape that would not lie 
on the machine table can be lowered into the pit and 
the radial drill swung over it and work done. 

Quint of Hartford, Conn., has supplied a modern tur- 
ret drill, and Bertram of Dundas, Ont., a 36-in. boring 
mill with turret head. The turret heads of these ma- 
chines enable them to perform a number of similar 
•operations quickly and easily without the necessity of 
removing the tool at each change. 

One of the most modern machines is a heavy radial 
drill made by Asquith (English). The floor plate of the 
machine is set flush with the floor of the shop, so that 
a cylinder or other heavy casting can be easily placed 
upon it. A gutter has been cut round the foundation, 
leading to a pocket in the concrete, so that the lubricant 
may flow into the pocket for use again. The pillar of 
this machine is exceedingly solid and carries a heavy 
arm composed of two members. On the under side of 
the arms, the drill-head is placed so that the drill 
itself has what is called a "central thrust." The weight 
of the arm is balanced by a bracket, cast integral with 
it, extending out from the other side of the large 
•cylindrical pillar. This bracket carries the motor for 

Another machine of very substantial make is the 
Morton draw-cut cylinder planer and borer. This ma- 
chine cuts on what would be the return stroke of an 
ordinary shaper. This gives a powerful and natural 
cut. The machine not only planes all the flat surfaces 
of a locomotive cylinder, but it bores out the cylinder, 
bores out the piston valve chamber, mills out the steam 
and exhaust ports for a slide valve and drills all the 

holes in a cylinder and saddle casting if necessary. 
It is a motor driven machine, the motor being mounted 
on the machine. 

The Bullard 60-in. boring mill can bore out coach, 
tender or driving tires, or do any similar work up to 
the limit of 60 inches diameter. It is a solid and power- 
ful machine. The mechanism below the floor, by which 
the lost motion in the table can be taken out, is placed 
in a concrete pit, into which a trap door in the floor 
opens. All the adjusting and driving mechanism is 
below the surface and is therefore protected from 
damage and is in a pit which enables a man to inspect 
and adjust the otherwise hidden parts. In many shops 
this inspection or adjustment cannot be made without 
excavating the earth in order to let a man get at the 
parts. The table of this machine is about 18 ins. above 
the floor level, and work can be handled on and off it 
with ease. 

A Norton draw-out shaper in the wheel department 
is capable of doing work on driving axle boxes, brasses, 
shoes and wedges and truck boxes. Brass and box 
can be handled on the same machine. 

The Bullard 36-inch boring mill with plain and tur- 
ret head can handle driving boxes and brasses with the 
greatest facility, and in certain operations the fact 
that the turret head is there helps to reduce the time 
taken to do the work. 

The Ryerson flue rattler is sunk below the floor and 
is in a concrete pit containing water, where a series 
of revolving endless chains roll the flues over and over 
one another below the water. Heavy notched strikers 
hanging on chains assist in removing the scale. A cir- 
cular pocket has been put in the concrete pit drain, 
and in this pocket a bucket just fits. When the water is 
drained off the pit it flows into this pocket fills it and 
passes on. The pulverized scale sinks to the bottom 
and is caught in the bucket. The bucket can be lifted 
out by the overhead crane and the silt so collected may 
be disposed of as desired. 

The shops can be supplied with air independent of 
each other or they may all draw air from the complete 
system. Fuel oil is supplied to the boiler and forge 
shops by air pressure exerted on the surface of oil 
in the tanks in the oil storage house. 

The Boiler and Tank Shop 

This shop is 180 ft. long and has four bays which 
run at right angles to the direction of the locomotive 
pits. A wide space near the locomotive shop has been 
provided for the erection of boilers and for general 
boiler work. The flue department in the locomotive 
shop is on the other side of the dividing wall and this 
brings boiler and flue work in the vicinity of each other. 
A 20-ton electric travelling crane serves the boiler shop. 

The Forge Shop 

The smithy is in a separate building north of the 
locomotive shop. It is 260 by 100 ft. and the roof truss 
being a single one, leaves the floor space free from 
columns. This is an advantage in handling the heavy 
work which has to be done here. This shop, like the ' 
locomotive shop, is grouped into departments as far as 
possible. For example, the spring department occupies 
one corner of the building and is equipped so as to 
handle the spring work for both the locomotives and 

There are 26 double Buffalo forges along one side of 
the shop and they are set back to back and are in- 
clined at such an angle to the wall that they afford 
facility for placing and removing material. The fires 
which are employed on lighter work face the wall along 

February, 1916 



side of which runs a narrow gauge industrial track 
leading out of the shop at both ends. The fires used on 
heavier work have the inside position and those han- 
dling hammer work are served by hand cranes. The 
hammers, of which there are eight in all, range from 
200 lbs. to 5,000 lbs. At each of these hammers there 
are pits, one on each side, covered by trap doors. The 
pits give easy access to the anvils and foundations, so 
that anvils may be levelled or otherwise adjusted from 
time to time. This feature lessens the cost and trouble 
of maintenance, as in case repairs or adjustments have 
to be made the shop floor is not encumbered and time 
lost making a special excavation. 

Among the machines in this shop there is a cutting 
off and centering machine. Axles forged in this shop 

charges. A two-ton pneumatic hoist with safety 
clutches carries material to the charging floor. 

The grey iron cleaning room is served by a 5-ton 
electric traveling crane and there are also four rum- 
blers, electrically driven. An exhaust system from the 
rumblers conveys the dust and sand into a box below 
the surface of the ground outside the building. This 
box is provided with baffle plates, having openings 
alternately top and bottom, like swash plates in a ten- 
der. The dust-laden air passing through the box is 
compelled to move up and down in reaching the dis- 
charge aperture and the dust and sand falls to the bot- 
tom of the box between each partition. The partitions, 
or baffle plates, can be drawn out vertically and the 
box easilv cleaned. 

General View of Erecting Shop, National Transcontinental Railway, Winnipeg, Man. 

may be placed in this machine and cut to length and a 
roughing cut run over them. They are then ready for 
•shipment to outside stations where they will be finished 
when used. This reduces the handling of such material 
to a minimum. 

The Grey Iron Foundry 

This shop is directly opposite the locomotive shop. 
'The main foundry has a bay 70 ft. wide which is 
spanned with a 15-ton electric crane, which has a 5-ton 
auxiliary hoist attached. There are one-ton jib cranes 
placed in suitable brackets on the posts in addition to 
the overhead equipment, and these can be moved from 
one pillar bracket to another by the overhead crane, as 
occasion demands. 

The cupolas, of which there are two, 72 and 84 ins. 
in diameter, respectively, 50 ft. high, are placed in a 
Toom 30 by 40 ft. The cupola room also contains a very 
completely furnished charging floor and below it are 
placed the blowers, along with the scale for weighing 

The brass moulding shop, which forms a department 
of this shop, is placed at the south side. It is 30 by 80 
ft. and is enclosed by an expanded metal partition be- 
tween the shop posts. This protects the contents of the 
shop and at the same time does not obstruct the light. 
The shop is served by a one-ton hand-operated travel- 
ing crane. There are four brass furnaces, each 26 ins. 
in diameter by 36 ins. deep, placed in one corner. The 
equipment consists of a shipper's bench, a sprue cut- 
ter, band-saw, emery grinder, and a dry and wet 

The Transcona plant, in general, may be considered 
as an example of a well equipped shop in which the 
arrangement of the machines has been carefully 
thought out, and in which provision for the future has 
been made. The shop is capable of handling work ac- 
cording to modern methods and its operation has given 
every satisfaction. Mr. W. J. Press, the mechanical 
engineer of the Government Commission, was in charge 
of the layout and equipment of the shops. 



February, 1916 

A Study of the Principles of Electricity 


Fundamental Principles as They Apply 
to Power for Electric Locomotives 

The rapid increase in the use of electricity as a mo- 
tive power and for many other purposes by railroads 
makes it necessary for both officers and employes to 
familiarize themselves not only with the actual opera- 
tion of the various devices in use, but also to learn the 
nature of the force with which they must work, its 
possibilities and the means used for its control. Not 
many years ago the only electrical devices railroad em- 
ployes were called upon to care for were those of the 
telegraph system. The introduction of electric lighting 
lor passenger cars, and of electric motors for driving 
shop machinery and for operating turn-tables, coaling 
stations, signals, etc., now requires the services of 
skilled electricians, who must know how to inspect and 
care for many things heretofore unfamiliar to the aver- 
age railroad man. With the introduction of electric 
locomotives of from 1,500 to 4,000 horsepower, and 
trains of multiple-unit motor cars aggregating more 
than 1,200 horsepower, enginemen who have been ac- 
customed to running steam locomotives find not only a 
new kind of motor to deal with, but one whose forces 
act somewhat differently from those with which they 
are familiar. It is more than ever important, therefore, 
to study the fundamental principles of electricity. Ex- 
perience on roads where electric locomotives and motor 
cars have been introduced is that the steam locomotive 
runners have not much difficulty in learning the opera- 
tion and control of this new form of motive power, but 
many of these men are anxious to know more about the 
nature of electricity, inquiring not only what it does, 
but why it does it. It is not possible to give anyone a 

U> y. M H u tr^ 

Power House Steam Driven 


clear idea of just what electricity is. We are unable 
to think of electricity as a separate thing, or entity; we 
know it only by its effects. Many theories have been 
advanced to explain its nature. Some of these have 
been discarded because they did not explain all the ob- 
served effects. Others have been retained because, 
while they do not satisfy every case observed and noted, 
they yet answer fairly well until some other explana- 
tion can be found. It is not the purpose here to deal 
with theories of electricity, but rather to give elemen- 
tary explanations and reasons for the action of devices 
that come under the care of railroad employes. We 
deal with electricity always associated with material 
substances, and realize its effects chiefly through the 
changes that take place in substances through which it 

passes, or in the space surrounding the wires of a cir- 
cuit through which it is conducted. 

There are certain clearly denned effects of electricity. 
Sometimes one of these alone is manifested; at other 
times it is in combination with others. Four of these, 
and the four to which our attention is most commonly 
directed, are: 1, Electro-magnetism; 2, Heat; 3, Light; 
and 4, Chemical action. Electro-magnetism is the prin- 
ciple or basis of action of all dynamos, motors, trans- 
formers, etc. The heating effect of electricity is pri- 
marily the manner in which we produce electric light; 
and while all electric lights are produced by the heating 
effect of electricity passing through some kind of mat- 
ter, yet some devices give very little heat with their 
light, and others a wasteful amount. The men in charge 

Power House Operated by Water Power 

of telegraph, telephone and signal circuits, and passen- 
ger car lighting, have to deal to a certain extent also 
with the chemical effects of electricity, because they 
often must use a source of power, a battery of some 
kind, either primary or secondary. 

It must be clearly understood that to produce energy 
in the form that is called electricity, work of some kind 
must be expended. Just as it is impossible to get some- 
thing out of nothing, so the only way to produce elec- 
trical energy for the purpose of driving locomotives or 
cars or machine tools in the shop, or even to move the 
armature of a telegraph relay, is to do work on the 
system by driving a generating machine or dynamo by 
means of a steam engine, or slowly to burn up or oxi- 
dize certain materials in the battery, as is done in the 
case of the operation of signal motors and telegraph 
instruments, car lights, etc. 

In the illustrations the general arrangment of two 
typical central stations for the generation of electric 
power are shown. In one of these the combustion of 
coal on the grates generates steam in the boiler. The 
steam drives the engine as shown, and this engine in 
turn drives the generator or dynamo, the output of 
which is electric energy. 

In the second illustration there is represented a water 
wheel which drives a dynamo by the energy received 
from a mass of water falling from a high level to a 
lower one. In both these cases the ouput of the station 
is electricity, the equivalent either of the amount of 
coal burned on the grates and the quantity of water 
turned into steam, or of the amount of water which 
falls per minute from the level in the reservoir back of 
the dam to that of the tail race. The consumption of 
steam in the engine, or of water by the wheel, is a 
measure of the energy put into the system. The out- 
put, or total of electric power produced by the generator 
is the equivalent of this, but is not quite equal to it in 

February, 1916 



Freight Car Construction, Maintenance and Abuse 

Fundamentals and Standardization of Construction Discussed. Causes and Cost 
of Maintenance Considered, Including Operating Abuses and Owners' Defects 

All the departments of a railroad are more or less 
affected by the condition of freight cars. This being so 
the construction of the car is important because its suc- 
cess in service and maintenance is dependent on how it 
is made. Railroads expend much money each year for 
new equipment of different designs. If the cars fail to 
be satisfactory on the road they fall short of what was 
intended. It is desirable to use as light cars as possible 
consistent with efficiency. 

Here we may say while giving a resume of Mr. C. J. 
Wymer's paper, read at a recent meeting of the Car 
Foremen's Association of Chicago, that this is a subject 
of the utmost importance. Mr. Wymer is general car 
foreman of the Belt Line Railway at Chicago and as 
such he speaks with authority. We may say, however, 
that the elimination of useless dead weight is a source 
of silent but constant gain, because the hauling of dead 
weight not required by the traffic goes on from day to 
day and from year to year, and eventually piles up an 
amount on the debit side of the ledger which is in 
the aggregate a serious loss, though it may never ap- 
pear in figures. Mr. Wymer goes on to point out, quite 
justly, that the opposite of this is a great economy, 
deserving careful consideration, and there is also a 
danger in employing its use to the extent that it ceases 
to be an economy only so far as the initial cost is con- 
cerned, and proves a burden of expense in maintenance 
by reason of accidents, delays, loss and damage to 
freight, etc., which more than offsets the advantage 

Of the two evils the latter is more readily recognized, 
as it is prominently brought into view by failures, 
while the other is distributed over a long life and is 
discovered only by minute and technical investigation. 
A reasonable factor of safety should be included in the 
design in excess of technical requirements to provide a 
resistance necessary to equalize, in a measure, the re- 
sults of unjust service due to the human element, which 
nevertheless exists. 

A proper assemblage of parts is also a feature to be 
kept in mind when designing new cars in order to ob- 
tain strength where the greatest resistance is required 
and yet not to exceed what is necessary where resist- 
ance is not so important a factor, as simplicity of re- 
newal when repairs are necessary. Some cars are ap- 
parently designed with the thought that each is a per- 
manent structure and that the parts will endure 
throughout the life of the car without attention, or 
perhaps, the builder has failed to give any thought to 
future maintenance. If the structure would endure 
without repairs, it would be an ideal condition, but fail- 
ures due to deterioration and accident comes into the 
life of all cars, and when simplicity of assemblage, 
without sacrifice of efficiency, has not been given due 
consideration; unnecessary expense is added to the 
maintenance. The use of commercial sizes and shapes 
is another point to keep in mind when designing new 
cars, as their use lowers the cost of repairs, as well as 
reduces detention of cars. 

These are some of the undesirable features to be avoid- 
ed, and some which should be favored. The thought, 
therefore arises, how can the problem best be solved? 
The remedy lies in standardizing designs and construc- 
tion, as rapidly as is consistent, with means of enforc- 

ing this idea. Standardizing means the elimination of 
arbitrary opinion and action from which most of our 
trouble comes. Standardization insures thorough in- 
vestigation of the subject by the best talent. This pre- 
vents certain things being followed to an extreme to 
the detriment of another, resulting in practically assur- 
ing a harmonious combination of all the desirable fea- 
tures, bringing the most efficient and desirable equip- 
ment. Standardization reduces purchases by restrict- 
ing them to actual requirements and so eliminates much 
dead stock. The speaker believed that standardization 
would insure improvement in construction, as it would 
tend to choke off many ideas of questionable merit. It 
would make for the industrial survival of the fittest. 

Coming to maintenance, it was pointed out that cars 
cannot be maintained in perfect condition, and any at- 
tempt to do this would entail a loss of material and 
labor, and a withdrawal of cars from service where 
they earn money. There is a degree of efficiency neces- 
sary to keep a car reasonably safe for handling and for 
the protection of the freight it carries. This efficiency 
must be such as to prolong its life at a minimum cost. 
Many cars are not up to this condition and should be 
withdrawn from service. Every effect has its cause, 
and one applicable to this state of affairs is poor de- 
sign. This results in a car becoming disabled long be- 
fore fair usage would bring it to that state. Another 
cause is inadequate facilities to meet requirements in 
districts where large numbers of cars are required and 
the demand forces unfit cars into the service. Over- 
taxed facilities and lack of labor-saving methods pre- 
vent many cars from being properly and fully repaired, 
and the period of service performed is only of short 
duration, and they return again for repairs in worse 
condition than before. If suitable attention had been 
given in the first place the cost in the end would have 
been less and the service performed would have been 
greater. It is not infrequent to see new end sills and 
draft timbers applied to worn out draft sills and numer- 
ous other repairs made in a similar manner which can 
only mean that the same performance must soon be re- 
peated. Greater uniformity in construction would in- 
sure a larger output at less cost as suitable material 
would be more readily available and workmen becoming 
familiar with similar construction could perform the 
work with greater dispatch. 

Periodically reducing and reorganizing forces tends 
very much to prevent economical repairs. Each time a 
shop is organized for extensive repairs it means the in- 
troduction of a large number of new men. These take 
time to become efficient, and the money thus expended 
would keep a well organized and efficient force per- 
manently employed, and these would produce a larger 
amount of work. If of necessity the forces are to be 
larger at certain times than others, the best result to be 
obtained, for money, can be had by doing so at seasons 
of the year when weather conditions are most favor- 
able, as there is a considerable percentage of loss in 
labor performed when there is no protection from the 
elements during the winter season. 

It is also good business to exert energy in repairing 
cars and getting them in serviceable condition when 
they are idle, having them in condition to earn when 
required, instead of having them idle or in service in a 



February, 1916 

crippled condition. Good serviceable cars mean so 
much in reducing other expenses that there seems to be 
no reason why they should not be maintained in an 
efficient condition. A load placed in a defective car 
often means delayed movement, added expense in trans- 
porting, claims for damage, and possibly dissatisfied 
patrons. An accident resulting from a bad car means 
damage and destruction to good cars, delay to the en- 
tire traffic of the railroad, added expense to the main- 
tenance of equipment and the maintenance of way ac- 
counts for frequently serious track damage results, in 
addition to damaged equipment. 

Greater uniformity and efficiency in construction, 
proper maintenance of equipment at all times, and ade- 
quate facilities for the same, means economical main- 
tenance of equipment, tracks, reduction of claims, re- 
duced operating expenses, fewer blasts of the wrecking 
whistle, increased average miles per car, more efficient 
service and a better satisfied investor and public would 
most certainly result. 

There is that feature of the M. C. B. Rules making a 
distinction between owners and delivering line defects. 
There is a vast army of men employed by the railroads 
whose principal duty it is to make records as a means 
of protection against so-called delivering line defects, 
and they attach greater importance to a few sheathing 
slightly raked, that may not affect the service of the 
car, than they do to a worn wheel or to numerous other 
defects, endangering the safety of the equipment, com- 
modity or human life. We are constantly educating 
them, that it is almost a crime to overlook a defect in- 
volving a defect card which often has a value of less 
than a dollar. A business-like view of the situation 
would be to cease spending two dollars in an effort to 
save one. Do away with the delivering line defects, 
inspect for safety of operation and commodity only, 
educate these men along the lines of endeavor which 
have a real value and give up illusions. A vast amount 
of this labor expense could be in purchasing material 
and repairing defects which are a menace to safety in- 
stead of finding and making a record of a lot of slight 
defects and giving them the attention of more import- 
ant ones. Such a reduction of expense would continue 
down to the offices and result in saving a large labor 
and stationery expense there. 

In reply to those who advance the argument that pen- 
alties are necessary against the handling line to pro- 
mote the proper care of equipment, it was pointed out 
that there is no relation between penalty and perform- 
ance. The employes misusing a car have no knowledge 
of these penalties and take no notice of the ownership 
as indicated by the initials on a car. They will damage 
a car owned by the railroad employing them as readily 
as they will one owned by a foreign line. They could 
hardly make this distinction if they desired, on account 
of the mixed assortment of cars they handle. 

Mr. Wymer expressed his belief that railroads are 
spending more money annually on labor and stationery 
in protecting themselves against these defects than it 
would cost to make the repairs, and the repairs have 
still to be made or they are allowed to continue. There 
would be less delay to equipment at interchange points. 
It might be in order for the association to appoint a 
•competent committee to make a careful investigation of 
this subject and find out approximately what we are 
gaining or losing from present methods. It is not our 
intention to use a foreign car without justly compensat- 
ing the owner, but it is our desire that it can be handled 
more economically by the railroads on a rental basis 
than by a combination of rental and rules. 

In regard to the misuse or abuse of cars there are 
several. One being the continuance in service of a car 
when its physical condition makes it a fit subject for 
repairs. We very often have cars subjected to abuse 
in switching, by cornering, side wiping and impact. 
Much could be avoided by the exercise of ordinary care. 
There are many cases where the destruction of a car 
is not due to the element of time, but to disregard of 
the proper protection of property. 

Another abuse is the loading of first-class, 100 per 
cent cars, with hides, coal, oil and other rough freight. 
This reduces them to a condition unfit for grain, food 
products and other commodities that require cleanli- 
ness and protection from the elements. Cars are 
abused by railroads and shippers by a disregard of the 
loading rules, which experience has found essential and 
has approved. Car ends are often damaged in ordinary 
handling because the proper methods of loading have 
been ignored, and it happens in many instances that 
further damage results by unloading the freight when 
the car has become unserviceable. A careful study of 
this whole question by those in a position to regulate 
the abuses would greatly improve the average condition 
of freight equipment on our highways of commerce, and 
a resulting feeling of satisfaction in the mind of the 
public would be brought about. 

Women in Charge of Cars 

One of the London dailies, speaking of war conditions 
in England, says: "Because of the shortage of men, 
the Glasgow Corporation is giving women a trial as 
tramway-car drivers. Six women are to be trained and 
placed in charge of cars in a quiet locality. The first 
three days are to be spent in learning the mechanism 
of the car, followed by two days' work on the 'school 
car.' The next three days will be devoted to further 
instruction in the mechanism, and then a practical test 
will be made in ordinary street driving. The women 
will then take their places alone as drivers for 30 days. 
This final test passed, they will be recognized as fully 
competent drivers." 


Example of Great Efficiency 

The vast mileage of the Pennsylvania Railroad sys- 
tem serves practically half the population of the 
United States. During two years, ending with Decem- 
ber 31 last, there were carried over these lines 361,- 
572,114 passengers. Involved in this transportation 
problem in those twenty-four months were 2,400,000 
passenger trains performing their service on schedules 
which called for practically the same number of freight 
trains, as well. 

This overwhelming number of people were carried 
without a single one being killed in a train accident. 

In the five years— 1908, 1910, 1913, 1914 and 1915— 
on the lines east of Pittsburgh, the Pennsylvania ran 
4.000,000 passenger trains and carried 520,000,000 pas- 
sengers without one being killed in a train accident. 
These are great showings. This achievement is an ex- 
ample of great efficiency, and when General Manager 
Long congratulated the faithful army who were en- 
gaged in these operations, by sending out felicitous 
New Year greetings, he did exactly the right thing. It 
will encourage the men to keep on lines of efficiency 
all the time. ' 

[February, 1916 



Laboratory Test of Baldwin 2-8-0 for Illinois Central 

Tests Made After General Overhauling, and Comparisons Made 
With Result of Bringing Each Working Part to Maximum Efficiency 

The Illinois Central Railroad recently submitted a 
•consolidation engine to test at the engineering experi- 
ment station of the University of Illinois. The object 
of the tests was stated to be for the purpose of deter- 
mining the general performance of the locomotive and 
the performance of its boiler and engines, first, as it 
was received after three and a third years of service, 
and, second, after some repairs had been made. In this 
condition the engine was reported to be in excellent 

The locomotive tested was built by the Baldwin Loco- 
motive Works in 1909. It weighs 223,000 lbs. and has 

dition when it arrived at the laboratory. It was com- 
pletely tested in this condition and the results of the 
first are designated as Series 1. The results of this 
series disclosed a performance not quite so good as had 
been anticipated, and in the endeavor to do whatever 
was possible to improve the performance the valves 
were reset and eccentric straps shimmed; cylinders and 
valve chambers were rebored; new pistons and piston 
rings, new valve bull-rings and packing rings were ap- 
plied; the rod packing was renewed; the exhaust nozzle- 
tip changed from 5% ins. to 5% ins.; and a small leak 
in one of the steam pipe joints was stopped. Certain 

Illinois Central "Consolidation" No. 958, Ready for Labora cry Tec: 

'22 x 30 ins. simple cylinders, using saturated steam. Its 
principal dimensions are given below. 

Total weight, in working order 223,000 lbs. 

Weight on drivers 200,900 lbs. 

Cylinders, diameter and stroke 22x30 ins. 

Diameter of drivers 63 ins. 

Firebox width 66 ins. 

Grate area 49.55 sq. ft. 

Heating surface, tubes (fire side) 3,094 sq. ft. 

Heating surface, total 3,283 sq. ft. 

TSoiler pressure 200 lbs. 

When it was received at the laboratory the locomo- 
tive had run 107,800 miles. Immediately preceding the 
tests the locomotive had been in service only five weeks 
■after receiving general repairs, and was in good con- 

incidental repairs having no effect on performance were 
made at the same time. Following this work the loco- 
motive was run the equivalent of about 1,200 miles in 
wearing down the cylinders and packing before making 
the tests of Series 2. 

The principal ratios of this engine, No. 958 on the 
I. C. R. R., are as follows: 

Weight on drivers 200,900 
= = 5.12 


Tractive effort 
Weight on drivers 

Tractive effort 
Total weight 

Tractive effort 39,180 


= 4.96 




February, 1916 

Total weight 


= 5.51 

Tractive effort 40,470 

Tractive effort X diameter of drivers 39,180X63 

= 751.8 

Total heating surface 3,283 

Tractive effort X diameter of drivers 40,470X61 

Total heating surface 

Firebox heating surface 168 

Total heating surface 3,283 

Weight on drivers 200,900 

Total heating surface 3,283 

Total heating surface 3,283 

Total weight 223,000 



= .0513 


= 67.92 

smoke box in front of the diaphragm was equal to 12.8 
ins. of water. 

During the test, as stated in the university bulletin, 
the heating surface was forced to its greatest capacity, 
the total equivalent evaporation per hour was 57,954 lbs. 
This is equal to 17.65 lbs. per foot of heating surface 
per hour. This rate of evaporation is altogether un- 
usual in service and has been exceeded only rarely 
under test conditions. The best results were obtained 
in test designated as No. 2024, during which the equiva- 
lent evaporation per pound of dry coal was 10.07 lbs. 
Some doubt, however, is expressed about the validity 
of this result, which exceeds the next highest evapora- 
tion per pound of coal (8.96 lbs.) by 12.4 per cent. 

These results were all obtained when using run-of- 
mine coal from Mission Field Mine, Vermilion County,. 
Illinois, which varied in heating value from 11,835 to 
12,848 B. T. U. per pound of dry coal. 

Engineering Experiment Station of the University of Illinois 

Heating surface 3,283 

Grate area 
Tube surface 

= 66.26 



Firebox heating surface 168 

Total heating surface 3,283 

= 18.-.1 


Cylinder volume 13.199 

In testing this engine two trials were made, but the 
statements given apply to Series 1 and 2 combined. The 
maximum amount of dry coal fired per hour was 11,127 
lbs., or 224 1 /2 lbs. per square foot of grate area per hour. 
This is in excess of usual practice. The maximum 
quantity of cinders thrown from the stack was 27.4 per 
cent, of the dry coal fired. This occurred under con- 
ditions which rarely prevail in service, the draft in the 

The maximum indicated horse power developed dur- 
ing the tests was 1,654, which occurred in test desig- 
nated as No. 2093, with a cut-off of 48.6 per cent, and a. 
speed of 30.4 miles per hour. This is the greatest, 
power which has been developed during laboratory tests 
with a locomotive of this type. The maximum draw-bar 
horse power was 1,431. The maximum tractive effort 
developed, 29,240 lbs., is only 75 per cent, of the rated 
maximum and is not significant because of the fact that, 
as in all laboratory tests, it was not feasible to work 
the locomotive at the lowest speeds and the greatest 

Just here it may be said that according to the calcu- 
lated tractive effort which is intended for starting 
speed, and using the Master Mechanics' formula, this 
engine would have developed a draw-bar pull, neglecting 
internal resistance, of 39,180 lbs. The figure given in 

February, 1916 



the test was probably determined by dynamometer trac- 
ings, which automatically eliminates the friction of the 
machine itself from the record, and in any case the 
engine was run much above the starting speed. The 
loss of tractive effort which takes place as speed in- 
creases is due to the earlier cut-offs for higher speeds 
and a consequent decrease of the mean effective pres- 
sure in the cylinders. 

The Master Mechanics' formula assumes the mean 
effective pressure in the cylinders to be 85 per cent, of 
the boiler pressure, and here it amounts to 170 lbs. The 
85 per cent, rule, while fair as a matter of comparison 
where all engines are treated alike in this formula, is 
nevertheless considered by many authorities to be too 
low as a pressure factor in the equation. This usually 

During the tests the locomotive was fired by C. Wel- 
ker, a skilled fireman, detailed for this purpose by the 
Illinois Central Railroad and taken from their regular 
force. Previous to his engagement at the laboratory he 
had had four and one-half years' experience as fireman 
on that road and upon the completion of the tests he 
returned to regular service. During some of the tests 
he was assisted by one of three other firemen who were 
also detailed at various times from the Illinois Central 
force. None of these men had had less than one year's 
experience. Mr. Welker in these tests was in charge of 
the other men and was responsible for the character of 
the work. 

The writers of the bulletin are careful to inform 
their readers that in attempting to draw from the re- 





-\- S'-lf-'- 





O - -KJAS 


5'-? "^,DRAfT.RT.5IDE 


*-i — - 

l^r l6! ^r l6 ^ l ^ 5 '- 






accepted figure is no doubt accurate enough for the 
older types of locomotives. Recent tests, however, have 
fended to show that its value ought to be increased, as 
the latest types of locomotives have been more carefully 
or, one may say, even more scientifically designed than 
formerly, in which more efficient valve gears have been 
used, larger valves and more direct steam and exhaust 
parts have been employed. Steam and exhaust passages 
are less obstructed, so that the all-round effect has been 
to improve the steam distribution and so obtain a 
greater mean effective pressure, from the boiler pres- 
sures now in vogue. 

In the university tests and the test program the loco- 
motive was worked throughout a range of speed corre- 
sponding to that which would ordinarily prevail in 
service. At each of the various speeds the endeavor 
was made to vary the cut-off through as wide a range as 
the capacity of the boiler or of the grate would permit. 
The adhesion between the drivers and the supporting 
wheels in the laboratory is less than the adhesion be- 
tween the drivers and the rail on the road, and con- 
sequently it was impossible at low speeds to run at 
maximum cut-offs. All tests were made with the throt- 
tle wide open. 

The lowest water rate attained was 27.17 lbs. of dry 
steam per indicated horse power per hour. This steam 
consumption is not so low as has been previously ob- 
tained in tests of locomotives of this type under similar 
conditions, being almost 17 per cent, in excess of the 
lowest figure previously recorded. The minimum heat 
content of the dry coal fired per indicated horse power 
per hour was 50,872 B. T. U. and the minimum dry coal 
fired per hour per indicated horse power was 4.00 lbs. 

General Plan of Illinois Central Railroad 2-8-0, No. 958 

suits of the tests, any inferences concerning the per- 
formance of locomotives in service, it should be remem- 
bered that during the tests the boiler was forced some- 
what beyond the limits which would ordinarily be main- 
tained in service; so that the maximum test values of 
such measures of boiler activity as draft, rate of com- 
bustion and rate of evaporation are somewhat greater 
than the values which would be maintained on the road 
for any except very short periods. 

Work of American Locomotive Company 

For the first six months of the present fiscal year, 
the American Locomotive Co. showed gross earnings of 
814,398,859. This is an increase over the same period 
of last year of $9,039,630. Operating expenses for the 
six months ending December 31 last were $11,442,452, 
and the surplus, after deducting interest charges and 
preferred stock dividends, was larger by $3,508,584 
than in the first six months of the previous year. 

Unfilled orders on the books of the company December 
31, 1915, amounted to $52,240,000. While a large part 
of these orders covered shell contracts with the Allies, 
a very considerable portion belongs to the locomotive 
business proper. The American Locomotive Co. is glor- 
iously working out of its set backs due to hard times 
and is taking its former place among the country's first- 
class enterprises. 

- — * 

It is not possible to know how far the influence of 
any amiable, honest-hearted, duty-doing man flies out 
into the world. — Great Expectations. 



February, 1916 

The Development of a Fuel Department 

Details of Problems of Organization 
and Operation of Efficient Fuel Service 

L. G. Plant, Fuel Engineer, Seaboard Air Line Rail- 
way, among other things, at a recent meeting of the 
New England Railroad Club, said: Were it possible to 
get a composite picture of the fuel department as it 
does, or does not, exist on each railroad, to compare the 
"average" with the "potential" fuel department, the 
comparison would invite criticism from at least a dozen 
standpoints. The conspicuous results that have been 
obtained on a few railroads through a well organized 
fuel department, indicate how much remains to be ac- 
complished on American railroads as a whole before the 
fuel department can be regarded as an entire success. 

The fuel department has failed to establish its posi- 
tion in the organization of the railroad; it has never 
been recognized as an essential and integral part, equal 
in importance to the transportation, engineering ana 
motive power department. In the original structure 
of the railroad only those departments essential to 
actual operations were included. Efficiency in opera- 
tion has not until recently been given the attention it 
has always received in private enterprises. To appreci- 
ate its importance, one has only to review the expendi- 
tures for fuel on American railroads or to consider 
the cost of this item on his own road in comparison with 
other operating costs. The position and responsibilities 
of the fuel department should be as well denned as that 
of any other department on the railroad. 

The fuel department has never developed any well 
defined form of organization. The organization of the 
average fuel department is haphazard, its responsibili- 
ties are vague and it may be misplaced in its affiliation 
with another department. The transportation, engi- 
neering and motive power departments have each a 
generally accepted type of organization found to be 
the most practical and efficient; the same should apply 
to a fuel department. This department should be re- 
sponsible for efficiency in the selection, distribution and 
use of locomotive fuel. It should include two elements : 
— One experienced in the use of coal, the handling and 
drafting of locomotives; the other technical, familiar 
with available fuels, their preparation and relative effi- 
ciency. The first element should include only experi- 
enced enginemen whose personality assures them co- 
operation from the men they supervise. It has not 
yet adopted standard methods for supervising the se- 
lection, inspection, distribution and use of locomotive 

The fuel department has not been successful in arous- 
ing any widespread interest in fuel economy. Fuel con- 
sumption is, in a sense, the pulse of the railroad. Failure 
to provide, supervision in proportion to that found in 
any other branch of railroad service is the most con- 
spicuous defect in the average fuel department. The 
best ratio of supervision generally in effect is one 
traveling representative of motive power or fuel de- 
partment, to 50 engine crews. A well-managed shop 
usually provides a better ratio of supervision, although 
the potential saving in the shop is a fraction of the 
possible saving on the locomotive. This comparison 
does not reveal as great a discrepancy between the 
wages of the shop men and their foreman as is usually 
found between the enginemen and the road foremen, 
where, in many instances, the road foreman earns con- 
siderably less than many of the men whose work he 
supervises. Supervision over fuel use at terminals is 
important for the opportunity usually exists for makintr 

a greater saving at terminals in proportion to the fuel 
used, than on the road. 

Education in the economical use of fuel is a relatively 
neglected feature in the work of the fuel department. 
Instruction in the use of the air brake and many other 
details connected with railroad operation is considered 
necessary. Instruction should be arranged for both 
engineers and firemen. Cars designed for this purpose 
are equipped with a simple apparatus for demonstrat- 
ing the process of combustion and a screen where pic- 
tures may be effectively used to illustrate details in 
connection with the proper firing of locomotives. Mo- 
tion pictures can be used to the greatest advantage and 
these should be taken to illustrate local conditions. 
The value of this car simply as an "advertisement" for 
fuel economy must not be overlooked. 

This department has not assumed the same respon- 
sibility in the selection of fuel as for its economy in 
use nor has it shown the same discrimination in the 
purchase of coal as is exercised in the purchase or many- 
other materials. The fuel department has not furnished 
any tangible incentive for exercising economy in the 
use of fuel. One of the earliest attempts at fuel econ- 
omy was the money premium awarded enginemen for 
saving coal. This has been discarded because it was 
impossible to award premiums with accuracy and fair- 
ness and because it was objectionable to the engineers. 
as a whole. The individual fuel performance record,, 
however, remains as the best possible incentive that 
can be offered, provided an accurate and effective record 
can be published currently. The average fuel record 
is a failure because it disregards the effect of condi- 
tions beyond the control of the engineer. It includes 
his performance with light, as well as with full ton- 
nage trains, and superheater engines are often com- 
pared on the same sheet with engines using saturated 
steam. If based on correct principles, a very satisfac- 
tory and effective record can be computed without, 
facilities for weighing individual coal issues. A record 
of every engine movement must be kept, giving ths 
name of the engineer, the coal consumed, the freight 
ton-miles or passenger car-miles as the case may be,, 
and the coal consumption per ton or per car mile. This 
record is based on daily reports received from each 
terminal and is posted daily in a book similar to the- 
familiar car record. Where operating conditions are- 
taken into account and the engineer's weekly or monthly 
average includes only records made with tonnage trains 
under normal conditions, the record will prove a very- 
fair estimate of the engineer's relative standing. 

Where the department has recognized the necessity 
for fuel inspection, it has not always appreciated its 
possibilities. It has given comparatively little atten- 
tion to economical distribution of coal. Important 
questions relating to the effect of foreign freight, the- 
necessity for storage and the actual cost of distributing- 
coal upon the line of road, enter into the problem of 
economical distribution. The effect of foreign freight 
should be considered in connection with the purchase- 
of coal. The necessity for storing coal depends upon 
fluctuations in its price and other current conditions 
affecting each railroad. Distribution of coal upon the 
line of road should be arranged and supervised by 
the fuel department. A careful estimate of the actuar 
cost of moving company coal should be made in place 
of estimating this cost upon an arbitrary charge per 
ton-mile. The relative cost of coal at each chute, qual- 
ity considered, should be determined and a schedule 
arranged requiring engines to take as large a portion of 
coal as possible at points in their district where the 





cost is lowest. Observance of this schedule will result 
in an indirect but substantial saving. 

The charge that the fuel department has failed to 
take its part in developing the economy devices that 
have made the efficiency and capacity of the modern 
locomotive possible, is perhaps unfair. It is generally 
assumed that it is not within the scope of this depart- 
ment to attempt this phase of the fuel problem. From 
a broad standpoint, however, why should this be so. 
Apparently the fuel department has neither time nor 
money for perfecting new devices ; in some instances it 
has not even the facilities for giving them a fair trial. 
It is an unfortunate commentary on the fuel depart- 
ment that manufacturers of important economy devices 
must keep traveling representatives on the railroads to 
insure their proper use and maintenance. 


Serial Transmission of Brake Action 

Loss of Time, Shocks, and Slow Release 
Eliminated by Use of Electro-Pneumatic Brake 

In the course of some remarks made in a paper on 
"Recent Development in Brake Engineering Principles 
and Practice," by Mr. W. S. Dudley, chief engineer of 
the Westinghouse Air Brake Company, before the New 
York Railroad Club at a recent meeting, a phase of the 
subject, that of serial transmission of brake action, was 
taken up. 

The speaker referred to the fact that if the brakes 
on each car begin to apply at the same instant and with 
equal force, the train will commence to slow down with 
the least possibly delay and with an entire absence of 
shock between the cars. Compressed air, however, pos- 
sesses inertia, and its flow is retarded more or less by 
friction in the pipes, there must be an appreciable in- 
terval of time between the moment of starting brake 
action on each one of the successive cars in the train. 

With short trains and light cars this was of little con- 
sequence either in shocks or increase in length of stop. 
With trains of 10 to 16 heavy passenger train equip- 
ment and having coupler and draft rigging which per- 
mit of several inches slack between the cars, the effect 
of the serial application feature of the brake (PM 
Equipment) when stopping from certain speeds is con- 
siderable, and judgment and skill are required to handle 
such trains without rough slack action and shocks. The 
longer the train the greater the length of the stop be- 
cause of the longer time elapsing before all the brakes 
applied. Every second's delay at 60 M. P. H. means 88 
ft. added to the length of the stop. Every instant's 
delay in the transmission of the brake action from car 
to car means that much more opportunity for the slack 
to run in and cause shocks. 

The first modification of the brake apparatus was 
the "quick service" feature of the triple valve which 
was demonstrated on the New York Central at West 
Albany in 1905. This feature (in the LN Equipment) 
causes a slight but definite reduction in brake pipe 
pressure locally at each triple valve, similar to the local 
serial venting of brake pipe air in emergency applica- 
tions, but much less in amount and under the complete 
control of the triple valve slide valve. This tends to 
transmit the service application of the brake more 
quickly and uniformly throughout the train, thus re- 
ducing the tendency to shocks and lost time in getting 
the brake applied. A high degree of ingenuity and 
much patience and labor were required before this was 
finally worked out. 

This quick serial service action was primarily de- 
veloped for and is of greatest advantage on long freight 

trains. It is now recognized that it is impossible to 
apply all the brakes on trains of from 75 to 100 cars or 
over with certainty by an ordinary service application 
except by the aid of this quick service feature. In 
passenger service, the cars are much longer and the 
brake pipe volume for each car is being increased as 
new developments come into use, so that even with the 
quick service feature there is an appreciable time ele- 
ment in the service application of passenger train 

The same is true of the quick action features of the 
brake in emergency, which requires two to three seconds 
to travel the length of a 12-car passenger train. For 
emergency applications the shortest possible stop is the 
first consideration. The limit of transmission of quick 
action seems to have been reached with the quick action 
triple valve, opening a vent from the brake pipe which 
would drop its pressure as fast as the air could flow 
through the pipe to the vent. Recent developments in 
the emergency features, while they have done much to 
give this action the effectiveness and certainty required 
by modern train service, have not produced any quicker 
rate of serial quick action. 

The time element, inseparable from a simple air brake, 
disappears with the electro-pneumatic control of the 
brakes. Through the general use of electric lighting, 
the handling of electric apparatus has long been a part 
of the daily routine of passenger service, so that the 
desire to employ electrically controlled pneumatic ap- 
paratus for braking no longer suggests any insuperable 

After more than ten years of experience in the suc- 
cessful operation of electro-pneumatic brake apparatus 
under such exacting conditions as those of the subway 
in New York, in Philadelphia and in Boston, a state of 
the art has been reached which enabled the best de- 
sign to be determined upon. The opportunity for a 
practical demonstration of these advances in the art 
came with the investigation of the whole subject of 
braking requirements in heavy passenger train service 
made by the Pennsylvania R. R. and the Westinghouse 
Air Brake Co. in 1913. In these tests it was proved 
that the electric control of the air brake (UC Equip- 
ment) was practicable. It permitted full advantage to 
be taken of the improved service and emergency fea- 
tures of the air brake, and that the time element in 
serial transmission of brake action was eliminated. 
Shocks during brake applications are due to slack, modi- 
fied by speed. This was shown by both kinds of stops 
being compared at high and low speeds. At high speeds, 
60 to 80 M. P. H., the serial action of the emergency 
application produced shocks which increased in severity 
at lower speeds. At 10 M. P. H., the shock was prac- 
tically equal to a collision last and front cars, the train 
being stopped in 45 ft. A maximum emergency pres- 
sure of 100 lbs. was obtained on the first car in 1 
second, counting from the moment of application. The 
retardation thus brought about at the front end was 
capable of stopping the train in 6 seconds at this speed 
of 10 M. P. H. It was over 5 seconds before an equal 
pressure was had on the twelfth car. The head end 
was therefore practically stopped before the brakes 
became effective on the rear cars. The last car came 
to rest practically by impact with the cars ahead. Im- 
provement made in the serial action of the emergency 
brake reduced the time from 5 to 3 seconds, but the 
still greater improvement gained in the use of the elec- 
tro-pneumatic emergency stop is very remarkable. 

With the electro-pneumatic brake, which causes all 
the triple valves to act at the self-same moment, the ap- 
plication of just as great a retarding force entirely 



February, 1916 

eliminated violent slack action at all speeds. The 10 
M. P. H. stop being in 37 ft., was made without shock. 
The action of the electro-pneumatic apparatus when re- 
leasing brakes provides simultaneous control over all 
the brakes on the train. All brakes come off together; 
and it thus leaves nothing further to be desired, so far 
as the elimination of serial action, application or re- 
lease, in the service, as well as in the emergency appli- 
cations. A train on the Pennsylvania R. R. has been 
running between New York and Philadelphia since 
August, 1914, completely equipped with the electro- 
pneumatic brake, and it has proved to be thoroughly 
satisfactory in every way. 

Summing up, the speaker said: "Briefly, the time ele- 
ment in the serial transmission of brake action from 
one end of the train to the other cannot be eliminated 
from a purely pneumatic brake equipment; it is detri- 
mental in service applications, in emergnecy applica- 
tions, and when releasing, on account of the resultant 
slack action, shocks and loss of time. It can be elimi- 
nated with corresponding nullification of slack action, 
shocks and loss of time from this cause by the use of 
electric control of the brakes, which electro-control has 
proved to be entirely practicable, and at the same time 
permits the employment of the present possibilities in 
the pneumatic brake to a degree otherwise imprac- 

Resuscitation After Electric Shock 

The increasing use of the electric current on railways 
for the movement of locomotives, motor cars, shop ma- 
chinery, signals, etc., as well as for lighting shops, cars, 
lamps, and for the production of heat and other pur- 
poses, has introduced a new form of danger to menace 
the unwary. This is the possibility of receiving an elec- 
tric shock. These shocks may be either permanent or 
temporary in their effects. If the former, death takes 
place, usually instantaneously, and as far as we can 
judge, without any pain. The temporary effects of elec- 
tric shock produce complete unconsciousness, which, if 
the victim be not restored, will result in death. 

The temporary effect has all the appearance of death, 
and the beholder has no alternative but at once to re- 
sort to restorative measures. Medical aid should be sum- 
moned without any delay and the witness of the acci- 
dent should at once begin to produce artificial respira- 
tion, and persist in it for hours if necessary in order 
that life may be saved. The rule of action may be very 
simply stated. It is, that the sufferer from electric 
shock should at once be treated as one partially 
drowned. In any case, the victim can do nothing for 
himself, he appears to be dead and will certainly die, if 
not effectively cared for, without loss of time. 

At first sight the reason for the same restorative 
measures being applicable alike to cases of apparent 
drowning and of electric shock does not appear. A man 
apparently drowned has his lungs filled with water. 

The diaphragm is the muscular partition in the body 
separating the heart and lungs from the abdominal 
vicera, such as the stomach, liver, spleen, intestines, 
etc. In the case of a man apparently drowned, the 
diaphragm is unable to act and respiration ceases. 
Artificial respiration and the consequent emptying out 
of the water from the lungs is essential. In a case of 
electric shock the lungs are full of air, but the "stroke" 
or the shock of the electric current acts on what phy- 
sicians call the medulla oblongata, and affects the 
nerves from it so as to inhibit, or stop the movement 
of the diaphragm. The medulla oblongata is at the 

base of the brain and is the part at the back, iow 
down, near the neck. A man buttoning his back collar 
stud can, by raising his hand up to the head, touch the 
place where this division of the brain is situated. This 
region is the origin of the nerves which control involun- 
tary action, such as the nerves which govern the action 
of the heart and of the diaphragm, which latter is most 
largely used in respiratory action. 

The partially drowned man, and the man electrically 
"shocked," both have the diaphragm action stopped. In 
the first case it is like a clock whose pendulum becomes 
stationary because the hands have jammed. The second 
is as if the mechanism of the clock was free, but the 
pendulum had been arbitrarily stopped. In either case 
the pendulum must be made to swing again. In the 
human frame artificial respiration brings back the nor- 
mal action of the diaphragm and the process of resus- 
citation goes on. 

A pamphlet issued some years ago by the United 
Gas Improvement Co. of Philadelphia sets forth the 
procedure to be followed in case of electric shock. In 
it the patient is represented as placed upon his back. 
This is the supine position. In a treatise lately pub- 
lished by John Wiley & Sons, of this city, by Dr. 
Lauffer, the patient is placed face down. This is the 
prone postion. Both methods have their advocates and 
both are effective. 

The imperative necessity for prompt action by the 
man who would render first aid, becomes apparent when 
we remember that human beings have been able to 
live without food for forty days, and to subsist two 
days without water, but no one can be without air for 
more than two minutes without most seriously en- 
dangering his life. In these cases the victim is abso- 
lutely helpless, the friend who attempts to render help 
cannot take time to telephone or hunt up a physician, 
he must get to work on the instant. If he is fortunate 
enough to send for assistance, or to receive it, well and 
good, but in any case he must work, steadily, per- 
severingly and without cessation in the interest of his 
fellow man. 

In all this the man who works unfalteringly must 
not measure his time nor his endurance. He must 
put success before him as the one, only, and paramount 
consideration. He must encourage himself in his ef- 
forts by the assurance of success, he must not stop to 
doubt. Who may say that the influence of his persist- 
ence and his will may not evoke a faint response in the 
helpless and stricken but still living friend to whom he 
ministers? The effects of individual rage or fright in 
a mob of people reveal themselves in the actions of 
many who do not see or hear the frenzied man, and may 
it not be that the action of what has been called "mob 
psychology," applied in a particular case, to a being 
who appears not to see or hear, yet may turn the scale 
or at least give him the full benefit of what power there 
is in resolute and continued effort backed by the kindly 

The Pennsylvania Railroad does not throw away any- 
thing that has any value to man or beast. It sells every- 
thing the Company has no further use for, if there is 
any market for it. In 1914 the scrap material sold 
brought in to the railroad $2,157,241.24, and this was 
$1,000,000 less than in 1913. Waste paper alone sold 
for $19,211, oil barrels for $22,439, and old rubber for 
$15,222. Locomotives and wooden passenger cars sold 
for $114,326. Other odds and ends brought in $121,997. 
Old wheels, metals and wrought iron yielded more than 

February, 1916 



Practical Suggestions from Railway Shop Men 

Pattern Records and Whistle Elbow 


Draughtsman, A. G. S. R. R. 

The illustration given here is a sample or duplicate 
of our pattern record. This 3x5-inch filing case board 
system has been in use since 1910 and has proved to 
be very satisfactory. It should be of special value to 
shops which have no engineering department. Usually 
these have but a few blueprints and so they need an 




Fig. 1. Drawing Board for Pattern Records 

accurate record of repair parts for all shop equipment 
and rolling stock. 

Each card contains the following information: Num- 
ber of pattern; name of owner; weight of one casting; 
name of casting and its use; number of blueprint or 
sketch by which pattern was made; kind of casting; 


/ 2 

H|l|l|l|l|l|l|l|l|l|l|l|l|l|l|nr /| l| l |l)l |l| * |l | l|l j)| l| l| . 
^ 3 ZZJ3 V 7 j 




Tee Square for Pattern Records 

number of parts of the pattern and coreboxes; date pat- 
tern was made; when and to what foundry it was 
shipped, and an accurate dimension sketch of the rough 

It requires an average of 15 minutes to prepare each 
card, using the drawing board and tee-square, illus- 
trated in Figs. 1 and 2, and a few drawing tools. 

A good index is essential but is rather hard to pre- 
pare on account of the many names and nick-names ap- 
plied to the same part. A locomotive and M. C. B. dic- 
tionary should be referred to. 

The drawing board (Fig. 1) is made of any kind of 
close-grained wood. The center is recessed 1/32 inch to 

hold the card instead of thumb-tacks. The standard 
scale can either be marked on the wood or drawn on pa- 
per and glued to the board in a small recess made for 
it. A coat or two of shellac should be applied to pro- 
tect the lines. 

The tee-square (Fig. 2) is made of wood and will also 
answer the purposes for scale and triangles. The small 
bolt, from a dry battery, has a long flat head to prevent 
turning, and a knurled nut to tighten by hand. A pin- 
point indicator is used on the protractor for accuracy. 

Working drawings could also be made quickly with a 
larger board and tee-square of the same design. 

Engine failures caused by whistle failures can be 
eliminated by adding a valve to the whistle elbow as 
shown on the drawing. The end has a bevel surface, 
against which a valve is seated by turning the handle. 
The Mz-in. stem is supported by a light bridge across the 
steam opening, while the other end, %-in. thread, has a 

Improved Whistle Elbows 

stuffing box and a threaded bearing of sufficient length 
to allow the valve to open wide. A left-hand thread is 
preferable. ^ 

Tongs for Holding Round and Hexagon Stock 


Toledo, Ohio 

In the illustrations are shown tongs for holding 
round and hexagon stock when forging out work under 
the steam hammer. These tongs are made of wrought 
iron and have proved very useful to the smith. 


Tongs for Holding Round and Hexagon Bars 



February, 1916 

Special Double-End Punch and Shear 

The Covington Machine Co., 88 Wall St., New York 
City, have recently built a special double-end punch 
and shear with 25 in. throats on each end for the Nor- 
folk & Western R. R. shops at Bluefield, W. Va. The 
machine will punch up to 1^ in. diameter holes in lYs 
in. stock, will shear or split l x /s in. soft steel plates, 

.■ - * % - 



i \ 1 

f ~J 

' : 

Covington Double-End Punch 

will cut 2% in. rounds or 6 ins. by 1% in. flats or the 
equivalent of any of these operations. The photograph 
shows one end of the machine equipped for punching 
and the other for shearing. Special punches on die 
blocks have been provided for punching angles and for 

structural shapes and splitting and angle shears were 
provided. The machine is motor-driven, heavy and 
sturdy, weighs 39,000 lbs., and is designed for hard and 
continuous service. All gears are enclosed with sheet 
metal guards. 

The second illustration shows the Covington Ma- 
chine Company's latest pattern of Guillotine shears. 
This very powerful machine is designed for cutting 
6-in. square bars or equivalent and can be arranged 
with wider spacing between the housings for flat sec- 
tions or other forms. It can be supplied either for 
belt or motor drive and is equipped with gear guards. 

New Nut Lock and Bolt for Hollow Work 

The Columbia Nut and Bolt Co., Inc., Bridgeport, 
Conn., have just placed on the market the Columbia 
Jib Nut Lock, a three-thread lock made either square or 
hexagon, as illustrated, which has several advantages. 
The threads are cut straight through the nut which 
can, therefore, be applied up to the holding nut with 
fingers and a wrench is only required to set it tight. 

Covington 6-Inch Square Guillotine Shear 

Square Hexagon 

Columbia Jib Nut Locks 

The bent edges of the nut being on opposite sides, it 
can be applied either side up, and owing to its shape 
it does not injure or mar the threads of the bolt in any 
way. The bent edge of the jib nut comes in contact 
with the surface of the holding nut, tipping the jib nut 
over at an agle and forcing its threads into the threads 
of the bolt, making a jam. These bolts are made in all 
sizes from % in. up to and including 2 ins. and both 
square and hexagon threads. 

The Kling bolt has been designed in such a way that 
the head will pass through a hole of the same diameter 
as the stem of the bolt and will give a firm anchorage 
for the head on the opposite side, making it available 
for all hollow construction work. The bo!t is split in 
order that the head may be passed through a hole the 
size of the bolt stem. This splitting does not reduce 
the area of the metal nor affect the tensile strength of 
the bolt. The area of the metal at the head is greater 
than the area of metal where the thread is cut. The 
illustrations show the general appearance of the bolt 
and it is applied by passing the reinforced half of the 
bolt head through the hole first and following with the 
plain half. Holes should not be drilled larger than the 
diameter of the stem of the bolt. This bolt is available 
for attaching brackets, hinges, swivels, loops, guy wire 
attachments, braces, etc., to piping and hollow column 
work. Where conditions are such as to put the bolt 

February, 1916 



under heavy strain or shearing stress, it is recom- 
mended that nips or shoulders be applied for the 
brackets not only to assist the bolts, but to reduce the 
number necessary. In steel or semi-steel passenger 

Kling Bolt 

Application of Bracket to Hol- 
low Post with Kling Bolt 

car building this bolt makes possible mechanical con- 
struction involving the use of tubular posts. Sash and 
curtain guides may be bolted to the tubular posts with 
Kling bolts without tapping or threading and composi- 

Ver+ical Section 
A Sash Catch 

Application of Window and Curtain Stops to Hollow 
Post with Kling Bolts 

tion wood or steel lining can be attached to posts and 
carlines to advantage by their use. 

To apply the bolt the head is passed through the hole 
in the post or carline and a short piece of rubber tub- 
ing can be slipped over the bolt temporarily to hold it 
in place or a spring clamp of steel wire may be slipped 

on the bolt to hold it until the nut is applied. A hole 
should be drilled in the lining large enough to pass 
over the tubing, and the nut then applied. 

When this form of construction is used the linings,. 
and sash and curtain guides, can be readily removed 
for repairs and repainting, and as easily, reapplied. 


Gyclodial Wier for Water Meter 

The Kennicott Co., Chicago, 111., have recently placed 
on the market a water meter embodying a wier with, 
a cycloidal notch. The thought of a wier calls to mind 
the wiers of "V" notches and rectangular notches now 
in general use, and all the experience that has been 
secured in their operation lies back of the design of 
the new cycloidal notch. 

Water flowing from a round hole in the bottom of 
the container, or wier, passes out at a rate varying in 
proportion to the square root of the head. The rec- 
tangular notch in the side of the wier permits the- 
water to flow at a rate proportional to the 3/2 power 
of the head. The "V" notch changes this ratio to the 
5/2 power of the head. 

For a constant head, these ratios would any of them 
be sufficiently convenient for use, for once the rate of 
flow had been established, the mathematician could de- 
vote his time to other duties. Or, were the head to 
vary, and only an occasional reading be desired these 
ratios of rate of flow to head can be used. 

It is when a record is to be kept of the water flow 
that these fractional exponents in the proportion corn- 

Fig. 2 

Cycloidal Notch Wiers. 

plicate matters. A continuous recording device capable 
of recording the square root of the cube of the con- 
tinuously varying reading of a rectangular notch wier 
is not a simple mechanism, nor is a similar device for 
recording the square root of the fifth power. 

With these facts in mind, the Kennicott Co. began 
experimenting to find what shape of notch would per- 
mit the water to flow at a rate proportional to the head, 
with no intermediate computations. Starting with a 
rectangular slot in the bottom of the wier, experiments 
were made to determine how long the slot would need 
to be at each height for the water to flow at a rate 
proportional to the height or head. These lengths of 
slots, when plotted into a curve, formed the basis for the- 
construction of a wier box with a curved end and a 
rectangular slot, shown in the sketch Fig. 1. Ex- 
haustive tests confirmed the results of the experiment. 

After the perfecting of this form of wier a mathemat- 
ical investigation of the curve demonstrated it to be a. 
right cycloid, that is, a curve generated by a point on 
the circumference of a circle rolling on a straight line 
in the same plane with the circle. 

Having developed this form of wier and thoroughly- 
tested its dependability the Kennicott Co. has incorpo- 
rated it in its new cycloid wier meter, used in connection! 
with that company's water softening and storage ap- 



February, 1916 

paratus, the form of notch used being indicated in 
sketch' Fig. 2. This device makes possible much more 
accurate measurement of water by simpler means than 
have hitherto been employed. Though an astonishingly 
rational development and one perfectly reducible by 
mathematical computation, no previous investigators or 
experimenters appear to have attempted this result — 
at any rate, basic patents covering the principle have 
been allowed the inventors by the United States patent 

New Car Door Stops and Locks 

The Universal Car Seal and Appliance Co. have re- 
cently added to their line the "Universal Simplex" 
metal door stop, lock and guide. It has been designed 
to meet the M. C. B. standard requirements, is made of 
malleable iron, weighing about 6 a /2 lbs., and is, mechan- 
icallly, very strong. In operation the hasp is thrown 
over the lug and the drop pin placed through the hole 
in the lug. Seal or padlock may then be applied 
through registering holes in the extended tops of the 

"Universal Simplex" Car Door Lock 

pin and lug. This lock has been worked out so that it 
may be applied either to wood or steel doorway con- 
struction. Some recent improvements have been made 
in this company's "Universal Gibraltar" metal door 
stop, lock and guide. The lock is illustrated with these 
new improvements. While giving maximum efficiency, 


separate one part from another. It accommodates any 
car seal in use and a padlock and is made for wood or 
steel door or doorway construction. 

The device weighs about 12 lbs., is made of malleable 
iron throughout. Its design and construction reduces 
to the minimum upkeep or repair expense. It prevents 
splitting and battering door stops, doors and car bodies. 
The car door stop is kept intact; there is no splicing of 

"Universal Gibralter" Car Door Lock 

the metal stop into the car door stop, with the conse- 
quent high cost of application, and weakening the door 
stop as a whole. 

The metal door stop is a channel casting and en- 
velops the car door stop; it also has a side bolting 
flange for the purpose of reinforcing the car door stop. 
This stop casting is gained into the door stop, which 
is likewise the case with the door strap casting, pro- 
viding metal surfaces touching, and allowing for read- 
ily prying a binding door without injuring the wood- 

The operation of the lock is illustrated: first spread 
the gravity pawls by compressing the top extending 



U.C.S.5 A.Co 


'Universal Simplex" Car Door Lock 



| r i6RALr 4fl JAN 7 1913 
i. O l ^H SEPT 2 2 1914 

"Universal Gibralter" Car Door Lock 


this device is simple, quickly operated and sealed, and 
easy to inspect. 

It is M. C. B. Standard and is genuinely burglar- 
proof, having inaccessible bolts, and it is impossible to 

portions with the thumb and index finger of the left 
hand ; then throw the hasp over the post with the right 
hand; let go pawls. Apply seal (or padlock) through 
registering holes of pawls and post. 

February, 1916 



New Trade Literature 

The American Shop Equipment Co., Chicago, 111., have 
recently issued a 36-page illustrated catalogue cover- 
ing shop furnaces which have been equipped with an 
improved type of combustion chamber. A number of 
the furnaces are built with a layer of insulation brick 
between the fire brick and the plates, to reduce fuel 
consumption, maintain a more uniform temperature in 
the furnace and maintain a cooler temperature outside 
for the operator. Furnaces are described for forging, 
welding, hammer, bulldozer, spring fitting. 

The Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co., 1010 Fisher Bldg., 
Chicago, have recently issued a 16-page illustrated 
booklet giving a brief survey of the variety of types of 
compressors and oil engines which they manufacture. 
Some 24 represented types selected from over 300 are 
illustrated and the classes for service for which they 
are most advantageous are described. 

Watson-Stillman Co., Aldene, N. J., have recently 
issued a 16-page illustrated catalogue No. 93, describ- 
ing the Strucke-Watson-Stillman testing machine for 
cylindrical gas containers. The catalogue includes a 
discussion of various methods of testing cylinders and 
the safety disks with which they must be equipped. 
Examples of testing operations and data are incorpo- 

Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company, 

East Pittsburgh, Pa., have issued a 16-page illustrated 
reprint of a paper presented at a meeting of the Rail- 
way Club of Pittsburgh, by E. M. Herr, president of 
that company. The paper deals with electric power 
development, through successive sizes of generating 
units with relation to industrial and railway electrifica- 
tion projects. 

Gustave Wideke & Co., Dayton, Ohio, have recently 
issued a 96-page illustrated catalogue covering boiler 
tube expanders. A variety of devices are illustrated 
and the conditions of service which would make one 
expander of greater use than another are analyzed 
thoroughly. Charts of locomotive construction, both 
American and foreign, are valuable features of the 


Book Reviews 

Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Convention of the In- 
ternational Railroad Master Blacksmiths' Associa- 
tion, held at Philadelphia, Aug. 17, 18, 19, 1915. 
These proceedings have been put together in a very 
presentable book form, which has recently been issued. 
The officers of this association for the ensuing year are 
President T. E. Williams, of Davenport, Iowa; Vice- 
President W. C. Scofield, Chicago; Second Vice-Presi- 
dent John Carruthers, Proctor, Minn. ; Secretary and 
Treasurer A. L. Woodworth, Lima, Ohio; Assistant Sec- 
retary and Treasurer George P. White, Parsons, Kan.; 
Chemist George H. Williams, Boston, Mass.; Chairman 
Executive Committee George P. White, Parsons, Kan. 
From the address of the retiring president, Thomas 
Buckley, to the last address delivered the proceedings 
were marked by intelligent and forceful action. All the 
papers read are full of interesting matter, and subjects 
of all kinds relating to railroad blacksmithing were dis- 
cussed, noticeably piece work, best method of reclaim- 

ing scrap, spring making and repairing, case hardening, 
drop forging, electric welding, heat treatment of metals, 
shop kinks, carbon and high-speed steel and tempering 
of taps and dies, and also efficiency in shop work. Chi- 
cago was selected as the next meeting place and the 
third Tuesday in August, 1916, was the date agreed 
upon. The attendance was very large and many ladies 
were present to add to the interest of the occasion. 
There are 247 active members of this association and a 
large number of associate members. Mr. Cattell, of 
Philadelphia, represented the Mayor of that city and 
was extremely happy in his address, especially so when 
he remarked that he had received the best lesson of his 
life from a lady with whom he was once dancing. 
"What a splendid floor to dance on," he said. She re- 
plied: "Why not dance on it, then, and keep off my feet." 
This book is appropriately illustrated and is well 
worth having in a collection of books relating to rail- 
road subjects. Conventions like this are of great help 
to the railroads ; go a long way toward standardization 
and bring together men devoted to their callings. 

Conversion Chart and the W-PVT Chart, by Merl Wol- 
fard, S. B. and M. M. E., and Charles K. Carpenter, 
M. E. John Willey & Sons, Inc., New York. 

The Conversion Chart, 12 in. by 34 in., represents 
more than 40 complete conversion tables, including 
power, speed, linear, surface and volumetric conversions 
by means of a novel of logarithmic co-ordinate paper. 

The W-PVT Chart, 24 by 38 ins., is divided into two 
quadrants by use of a heavy diagonal line bringing the 
PV quadrants close to the TV quadrant, so that pressure 
temperature and volume relations throughout any gas. 
engine or air compressor cycle may be easily determined.. 
The chart may be entered directly in any units of 
pressure, temperature or volume, and cube or cube root 
and the 3/2 or 5/2 power or root of any number may be 

The chart is printed on accurately divided logarith- 
mic co-ordinate paper and all plotted scales are open- 
enough to insure a high degree of accuracy. 

Principles and Practice of Cost Accounting, by Fred- 
erick H. Baugh, Baltimore, Md., Box 682. 
This book has been prepared for the use of mechan- 
ical engineers, accountants, and manufacturers. It is a 
comprehensive and practical presentation of general prin- 
ciples upon which cost accounting for manufactured ar- 
ticles is based. Its various chapters treat of the out- 
line of accounting, principles of cost accounting, specific 
job cost, departmental cost, process cost and illustration 
of department cost accounts. The methods outlined in 
this work call for little, if any, addition to the books, 
which a corporation should ordinarily possess for re- 
cording its transaction and it cannot help but be useful 
to any one interested in cost accounting. All matters 1 
discussed are presented in a clear and adaptable manner. 
In these days of efficiency a book of this kind is of great 
value and makes an excellent acquisition for reference 
and study. 

The Mechanical World — Pocket Dairy and Year Book 
for 1916. This is the twenty-ninth year of its 
publication. Emmott & Co., Manchester and Lon- 
don, England; The Norman Remington Co., Balti- 
more, U. S. A., and the Marnzea Kabushhiki- 
Kaisha, Japan. Price, 30 cents, postpaid. 
It is a collection of useful Engineering Notes, Rules, 
Tables and Data. It is truly a pocket diary readily car- 
ried so as to be consulted at any time most conveniently. 
It is virtually all the "world of mechanics," snugged up 
for quick and oft needed information. 



February, 1916 

Supply Trade Notes 

Atkinson & Utech have announced their incorpora- 
tion to conduct a railroad supply business in iron and 
steel products at 111 Broadway, New York City. Lloyd 
H. Atkinson, president, was for several years rail sales 
agent of the Bethlehem Steel Co. John J. Utech, vice- 
president, has been connected with the Carnegie Steel 
Co., American Steel Foundries, and for the last six 
.years has been manager of the New York office of the 
Alliance Machine Co. 

William Edward Ballentine, general railway sales 
manager of the Willard Storage Battery Co., Cleveland, 
Ohio, died January 11, after an illness of four days. 
Mr. Ballentine was first associated with the Fort Scott 
•& Memphis R. R., then with the Pullman Co., and later 
was head of the electrical department of the Rock 
Island. In 1909 he was appointed manager of the 
western territory of the Willard Storage Battery Co., 
and in 1913 was appointed general railway sales man- 
ager of that company. The success of the Willard 
Storage Battery Co. in the train lighting field is greatly 
due to his efforts. 

E. H. Bell has recently been elected president of the 
Railroad Supply Co., of Chicago, succeeding the late 
Henry S. Hawley. Mr. Bell has been vice-president of 
that company for some years. 

James M. Buick, recently elected first vice-president 
and general manager of the American Car & Foundry 
•Co., at St. Louis, succeeding E. F. Carry, has been sec- 
ond vice-president of that company. The sales offices 
of the American Car & Foundry Co. will remain in 
Chicago, Herbert W. Wolff having been appointed vice- 
president in charge of sales. 

E. F. Carry, recently elected president of the Haskell 
& Barker Car Co., has resigned as vice-president of the 
American Car & Foundry Co., to accept that position. 

Maynard D. Church has recently been appointed chief 
•engineer of the Terry Steam Turbine Co. 

D. A. Crawford, recently elected treasurer of the 
Haskell & Barker Co., entered railroad supply work as 
secretary to E. F. Carry, vice-president of the American 
Car & Foundry Co. In 1912 he was elected assistant 
secretary of that company, where he remained until his 
recent change. 

John E. Dixon, recently elected vice-president in 
charge of sales of the Lima Locomotive Corporation at 
50 Church Street, New York, has been assistant man- 
ager of sales for a number of years of the American 
Locomotive Co. His training has included general shop 
work in a number of locomotive plants, and since 1905 
his experience has included a variety of work in the 
sales department of the American Locomotive Co. 

The Dimtley Product Sales Co., 810 Fisher Bldg., 
Chicago, 111., has organized a railway department under 
-the management of W. F. Caspert, formerly connected 
with the Monarch Steel Castings Co., of Detroit. The 
W. O. Duntley interests are represented by C. A. Dunt- 
ley, who will be actively connected with the manage- 
ment of the new department. 

J. H. Guess, recently elected secretary and treasurer 
of the Lima Locomotive Corporation, began railway 

work as telegraph operator on the Seaboard Air Line 
in 1895. In 1900 he was appointed clerk to the vice- 
president and general manager of that line, and in 1901 
clerk to the vice-president and general manager of the 
Atlanta, Birmingham & Atlantic. In 1902 he was ap- 
pointed assistant general purchasing agent of the Na- 
tional Railroad of Mexico, and in 1905 assistant secre- 
tary and assistant treasurer of that company. In 1901 
Mr. Guess became assistant general purchasing agent 
of the Grand Trunk, and in 1912 general purchasing 
agent on that road, from which he has resigned to be- 
come secretary and treasurer and to have charge of all 
purchases of the Lima Locomotive Corporation at Lima, 

The Haskell & Barker Co., of Manhattan, has recently 
filed articles of incorporation at Albany, N. Y. Formal 
transfer of the Haskell & Barker Co., of Michigan City, 
Ind., has been effected. The new officers are Edward 
F. Carry, president and general manager; C. A. Liddle, 
vice-president; and D. A. Crawford, mentioned else- 
where on this page. The directors include Mr. Carry 
and Mr. Liddle, and Wm. Ellis Corey, Ambrose Monel, 
and Frank A. Vanderlip. 

The Kay & Ess Co. have announced the appointment 
of H. N. Turner, formerly eastern representative, as 
sales manager, with headquarters at Dayton, Ohio. 

The Kilby Locomotive & Machine Works, Anniston, 
Ala., has changed its name to the Kilby Car & Foundry 
Co. There has been no change in management. 

Charles A. Liddle, recently elected vice-president of 
the Haskell & Barker Car Co., entered the service of 
the Allison Manufacturing Co. of Philadelphia, build- 
ers of freight cars, and has since that time been identi- 
fied with car manufacture in the service of the Jackson 
& Sharp Co., the Harlan & Hollingsworth Co., the 
Pressed Steel Car Co., and the American Car & Foundry 

The Lima Locomotive Corporation is reported to have 
had control of its stock acquired by a syndicate headed 
by Joel S. Coffin and Samuel G. Allen, president and 
vice-president respectively of the Franklin Railway 
Supply Co. 

The Locomotive Stoker Co. has removed its New 
York office from Room 1032, 30 Church Street, to Room 
1381, 50 Church Street. 

Waldo H. Marshall, president of the American Loco- 
motive Co., and first vice-president of the Merchants' 
Association of New York, has been appointed to the 
executive committee of the Merchants' Association, 
succeeding Irving T. Bush. 

The J. C. Russell Shovel Co., Pittsburgh, Pa., an- 
nounce that they have made an arrangement with R. 
L. Mason, 1501 Oliver Bldg., Pittsburgh, Pa., to act as 
special representative in the railway field. Mr. Mason 
will have charge of railroad sales on track shovels and 
locomotive scoops and his broad experience in the last 
fourteen years especially qualifies him to be of service. 

A. E. Schafer, who has for the past two years been 
vice-president and general sales manager of the Flint 
Varnish Works at Flint, Mich., has severed his relations 
with that company. 

E. C. Waldvogel has recently been appointed general 
manager of the Yale & Towne Manufacturing Co. 

J. W. Wilson has been appointed eastern railway 
representative of the Kay & Ess Co., succeeding Mr. 

February, 1916 



R. E. Anderson, recently appointed air brake in- 
structor on the Chesapeake & Ohio, has his office at 
Richmond, Va. 

Charles A. Bingaman, recently appointed mechanical 
engineer of the Philadelphia & Reading and subsidiary 
companies, has been serving that road in the capacity 
of assistant engineer of motive power, which position 
has now been abolished. 

H. N. Cathcart, recently appointed fuel and locomo- 
tive inspector on the Philadelphia & Reading at Read- 
ing, Pa., has been serving as traveling fireman. 

Philip Connif, recently appointed assistant superin- 
tendent of motive power and machinery for the Florida 
East Coast Ry., with headquarters at St. Augustine, 
Fla., has resigned as special inspector in the mechani- 
cal department of the Baltimore & Ohio. 

E. M. Cooney, recently appointed master mechanic at 
Zanesville, Ohio, of the Pennsylvania Lines west of 
Pittsburgh, entered the service of the Pennsylvania 
Railway Co. in 1895 as boiler maker helper. In 1899 
he was made flanger and layer out. In 1904 he was 
made boiler maker foreman at the Mt. Vernon shops, 
and in 1912 he was appointed on special work for the 
superintendent of motive power of the Central System. 
Mr. Cooney succeeds F. O. Peoples, who has been re- 
lieved from service. 

J. G. Crawford, fuel engineer of the Chicago, Bur- 
lington & Quincy R. R., has recently been elected sec- 
retary and treasurer of the International Railway Fuel 
Association, succeeding C. G. Hall, resigned. 

I. H. Drake, has recently been appointed master me- 
chanic of the Pecos division of the Atchison, Topeka 
& Santa Fe Ry., with headquarters at Clovis, N. M., suc- 
ceeding Hugo Schaefer, appointed pilot engineer in 
the valuation department. 

G. J. Duffey, recently appointed superintendent of 
motive power of the Lake Erie & Western at Lima, O., 
has been serving as master mechanic, that office being 
abolished with his appointment as superintendent of 
motive power. 

W. E. Dunkerley, recently appointed master mechanic 
of the Yellowstone division of the Northern Pacific at 
Glendive, Mont., succeeds B. P. Johnson. 

H. I. Fipps, recently appointed general foreman of 
engines of the Middle division of the Nickel Plate at 
Bellevue, 0., entered the service of the Nickel Plate 
31 years ago. In 1880 he was appointed engine-driver 
on the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern and in 1884 he 
returned to the Nickel Plate, where he has remained 
until his recent appointment, for which he gives up a 
preferred run on the Cleveland division. 

W. E. Grove recently appointed assistant general car 
inspector of the Philadelphia & Reading, has his office 
at Reading, Pa. 

J. B. Halliday has recently been appointed acting 
master mechanic of the Central and Western division, 
of the Minneapolis & St. Louis, R. R., with headquart- 
ers at Minneapolis, succeeding Wm. Gemlo, resigned. 

J. H. Hanna, recently apointed road foreman of en- 
gines of the Pennsylvania Lines West of Pittsburgh, 
western division, succeeding C. R. Colmey, deceased, 
has been serving as road foreman of engines. 

John P. Kendrick, recently appointed master 
mechanic of the Buffalo, Rochester & Pittsburgh Ry. 
at the Du Bois, Pa., shops, has been serving the same 
capacity at Punxsutawney, Pa. 

F. G. Lister, recently appointed mechanical engineer 
of the El Paso & Southwestern at El Paso, Tex., began 
railroad work in 1901 as machinist's apprentice with 
the Wabash Railroad at Springfield, 111. In 1902 he was 
appointed locomotive draftsman and in 1906 was ap- 
pointed locomotive and lead draftsman on the Northern 
Pacific. In 1911 Mr. Lister was appointed chief drafts- 
man of the Spokane, Portland & Seattle and affiliated 
lines and held this position until his recent appoint- 
ment. He succeeds in his new work H. P. McCann, re- 

I. A. McFerran, recently appointed master mechanic 
of the Louisville & Nashville R. R. at Covington, Ky., 
entered railroad service with the L. & N. R. R. in their 
shop, and after serving as fireman and engineman, he 
has been traveling engineer on that road for the last 
five years. He succeeds at Covington R. B. Salmons, 

J. A. MacRae has recently been appointed mechanical 
engineer of the Minneapolis & St. Louis, R. R., with 
headquarters at Minneapolis, Minn. 

0. E. Maxwell, recently appointed road foreman of 
engines of the Pennsylvania Lines West, assumes the 
duties of J. H. Hanna, promoted. 

J. A. Mitcham, recently appointed erecting shop fore- 
man of the San Pedro, Los Angeles & Salt Lake R. R 
at Las Vegas, Nev., succeeding G. F. Smith, resigned, 
leaves the position of roundhouse foreman of the Den- 
ver & Rio Grande at Ogden, Utah. 

F. E. More, recently appointed assistant road fore- 
man of engines of the Pennsylvania Lines West of 
Pittsburgh, succeeds F. E. Wilmore, promoted. 

George Mott has recently been appointed district mas- 
ter mechanic of the Alberta division of the Canadian 

1. C. Newmarch has recently been appointed super- 
intendent of shops for the New York Central R. R. at 
Collinswood, Ohio, succeeding R. H. Montgomery, de- 

C. J. Quantic, recently appointed master mechanic of 
the Pacific division of the Canadian Northern, is lo- 
cated at Port Mann, B. C. 



February, 1916 

T. L. Reed, recently appointed master mechanic on the 
North Carolina division of the Seaboard Air Line at 
Hamlet, N. C, has been serving as assistant master 
mechanic, and that office has now been abolished. 

John D. Rogers, recently appointed roundhouse fore- 
man of the Oregon Short Line, has his headquarters at 
Pocatello, Ida. 

F. Ronaldson, recently appointed district master 
mechanic of the Canadian Pacific at Farnham, Que., 
has been serving as locomotive foreman at Lambton, 

Jantes D. Searle, recently appointed master mechanic 
of the Buffalo, Rochester & Pittsburgh Ry. at Punxsu- 
tawney, Pa., succeeding John P. Kendrick, has been 
serving as erecting shop foreman at Du Bois. 

H. J. Whyte has recently been appointed supervisor 
of car work on the western lines of the Canadian 

John Wintersteen, recently appointed general master 
mechanic of the Lehigh Valley, with headquarters at 
South Bethlehem, Pa., entered railroad service in the 
Lansford shops of the Lehigh Coal & Navigation Com- 
pany. After holding a number of government positions 
he was connected with the Baldwin Locomotive Works 
and was later boiler inspector on the Norfolk and West- 
ern at Roanoke, Va. Following this work he was ap- 
pointed general foreman of the Philadelphia & Reading 
shops at Richmond. Mr. Wintersteen's duties as gen- 
eral master mechanic will be assigned to him by the 
superintendent of motive power. 


Oliver C. Gayley, vice-president of the Pressed Steel 
Car Co., died at his home in New York City January 9. 
He entered the service of the Pennsylvania R. R. in the 
engineering corps, and soon became supervising en- 
gineer. Later he was division engineer on the Phila- 
delphia & Reading, and afterwards was identified with 
the St. Louis Car Wheel Co. He then became general 
manager of sales of the Safety Car Lighting & Heating 
Co., and was a director of that concern at the time of 
his death. He entered the service of the Pressed Steel 
Car Co. as general manager of sales, and since was 
made second vice-president and recently first vice-presi- 
dent of that company. 

John Alexander Hill, whose death occurred last week, 
has been a unique figure in the ranks of technical 
journalists, and the president and founder of the 
Hill Publishing Company. He was born on Febru- 
ary 22, 1858, at Sandgate, Vermont, but early re- 
moved to Wisconsin, where he was educated. His start 
in life, at the age of fourteen, was in a small printing 
office, in which he became foreman at seventeen. His 
love for machinery, which was gratified in the printing 
office, led him to seek its further expansion in railroad 

He took the position of fireman on the Denver & Rio 
Grande, and shortly afterward became a locomotive 
engineer. It was his practical experience on the road 
which enabled him later on to write those inimitable 
sketches entitled "Jim Skeever's Object Lessons," which 
faithfully portrayed the actual railroad man as he is 
on the real railway. Leaving active railroad life, his 
printing house training enabled him to found the 
"Daily Press" of Pueblo, Col. He edited this paper for 
about a year, but again turned his attention to railroad 
work, at which he remained until 1887. During these 

years he was a frequent contributor to the "American 
Machinist." Many of his writings appeared under the 
simple name of John Alexander. 

In 1891 Mr. Hill formed a partnership with Angus 
Sinclair, another D. & R. G. locomotive engineer, and 
together they acquired the "Locomotive Engineer," 
They changed its name to include the science, and 
made it "Locomotive Engineering." In 1885 they bought, 
the "American Machinist," and later, when the partner- 
ship was dissolved, Mr. Hill took the "American Ma- 
chinist." Under his guiding hand the property ad- 
vanced in standing and in value, and its success 
enabled Mr. Hill to form a company which acquired 

John Alexander Hill 

not only the "American Machinist," but "Power," "The 
Engineering and Mining Journal," "The Engineering 
News" and established the "Coal Age." 

In acquiring these technical publications, Mr. Hill 
was able to give tangible form to his enlightened ideas 
of the printer's life and his art. He did not see any 
good reason why printers should work surrounded by 
disorder and amid printing ink, oily rags and waste 
paper. He believed a printing office might be as bright 
and clean as any other establishment where work is 
done, and he made this belief a reality in his building 
at Tenth avenue and 36th street, New York. This build- 
ing is painted white inside, and even the machinery is 
of the same color. It contains a tablet put up by the 
employes some years ago with the inscription, "Within 
this monument to independent truth and service in 
engineering journalism, the employes of the Hill Pub- 
lishing Company have placed this tablet, as an appre- 
ciation of the man and employer, John A. Hill." 

There was in this no idle flattery, for all had con- 
fidence in his justice and fair dealing. He is credited 
with many practical improvements in printing machin- 
ery and practice. He stood squarely behind his editors 
and never allowed the hope of advertising patronage 
to warp judgment or to bind honest opinion or stifle 
its expression. His wish was to die in harness and! 
the grim reaper found him at his post. 


Vol. XL 

Established 1878 


Copyright 1916 

No. 3 



Measurement of Economy 
What Some Railroad Necessities Cost 
Standardization of Freight Equipment 
Railroad Accidents 

American Locomotives for the Greek and Ser- 
bian Governments 
More prompt delivery of American 
designs of locomotives than of foreign 
types leading to their introduction in 
European military service. 

The Clinkering of Coal 

The cone method of determining fusi- 
bility of ash suggested for purchasing 

Steel Hopper Car for the Carriage of Iron Ore 
Fifty ton cars built by Ralston Car Co. 
for Diiluth, Missabe & Northern, em- 
bodying acute angle of slope and large 
door opening. 

Pulverized Coal for Locomotive Fuel 

Theory of coal dust combustion, ar- 
rangement of locomotive for firing 
powdered coal, and the problems in- 
volved in successfully burning this 

Curious Old English Passenger Car 

Friction with Reference to the Chilled Iron 
Brake efficiency of the chilled iron and 
the steel wheel compared, rail abrasion 
analyzed, tests given, 
train resistance. 

friction and 

Training of Railway Apprentices 

What is done on English railways in 
this matter in regard to qualifications 
and training. 

Reclamation of Condemned Freight Cars 

By J. J. Tatum, Supt. Freight Car 
Dept., B. & O. Method of dismantling 
and sorting and using material from 
worn-out cars. 










Freight Car Repairs on Boston & Maine R. R. 
Facilities, Methods and Organization 
for Freight Car Reconstruction and 
Repairs at Concord, N. H., and East 
Fitchburg, Mass. 

Wrought Iron or Steel Pipes 

Corrosion of iron and steel compared 
with reference to the endurance of 
pipes. Tables and results of tests 

A Many Times Used Envelop 

Principles of Dynamo Electric Machinery 
By Reginald Gordon 
Induction, magnetic field and electro 
motive force defined and simple dem- 
onstrations illustrated. 

Locomotives at the Centennial Exhibition 

Early appearance of the Walschaerts 
gear Automatic Locomotive Bell in 

Practical Suggestions from Railroad Shop Men 
Appliances on the St. Louis & San 

By John F. Long 

Chief Interchange Inspectors' and Car Fore- 
men's Association of America meeting 
Report of open meeting of executive 
committee, Chicago, February 21st, 
giving place and date of 1916 meeting. 

New Methods and Appliances 

36-in. Head Rotary Planing Machine 
Portable Pneumatic Drill for Heavy Duty 
Flue Reclaiming Attachments 
Locomotive Cylinder and Valve Cham- 
ber Bushing Boring Bar 
Putnam Heavy Double Axle Lathe 
Safety First Belt Shifter 
Calculating Machine for Mechanical 

Department Offices 
Pneumatic Spring Banding Press 
New Motor Drive for Power Hammers 

Supply Trade News 
New Trade Literature 
Personal Items for Railroad Men 
Book Reviews 














Published monthly by RAILWAY PERIODICALS COMPANY, INC., at Vanderbilt Concourse Building, 52 Van- 
derbilt Avenue, corner East 45th Street, New York ; Telephone, Murray Hill 8246 ; Cable, "Progage, New York." 
Chicago Office, 1635 Old Colony Building; Telephone, Harrison 6360. 

Ernest C. Brown, President. 

C. S. Myers, Vice-President. 

J. A. KucerAj Business Manager. 

F. W. Nolting, Secretary. 

J. W. Bareodr, Western Manager 

Benjamin Norton, Editor-in-Chief. 
G. S. Hodgins, Managing Editor. L. A. Horswell, Associate Editor. 

A Railway Journal devoted to the interests of railway motive power, 
cars, equipment, appliances, shops, machinery and supplies. 
Communications on any topic suitable to our columns are solicited. 
Subscription Price, Domestic, $1 a year ; Foreign countries, $1.50, 
free of postage. Single copies, 20 cents. Advertising rates given on 
application to the office, by mail or in person. 

Make Checks Payable to the Railway Periodicals Company, Inc. 
Copyright, 1916. by the Railway Periodicals Company, Inc. 
Entered at the New York Post Office as second-class mail matter. 



March, 1918 


(Its Relation To Moving Trains) 


Energy is an element which pervades the universe 
mobile, fluid, restless, resistless and eternal. 

The Scientist, in attempting a definition, says Energy is 
the capacity for doing work. 

The only difference between a train at rest and a train 
in motion is one of Energy. The whole function of the 
Locomotive is to change the Energy of Heat to the Energy 
of Motion. The sole purpose of the Air Brake is to 
return (dissipate) the Energy of Motion to the Energy 
of Heat. 

Energy flows — as a fluid — under pressure. 

The acceleration of a heavy railroad train from rest to 
60 miles per hour— in about 6 minutes of time — is due to an 
enormous flow of Energy (from heat to motion). 

The modern brake is required to return this train to 
rest in 20 seconds. To do so the flow of Energy 

(from motion to heat) must be eighteen times 

As Air Brake Designers and Engineers we must gi 
continuously, the most careful consideration to the proble 
of Energy. 


Westinghouse Air Brake Co. 



f w 

kv / Y \ 4 




Vol. XL 

Established 1878 


Copyright 1916 

No. 3 

Measurement of Economy 

Economy originally meant the management of a 
household, but the word has been altered in significance 
to include the idea of thrift, or the elimination of 
waste. On a railway when one speaks of economy of 
oil, one is generally understood to imply that less oil is 
to be used, or less will be used, than formerly. This 
off-hand assumption of what may be intended is not 
strictly accurate because cases may be cited where 
more lubricant, and not less, is actually consumed, and 
yet economy may be had. 

It is quite possible to pour water into a wash basin 
and so increase the amount in the bowl, and yet have 
the total quantity run out of the waste pipe faster 
than the smaller volume did, and this result is not due 
to the increase of weight owing to there being water 
added. Such a state of affairs may sometimes be seen 
in the washroom of a Pullman car. 

Here the swaying of the train may produce a cir- 
cular motion of the water in the basin, so that very lit- 
tle of it flows over the orifice of the waste pipe in a 
given time and gets away. The addition of water by a 
few strong strokes of the pump adds water to the mass, 
but it destroys the circular motion, and the whole of 
the water flows rapidly out. In this case it is not the 
amount of water used that makes for economy. It is 
the rapidity of outflow that counts, for the sooner the 
basin is empty the sooner another passenger can be 

On a freight train in case oil is used so sparingly 
in the axle boxes that after the first half hour's run 
several hot boxes develop, with accompanying worn or 
injured brasses, the actual saving in the quantity of oil 
used may not only cause a delay to the train in ques- 
tion but it may retard the advance of following trains 
so much as to be "bad railroading." Here is a saving 
in oil, and such a reduction of the quantity poured out 
of the oiler's can will have an equivalent figure quite 
visible on the railroad ledger, if done often enough. 
The less used, the less money will be paid out, thus 
producing a saving which is in no sense economy. The 
true measure of economy would be to consider the 
facility with which traffic can be moved. Enough oil to 
effect this, though greater than the restricted amount, 
is economy. 

Instances are easily found of locomotives which are 
designed to develop a given amount of power, or, to put 
it more simply, these engines are so made that they 

are capable of pulling a definite number of tons, when 
loaded in the fewest number of cars. If the limit of 
the fireman's capacity to shovel coal is reached and the 
load remains below what the engine can handle, the 
addition of a mechanical stoker may be necessary to re- 
place the fireman who did his utmost. The stoker will 
throw on more coal than the fireman could handle, and 
of course more coal will be burned, and the company 
will have to pay for the extra coal, but this is not ex- 
travagance, and the fireman, with his less amount, did 
not bring about any economy by what he did, though 
he undoubtedly saved the coal pile. The true measure 
of economy must here be gauged by the tons hauled or 
the time occupied on the road. 

A good example of economy may be observed in the 
loading of cars, because it readily appears that the less 
number of cars used with a given load, the greater the 
economy. If 1,000 tons be distributed in 25 cars, and 
the same amount, by more careful loading, be got into 
20 cars, it is a manifest economy in train operation, 
because five cars loaded in the first case are left free 
to receive other paying freight in the second, and forty 
wheels with their flange and rail friction are elimi- 
nated, which is an advantage for the engine. 

In the matter of economy a simple saving of the thing 
used is not necessarily the full measure of it, though it 
may turn out to be so. The fairer way to estimate the 
value of any procedure intended to give economy is to 
judge what is to be done and to observe how far the 
free but judicious use of materials tends to bring it 
about. Too little is scarcity, and too much is waste. 
The required amount used to the full is economy. 


What Some Railroad Necessities Cost 

The New York Central has recently prepared some in- 
teresting data relating to its own lines and service 
which will apply in a general way to many other sys- 
tems. The practically stationary rates, both passenger 
and freight, and the steady increase in the cost of op- 
eration are the basis for the preparation of these inter- 
esting figures. 

In the past ten years the New York Central has ex- 
pended $400,000,000 for new stations; electrification; 
the separation of grade at highway crossings; safety 
devices of all kinds; rock ballasting; heavier bridges; 
heavier locomotives ; coaches and equipment of various 
sorts, and all this in the interest of the public good. 



March, 1916 

Wages of train employes alone have advanced 45 per 
cent in the last decade. Supplies of all kinds have 
steadily increased in prices in the same time. In the 
matter of equipment alone there have been some tre- 
mendous increases. Steam locomotives formerly cost- 
ing on the average $17,300 each, are now to be had at 
$25,000, while electric locomotives have gone up in price 
from $30,000 to $50,000. Seven years ago steel passen- 
ger coaches could be purchased for $12,000 each. To- 
day $16,000 is the standard figure, and within three 
years the price of a steel baggage car has advanced 
from $8,000 to $8,800 — an increase of 10 per cent. Ad- 
ditional heavier equipment has forced the company to 
rebuild its roadbed; construct more substantial bridges 
and culverts and lay heavier steel rails, while the con- 
sumption of fuel has greatly increased on account of 
the larger engines in service. 

Eight years ago steel rails cost $29.30 per ton. In 
1914 the price was advanced to $30.02 and today it 
would be impossible to secure them at this figure. The 
standard weight of rails, of a few years ago — 85 lbs. to 
the yard — has been abandoned, so that now require- 
ments call for a 105-lb. pattern, or, as in many instances 
for a 140-lb., in order to safely handle the increased 
weight of equipment. By the M feet, ties cost $21.64 in 
1910. Today the price for the same class of material is 
$24.64 per M feet. The vast quantities of stone ballast 
required, formerly purchased at 60 cents per yard, now 
cost 65 cents. The cry for "safety first" and efficiency 
has resulted, too, in enormous expenditures in the way 
of improved signal systems. What are classed as "cur- 
rent improvements" have increased $4,000,000 since 
1910. Not including the vast outlay in the Grand Cen- 
tral terminal, these current improvements aggregate 
$39,000,000 for the past five years. Electrification work 
beginning in 1903 has involved an outlay of $24,000,000. 
These are all most interesting facts, not to mention an 
increase in taxes of more than $1,250,000 since 1910. 

It is no wonder that a desire for better rates is en- 
couraged on the part of this and other great railroad 
systems. The New York Central refers to the present 
rates as "ancient" and most of them truly are. All 
outgo and no income goes much harder with a railroad 
than the dullness which is the lot of a boy who does not 
bear in mind that "all work and no play is apt to make 
him dull." 


Standardization of Freight Equipment 

About eighteen months ago the American Railway 
Association appointed a special committee to devise 
plans for the adoption of standard freight car equip- 
ment. This committee was composed of Messrs. E. P. 
Ripley, president, Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Ry. 
(chairman) ; Fairfax Harrison, president, Southern 
Ry. ; Samuel Rea, president, Pennsylvania R. R. ; A. H. 
Smith, president, New York Central Lines ; J. Kruttsch- 
nitt, chairman executive committee, Southern Pacific 
Co.; Darius Miller, president, Chicago, Burlington & 
Quincy R. R., and Howard Elliott, chairman, New York, 

New Haven & Hartford R. R. The committee on main- 
tenance were instructed to assist the special committee 
in this matter. The special committee has been 
actively engaged in the consideration of the subject it 
has in hand, though it has not as yet presented a final 

It may be said, however, that there are about 2,500,- 
000 freight cars in this country, of which approximately 
1,000,000 are box cars, the average cost being $1,000 
for each car. There are an immense number of types 
of freight cars in service, the result of efforts by 
various designers. Each railroad has been a law unto 
itself in style and size of freight cars, and also of 
equipment, so that the freight train of to-day is a 
strange jumble of types of cars, one a foot higher than 
its neighbor, another wider, and another longer. There 
is most certainly need of cars of different sizes for 
different uses, but the present arrangement can, and 
eventually will, be modified. It is believed by many 
that fifty or seventy types would serve as far as gen- 
eral purposes go, better than a thousand. Another ex- 
pense due to the large number of types of freight cars 
is that which involves repairs. 

The matter of losses in all directions is commanding 
the attention of railroad men, and this statement is 
made: "The standardization of the box car is only 
one of the various economies that are possible. A 
freight car is at the money-making task of moving 
goods only one-tenth of the time. It is idle or impos- 
ing upon its owners for switching, storage repairs,, 
etc," This statement is reported to be the opinion of 
Mr. L. F. Loree, president of the Delaware & Hudson. 
In nearly every other branch of industry there has been. 
a marked advance in efficiency. 

Mr. Loree is further quoted as saying that an unduly 
high proportion of time is wasted in terminals owing 
to poor arrangement of tracks and general inadequacy 
of facilities; in fact, it has been said with some show 
of truth that "the railroad terminal is the weakest 
feature in the whole structure of American railroads." 
This of course refers to freight handling. 

Some years ago the structural steel mills rolled com- 
mercial shapes of approximately the same design,, 
though each mill differed from the others by some 
dimension. It so happened that this worked a good 
deal of hardship to railroads by reason of the fact that 
bridge renewals were seriously delayed. A bridge built 
with steel from a certain mill might require the re- 
newal of several systems of members. In such a case, 
steel shapes had to be made at the mill where the 
original structural steel had been manufactured. The 
rolls for that particular size and shape might then be 
out of commission, and delay and trouble was the 

A time came when the steel men got together and 
agreed upon a set of standard shapes that all should 
roll. They reduced the number of types by about two- 
thirds, and though each designer and each mill sac- 
rificed something, the result was most distinctly 
beneficial, and soon all began to enjoy the benefits of 

March, 1916 



cheaper production, and less warehousing came into 
vogue. The problem, difficult as it was, has been 
solved, and the principle, beneficial to the steel makers, 
can be applied to railway rolling stock. The problem 
is difficult even up to the limit of complication, but it is 
by no means beyond the resources, the skill and the 
mental acumen of our railway men, and the prospect of 
its final establishment is practically within sight. 

Railroad Accidents 

A certain amount of self-congratulation on the part 
of the railways is due on the showing made concerning 
accidents in the year 1915, as tabulated by the Inter- 
state Commerce Commission. Last year was the best 
year for passengers since 1906, as far as injuries are 
concerned, and the best for employes since 1911. Last 
year, however, the improvement has been very good in 
the safety of operation all through. Safety in its 
baldest sense means life, and immunity from injuries 
comes second in the general application of the word. 
The improvement indicates a general awakening not 
only of the public, but of railway men themselves. 
They, too, must stop, look and listen. 

The absolute safety of human life is the main thing 
and by all odds the first consideration. The fact that 
the dead do not come back to haunt railroad men, nor 
by their bitter words do they "make mad the guilty 
and appall the free" — they have been blotted out and 
are gone, but that fact does not prove that their taking 
off had even the shadow of palliation for it. The in- 
creasing and more extensive use of the automatic block 
system is often referred to as an evidence of the kind 
of improvement we have spoken of, and the safety-first 
campaign all over the country has done much to spe- 
cifically direct attention to the proper use and the value 
of safety appliances generally. 

The block system, most excellent as it is and coming 
more and more to be regarded as indispensable, and 
rightly so, is nevertheless advisory in its function. It 
gives information or tells its tale. It is the advance 
agent of the fact, but it is not that which slows down 
the train nor haults it on the threshhold of impending 
disaster. The block system needs the intelligent co- 
operation of a man or men. The mechanism is excel- 
lent, its conception is good, its indications are reliable 
and its failures, when they occur, are all on the side 
of safety. Its weak point lies in its human partner. 
It is true the man does not often fail, but occasionally he 
does, and his failure is not always on the side of safety. 
It is a matter of common knowledge that witnesses in 
a trial in court describe the same occurence very differ- 
ently from each other and no two of them will exactly 
agree in all particulars. So deeply does the personality 
and temperament of the observer govern his impres- 
sions that he frequently sees what he expects to see or 
makes such mental deductions from what he beholds 
as to actually color his appreciation of fact. A traveler 
from this country may see London, not as it may really 

be, but as he is temperamentally impressed by it. The 
man of science will tell you of the Royal Observatory 
at Greenwich and the South Kenzington Museum, while 
the bon vivant enthusiastically describes the restau- 
rants and the houses of the rich in Mayfair. 

One may not at once see the connection between this 
form of loose generalization by a traveler and the sober 
contemplation of a railway signal by a trained man, 
but back of it all there is the same quality of mind in 
each case, and the same liability to make mental de- 
ductions which may not entirely square with the facts. 
There is always the tendency to see what one expects 
to see, and close and concentrated effort is required to 
overcome this tendency, and in the case of momentary 
distraction (and distraction is ever ready to make en- 
trance to the brain) the faculty of concentrated and 
intelligent attention may at a critical moment become 

It has bten stated by many that the patent office is 
full of patents on useless schemes designed to prevent 
a slight distraction from finally resulting in disaster. 
Models of stop-signal apparatus are piled shelf upon 
shelf, dusty and unused. All this represents a waste of 
money and effort, and that it has so far come to naught. 
As far as mere statistics go or patent office records 
make it clear, not a tithe of the effort put forth in this 
direction is of any practical use, yet the subject is not 
properly disposed of by saying that such effort is wasted 
or the money involved has been thrown away. 

The unused, patented appliances at Washington are 
yet a silent reminder that this very question is not 
merely an effort to hit upon a good selling article, but. 
it shows that the subject is a live one, and that the 
eager quest for a practical solution is still being pur- 
sued. There is need for an effective and workable stop 
signal, and its need it constantly evidenced in the rail- 
way world. Its raison d'etre, when it is found, will be 
the fallibility of the human element. 

There is room here for the work of a joint committee 
of railroad men, signal men, manufacturers, thinkers 
and inventors of standing and of resource to formulate 
a schedule of requirements which a stop signal must 
possess. The Westinghouse air brake had practically 
such an origin, and the clear definition of what is 
actually wanted and of what must be provided narrows 
the field and would prevent wandering in the woods,, 
however pleasant to inventors, by indicating at least to 
them the general direction of the road by which they 
might attain some form of practical realization of the 
needs of the situation, if it did not finally lead them 
to success. ,j« . 

Government Trade Directory 

This Directory does not aim to include the names of 
the exporters, nor are the names of manufacturers 
given, except those who are, or seem likely to become, 
purchasers of American materials or merchandise. 
The Directory is in octavo form, bound in buckram,, 
and is sold at 60 cents a copy. Those desiring copies 
should write to the Superintendent of Documents, Gov- 
ernment Printing Office, Washington, D. C. 



March, 1916 

American Locomotives for Greek and Serbian Governments 

More Prompt Delivery of American Designs of Locomotives than of For- 
eign Types Leading to their Introduction in European Military Service 

Twenty 2-8-2 type locomotives for the Greek Govern- 
ment Railways, ten 2-6-6-2 type and twelve 2-8-0 type 
locomotives for the Serbian Government, have recently 
been delivered by the American Locomotive Company. 
These engines are of interest in showing how foreign 
railways are accepting American design in order to 
facilitate delivery which at present is the important 
iactor with reference to future trade opportunities. 

The twenty 2-8-2 type locomotives delivered to the 
Greek Government will be tested on a section of the 
road comprised between the stations Lianocladi and 
Derely, a distance of 43 kilometers (26.72 miles). The 
major portion of the curves are 300 meters (984.3 ft.) 
radius. Beginning from Lianocladi, and for a distance 
of 3% kilometers (2.17 miles) the grades vary from 
-4.5 to 2 per cent; then for a stretch of 30 kilometers 
(18.64 miles) a continuous grade of 2 per cent; then for 
6% kilometers (4.04 miles) a down grade of 2 per cent, 
and the remaining section to Derely is level. Trains 
.must cover this distance without taking water. 

A guarantee was given that the locomotives would 
haul on the section of road mentioned above and with- 
out imposing hardship on the crew train loads as 
follows : First, a train of 250 metric tons (275.6 tons) 
back of tender at a speed of 25 kilometers (15.53 miles.) 
an hour on the continuous grade of 2 per cent, and at 
60 kilometers (37.28 miles) an hour on the level. Sec- 
ond, a train of 190 metric tons (209.5 tons) back of 
tender at 40 kilometers (24.86 miles) an hour on the 

While the boiler and grate surfaces are less than would 
be considered good practice in this country they are as 
large as was possible to be obtained within the im- 
posed limitations of weight, and in comparison with 
continental locomotives they represent liberal propor- 

Among the interesting details it may be mentioned 
that all side rods have strap ends and adjustable 
brasses. Cylinder safety valves, by-pass valves and 
water gauge cocks are provided. Cylinder safety valves 
are attached to each end of and underneath the cylinder 
barrel. The design follows the builder's standard 
cylinder head relief valve with the exception of the 
casting, which makes the connection with the cylinder. 
Advantage was also taken in making this new casting 
to accommodate a cylinder cock, thus avoiding any ad- 
ditional holes in the cylinder barrel. The by-pass valve 
differs from practice in the United States in that it is 
operated from the cab by a system of levers and rods. 
The water gauge cocks are designed to close auto- 
matically in case the glass breaks. 

Other details of interest are steam heat equipment, 
electric headlights on both ends, self-centering valve 
stem guide, Cole latest trailing truck, screw reverse 
gear, Le Chatelaier water brake, speed recorder, and 
pyrometer. Engine and tender are equipped with 
vacuum automatic brakes as these brakes are now in 
use on the Greek railroads. The use of air brakes is 
contemplated and the engines were therefore arranged 

American Locomotive Company 2-8-2 for the Greek Government Railways 

continuous grade of 2 per cent, and at least 80 kilo- 
meters (49.71 miles) an hour on the level. All the 
locomotives were completely erected and tried under 
steam at the builder's works in the U. S. before ship- 

Having a specified axle weight limit of 15 metric tons 
(16.54 tons) these engines, with a weight on drivers 
of 131,800 lbs., and a total weight of 187,500 lbs., are 
as large as it was possible to build. With 23 x 26 ins. 
cylinders, a boiler pressure of 170 lbs. and 60 ins. 
drivers, they have a tractive power of 33,200 lbs. Gauge 
of track is 4 ft. 8 11/16 ins. 

The boiler is of the straight top radial stay type. 
It is 61 ins. inside diameter at the front end and is 
fitted with 134 2-in. diameter tubes 19 ft. long, a 21- 
unit Schmidt superheater and a brick arch supported 
on tubes. The firebox is of copper and is 83% ins. 
long and 59 3 4 ins. wide. The tubes have copper ends 
6 ins. long at the firebox end. All water-space stays 
«re copper and have tell-tale holes drilled in both ends. 

so that air brakes can be applied with the least possible 

These locomotives follow American practice with the 
exception of threads. All outside connections and parts 
subject to interchange have international threads. 
Metric threads were used on all bolts, boiler studs and 
staybolts. Our illustration shows the Greek 2-8-2 type 
of locomotive. 

Greek Government Railways, 2-8-2 Type 

Track gauge, 4 ft. 8 11/16 ins. Fuel, Cardiff coal. 
Cylinder, diam. 23 ins.; stroke, 26 ins. valve pis- 
ton. Tractive power, simple, 33,120 lbs. Factor of 
adhesion, simple, 3.98. Wheel base driving, 15 ft. 9 
ins.; rigid, 15 ft. 9 ins.; total, 32 ft. 2 ins.; total, engine 
and tender, 57 ft. 8 ins. Weight in working order, 
187,500 lbs.; on drivers, 131,800 lbs.; on trailers, 31,500 
lbs.; on engine truck, 24,200 lbs.; engine and tender, 
293,200 lbs. Boiler, type, straight top radial; O. D. 
first ring, 62 ft.; working pressure, 170 lbs. Firebox, 

March, 1916 



type, wide; length, 83% h^.; width, 59% ins.; com- 
bustion chamber, 3/16 ins.; length, 1 3/16 ins.; thick- 
ness of crown, % ins.; tube, % ins.; sides, % ins.; back, 
% ins; water space front, 4 ins.; sides 3% ins.; back, 
0V2 ins.; depth (top of grate to center of lowest tube), 
23% ins. Crown staying, radial. Tubes, material, cold 
drawn seamless steel; number, 134; diam., 2 ins. Flues, 
material, cold drawn seamless steel; number, 21; diam., 
5% ins. Thickness tubes, No. 11 B. W. G.; flues, No. 
9 B. W. G. Tube, length, 19 ft.; spacing, % ins. Heat- 
ing surface, tubes and flues, 1,881 sq. ft.; firebox, 134 
sq. ft. ; arch tubes, 16 sq. ft. ; total, 2,031 sq. ft. Super- 

ins, wide is installed in a firebox 114y8 ins. long by 
39 1 /! ins. wide. A screw reverse gear was applied. 

An order for seven of the consolidation engines was 
also received. This order was later increased to twelve. 
Five of the engines were soon shipped and the remain- 
ing seven were shipped later on. The consolidation en- 
gines have a total weight of 80,500 lbs., cylinders 15- 
ins. in diameter and 20 ins. in stroke, steam pressure 
160 lbs., giving a tractive power of 17,000 lbs. The 
boiler is of the straight top type, 47% ins. in diameter 
at the front end; it is fitted with one hundred and 
twenty-six 2-in. tubes, 15 ft. 1% ins. in length, and 

American Locomotive Company 2-6-6-2 Type for Serbian Government Railways 

heater surface, 458 sq. ft. Grate area, 34.7 sq. ft. 
Wheels, driving diam. tire, 60 ins.; center diam., 54 
ins.; wheels, driv. material, main, C. S.; others, C. S.; 
engine truck, diam., 33 ins.; kind, C. S. spoke; trailing 
truck, diam., 42 ins.; kind, C. S. spoke; tender truck ; 
diam., 33 ins.; kind, C. S. spoke. Axles, driving jour-' 
nals main, 9 ins. by 9 ins.; other, 8 ins. by 9 ins.; 
engine truck journals, 5% ins. by 12 ins.; trailing 
truck journals, 6 ins. by 14 ins. ; tender truck journals, 
5 ins. by 9 ins. Boxes, driving, main, C. S.; others, 
C. S. Brake, driver, vacuum and hand. Engine truck, 
two-wheel radial. Trailing truck, two-wheel radial. 
Exhaust pipe, single; nozzles, 5 1/16 ins. 5 3/16 ins.; 
5 5/16 ins. Grate, style, rocking. Piston rod diam., 
3% ins.; piston packing, C. I. rings. Smoke stack, 
diam., 13 ins.; top above rail, 13 ft. 10 ins. Tender 
frame, built up. Tank, style, "U" shape level top; 
capacity, 5,000 gals.; capacity, fuel, 8.8 U. S. tons. 
Valves, type, piston; travel, 6 ins.; ex. lap, clear, % in.; 
setting, lead, 3/16 in., constant. 

Serbian Government Railways 

An order was received for ten 2-6-6-2 Mallet locomo-- 
tives of new design. All drawing room work was done 
in nineteen working days. The first engine had been 
designed, built, tested, knocked down and shipped in 
record time. These ten Mallets and the twelve con- 
solidations have outside frames which were necessitated 
by the gauge of track which is 30 ins. As many details 
as possible were made interchangeable in the 2-6-6-2 
and the 2-8-0 types of locomotives. 

The Mallet engines have a total weight of 126,000 
lbs., cylinders are 13 ins. and 20y2 ins. in diameter by 
20 ins. in stroke, driving wheels are 36 ins. in diameter 
and the steam pressure is 200 lbs. Being fitted with 
the builders system of compounding, they have a 
tractive power working compound of 24,300 lbs. and 
29,200 lbs. working simple. The boiler is of the straight 
top type, 52 ins. in diameter at the front end, one hun- 
dred and fifty-seven 2-in. tubes, 15 ft. 1% ins. in length. 
By means of a brick wall a grate 85 ins. long by 39 1 / 4 

a firebox 48 3/16 ins. long by 39% ins. wide. American 
Locomotive Company's standard methods of design and 
construction were used on these engines throughout. 

Serbian Government Railways, 2-6-6-2 Type 

Track gauge, 30 ins. Fuel, soft coal. Cylinder, type, 
simple; diam., 13 ins.; stroke, 20 ins. piston valves. Trac- 
tive power, compound, 24,300 lbs. Factor of adhesion, 
compound, 4.3. Wheel base driving, 7 ft. 6 ins.; rigid, 7 
ft. 6 ins. ; total, 34 ft. 6 ins. ; total, engine and tender, 
55 ft. Weight in working order, 126,000 lbs.; on 
drivers, 103,000 lbs; on trailers, 11,000 lbs.; on engine 
truck, 12,000 lbs.; engine and tender, 156,500 lbs. 
Boiler, type, straight top radial; O. D. first ring, 52 
ins.; working pressure, 200 lbs. Firebox, type, narrow; 
length, 114y8 ins.; width, 39 1 / 4 ins.; thickness of crown, 
% in.; tube, % in.; sides, % in.; back, % in.; water 
space front, 4 ins.; sides, 3 ins.; back, 3 ins; depth 
(top of grate to center of lowest tube), % in. Gates- 
fire brick arch used. Crown staying, radial. Tubes, 
material, cold drawn seamless steel ; number 157 ; diam., 
2 ins. Thickness tubes, No. 12 B. W. G. Tube, length, 
15 ft. 1% ins.; spacing, 11/16 in. Heating surface, 
tubes and flues, 1,236.5 sq. ft.; firebox, 95 sq. ft.; total, 
1,331.5 sq. ft. Grate area, 23.2 sq. ft. Wheels, driving 
diam. outside tire, 36 ins.; center diam, 31 ins. Wheels, 
driving material, main, C. I.; others, C. I.; engine truck, 
diam., 24 ins.; kind, C. I. spoke; trailing truck, diam., 
24 ins.; kind, C. I. spoke; tender truck, diam., 26 ins.; 
kind, C. I. spoke. Axles, driv. journals main, 6% ins. 
by 7 ins. ; other, 6V2 ins. by 7 ins. ; engine truck jour- 
nals, 4 ins. by 7 ins.; trailing truck journals, 4 ins. by 
7 ins.; tender truck journals, 3% ins. by 7 ins. Boxes, 
driving, main, C. I. ; others, C. I. Brake, driver, Hardy 
system; tender, Hardy system. Engine truck, two- 
wheel radial. Trailing truck, two-wheel radial. Ex- 
haust pipe, single; nozzles, 4% ins., 4V 2 ins., 4% ins. 
Piston, rod diam., 2% ins.; piston packing, C. I. rings. 
Smoke stack, diam., 11 ins.; top above rail, 10 ft. 10 
ins. Tender frame, A. L. Co.'s steel channel. Tank, 
style, "U" shape level top; capacity, 2,500 gals.; fuel, 



March, 1916 

;5 tons of coal. Valves, type, piston; travel, 4% ins.; 
steam lap, % ins.; ex. lap, clear, 3/16 ins.; setting, lead, 
% in. 

Serbian Government Railways, 2-8-0 Type 

Track gauge, 2 ft. 6 ins. Fuel, soft coal. Cylinders, 
diam., 15 ins.; stroke, 20 ins. slide valves. Tractive 
power, simple, 17,000 lbs. Factor of adhesion, simple, 
4.3. Wheel base driving, 10 ft. 7 ins.; rigid, 10 ft. 7 
ins.; total, 18 ft.; total, engine and tender, 42 ft. 8 ins. 
Boiler, type, straight top radial stay; O. D. first ring, 
47% ins.; working pressure, 160 lbs. Firebox, type, 

The Clinkering of Coal 

The Cone Method of Determining Fusibility of 
Ash Suggested for Purchasing Specifications 

There is a growing feeling that the matter of clinker- 
ing ought to be taken care of when making contracts for 
coal, said Mr. L. S. Marks at a recent meeting of the 
A. S. M. E. It has been suggested that specifications 
ought to include the melting temperatures of the ash 
as indicating the clinkering characteristics of the coal. 

The difficulty in determining the melting point of ash 
lies in the definition of melting temperature. An ash is 

American Locomotive Company 2-8-0 Type for the Serbian Government Railways 

narrow; length, 48 3/16 ins.; width, 39% ins.; thick- 
ness of crown, % in.; tube, % in.; sides, % in.; back, 
5/16 in.; water space front, 3 ins.; sides, 3 ins.; back, 

3 ins.; depth (top of grate to center of lowest tube), 
20% ins. Crown staying, radial. Tubes, material, cold 
drawn seamless steel; number, 126; diam., 2 ins. 
Thickness tubes, No. 12 B. W. G. Tube, length, 15 ft. 
1% ins.; spacing, % in. Heating surface, tubes and 
flues, 992 sq. ft.; firebox, 69 sq. ft.; total, 1,061 sq. ft. 
Grate area, 13.1 sq. ft. ' Wheels, driving diam. outside 
tire, 36 ins.; center diam., 31 ins. Wheels, driving 
material, main, cast iron; others, C. I.; engine truck, 
diam., 24 ins.; kind, C. L; tender truck, diam., 26 ins.; 
kind, C. I. Axles, driving journals main, 6% ins. by 7 
ins.; other, 6% ins. by 7 ins.; engine truck journals, 

4 ins. by 5 ins. ; tender truck journals, 3% ins. by 7 ins. 
Boxes, driving, main, C. I.; others, C. I. Brake, driver, 
similar to the Hardy system of vacuum brake; tender, 
similar to Hardy and hand brake. 

The Subject of Railway Mail Pay 

Since our last reference to this matter, the railways 
have added to their backing by the country at large, in 
their efforts to secure suitable compensation for carry- 
ing the mails, in resolutions passed by the Boston 
Chamber of Commerce, the Chamber of Commerce of 
Jackson, Mich. ; the Baltimore Chamber of Commerce, 
the Board of Trustees of the Seattle Chamber, the 
Washington, Pa., Board of Trade; the Pittsburgh 
Chamber of Commerce, the Stockton, Cal., Board; the 
Chamber of Commerce of Berkeley, Cal.; the Ogdens- 
burg, N. Y., Chamber, and the National Industrial 
League of Chicago. The sentiment in favor of ade- 
quate compensation to the railways, covering the mail 
service, is country-wide, and such actions as all these 
important boards have taken should go a long way 
toward effecting legislation at Washington in the right 

usually composed of a number of ingredients of differ- 
ent fusibilities. The only method that seems to be avail- 
able for measuring both melting temperature and vis- 
cosity, is the Seger cone method, or some modification 
of it. It is a rough method of measuring the tempera- 
ture at which the ash reaches a standard viscosity. 
The method fails if the most fusible constituents of 
the ash become very fluid, as a skelton may be left long 
after its more fusible elements are fluid. If the cone is 
placed horizontally projecting over the edge of its sup- 
port, the indications are more satisfactory. 

The Seger cone method often yields results which 
are variable. A tabulation of such results shows an 
extreme variation of as much as 700 deg. Fahr. between 
different laboratories. The causes of this variation are 
the kind of atmosphere and the rate of heating. If the 
melting takes place in a reducing atmosphere, the ob- 
served temperatures will be from 250 to 450 deg. Fahr. 
higher than in an oxidizing atmosphere. The rate of 
heating the cone has a marked effect on the apparent 
fusing temperature, when a thermo-electric pryometer 
is used. 

Laboratory tests of coal ash by the method finally 
adopted by the writer when compared with the clinker- 
ing results actually observed when burning ten differ- 
ent coals under normal power house conditions, show a 
general relation between the two, but not definite 
enough to be reliable. 

A further indication seems to be of value when com- 
bined with melting temperature observations. This in- 
dication is the appearance of the melted cone and the 
range of temperatures between initial and final bend- 
ing. The coals which gave most trouble were those of 
which the ash cones showed a very liquid constituent 
and a small range of temperatures between initial and 
final bending. For the plant investigated, an ash with 
a fusing temperature below 2,550 degs. Fahr. would 
probably give trouble if the ash cone shows a fusible 
constituent; whereas it will not give trouble with a 
fusing temp, above 2,215 degs. F., if the ash is viscous. 

:March, 1916 



Steel Hopper Car for the Carriage of Iron Ore 

Fifty-ton Cars Built by the Ralston Car Co. for Duluth Missabe & 
Northern, Embodying Acute Angle of Slope and Large Door Opening 

The Duluth, Missabe & Northern Railway has re- 
cently received from the Ralston Car Co. of Columbus, 
O., some steel hopper cars for hauling ore and rough 
freight. With the rapid development of iron ore oper- 
ations the matter of handling this commodity with the 
greatest dispatch and in as few cars as possible has 
become quite an interesting question, especially when 
considering Northern ore properties, where transporta- 
tion and handling take place only during the warm 
season. As ore is far more difficult to dislodge from a 
loaded car than coal is, it is plainly to be seen that a 
dump car designed for coal is practically useless for 
the purpose of dumping ore; consequently, it is neces- 
sary in the transportation of this material that the cars 
used must be so constructed as to facilitate the in- 
stantaneous removal of the ore by dumping, and also to 
eliminate the bridging of the material over the door 

This has been accomplished by the skillful embody- 
ment of various elements in limited space, with a large 
door opening and an acute angle of hopper slope, and 
"with an operating device which is very substantial and 

The side sills are composed of channel beams having 

beyond the end sills and back to the inclined sheets, to 
which they are secured. An angle is connected to the 
draft sills at the forward ends of the latter, extending 
to the corners of the frame at the point of the side 
sill, where they are riveted. The bolsters are composed 
of diaphragms connected to the side and center sill 
and bottom cover plate; the upper edges of the dia- 
phragms being riveted to a floor plate which covers the 
entire portion of the frame from hopper sheet to strik- 
ing plate; this floor cover plate is riveted to the end 
sill angles, draft sills and side sills, and has a flange 
at its rear end which is firmly connected to the hopper 
slope sheet, forming a substantial girder, allowing the 
buffing stresses to be equally distributed over all parts 
of the underframe. 

Secured to, and extending from, one bolster to the 
other, are longitudinal or sub-sills spaced short dis- 
tances from the side sills, serving not only to increase 
the strength and rigidity of the underframe, but also 
performing the function of providing a connection for 
the door bracket hinges and sloping side floor sheets. 
This sub-sill, in turn, is firmly connected to the side 
sill proper. The hopper slope sheets are composed of 
three pieces, sides and center, supported on the out- 

Side View of Duluth, Missabe & Northern Hopper Car, Built by the Ralston Car Co. 

i;heir flanges turned inward, to provide a flush surface 
for the application of channel side stakes. The end 
sills are securely connected to the side sills, which have 
connected to them corner posts, the upper edges of 
which are attached to the top end angles, and to these 
the upper ends of the front and rear inclined hopper 
sheets are secured. The draft sills extend forward 

side by an angle member, the ends of which are riveted 
to the side floor sheets; this angle, in turn, derives its 
support from diagonal bracing connected thereto, and 
to the end sill. The door mechanism consists of links 
suspended from brackets secured to the draft sills at 
the respective ends of the lower portion of the car 
body, and the links at one end of the hopper bottom 



March, 1916 

are connected with those at the other end by shafts 
disposed under the doors, and on these shafts rollers 
are mounted running into a track-way on the doors. 

Near the end of the hopper body, short shafts are 
mounted in bearings, having applied thereto armed 
cross-heads with curved links attached to the arms and 
the door shafts. A worm segment is mounted upon 
each short shaft, and the hub of this segment is made 
with a clutch member, having a lug thereon; another 
clutch member is secured to each shaft and made to 
co-operate with the lugs on the other clutch members; 
the lugs in the two clutch members are so proportioned 
as to permit of relative movements of the segment and 
shaft. Worms are mounted between the draft sills 
near respective ends of the hopper body and are dis- 
posed over and enmeshed with semi-gear or worm seg- 
ments. A transverse shaft passes through the worms 
for rotating the same, and this shaft is mounted near 
its ends in bearings secured to the side sills, the ends 
of the shaft being made to project beyond the side sills 
for the reception of a device for manually operating it. 

A transverse shaft is connected with a worm at the 
other end of the hopper body and extends to one side 
only of the car, where it is mounted in the bearing, 
secured to one of the side sills which projects some- 
what beyond for the reception of a hand-operating 
device. Sprocket wheels are secured to the cross shafts, 
and these sprockets are connected by a sprocket chain 
so that when one or the other of these shafts is rotated, 
motion will be imparted to both worms for turning the 
gears beneath the worms. When the doors are closed, 
retention in such position is insured by the worm gear- 
ing, without necessity for the use of pawl or ratchet 


K: • ;'.. ... , i. , 
t j 


■life :Ml , ~W-% 


"~^^^9HENH L-J& 


Doors Open on D. M. & N. Hopper Car 

devices, which are generally used in operating dump 
doors. When the sub-shaft has been rotated sufficiently 
to overcome the dead centers of the link mechanism, 
the weight of the load in the hopper body will force 
the doors fully open. To secure the closing of the 
doors the trainman operates one of the cross shafts to 
impart motion to the worms and cause the latter to 
operate the worm segments. Motion is thus imparted 
by the worm segments to the sub-shaft through the 
medium of the clutch device, and the rotation of the 
sub-shaft will operate the link mechanism to close the 
doors. The improved construction of the worm gear 
operating mechanism placed in line with the longi- 
tudinal axis of the car at respective ends of the hopper, 
and operated from the sides of the car, is exceedingly 
simple and provides powerful means for effecting the 
closing of the doors with the expenditure of a mini- 
mum amount of energy, and also provides efficient 
means for locking the doors in the closed position. 

A test was made recently with one of these cars 
loaded with fifty-two tons of ore. in order to ascertain 

the length of time required to dump the load with one 
man doing the work. It developed that from the time 
the man applied the wrench to the operating shaft, 
dumping the load, closing the doors, the car was ready 
for a return trip to the mines. And all this had been 
done in thirty-five seconds. These cars are built by 
the Ralston Steel Car Company, under patents owned 
by that company and designed by Mr. R. R. Weaver, 
their mechanical engineer, who is also the inventor. 


Story of Transportation Progress 

To unify the great New York Central system, as it 
exists today, was a stupendous undertaking, and in its 
accomplishment many obstacles were presented. The 
task was exacting, but the results finally obtained now 
reflect great credit on the owners and management. 

An interesting pamphlet quite recently issued by 
President Smith gives a brief history of the evolution 
of the New York Central from its beginning down to 
the present day. Those who assisted in this develop- 
ment with heart, mind and money, which eventually 
brought together 186 distinct organizations, are en- 
titled to especial consideration. It is a narrative in 
which many heretofore unpublished facts appear. From 
the chartering of the Mohawk & Hudson Railroad Com- 
pany in 1826, to the practical completion of that mar- 
velous terminal — the Grand Central Station — we are 
presented with a story of transportation progress which 
is amazing. At the close, the president contributes a 
suitable moral, when he says: "The fundamental idea 
upon which the whole organization has been built is 
'service' — service not alone to the traveling public, but 
to shipper, manufacturer and whole communities. The 
law of progress, the law of growth, of unity and of 
service." There are many rare illustrations in the 
booklet. We see the tiny Dewitt Clinton struggling 
with its burden, consisting of three early day stage 
coaches, which thrilled the country in 1831; the old 
Harlem Station, now the site of the Madison Square 
Garden; a scene at the old freight station near the 
Tombs prison in the early 50's ; the Twentieth Century 
Limited of today and other especially interesting scenes. 


Iron-Silicon Alloys in Vacuo 

Magnetic and Other Properties of Iron-Silicon Alloys 
Melted in Vacuo, by T. D. Yensen, has been issued as 
Bulletin No. 83 of the Engineering Experiment Station 
of the University of Illinois. This bulletin describes 
methods employed in producing a number of iron-silicon 
alloys which the author has subjected to mechanical 
and electrical tests. It is shown that silicon increases 
the mechanical strength of iron in almost direct propor- 
tion to the amount added, until the maximum strength is 
reached with a silicon content of about 4.5 per cent. 
The elastic limit of this alloy was shown to be 94,000 
lbs. per sq. in. and its ultimate strength 105,000 lbs. 

With regard to magnetic properties the vacuum, alloys 
are shown to possess most remarkable characteristics. 
The maximum permeability is above 50,000 and the 
hysteresis loss is only one-eighth to one-third of that for 
commercial silicon steel. The specific electrical re- 
sistance increases about 11 microhms for each per cent 
of silicon. Copies of Bulletin No. 83 may be obtained 
gratis upon application to W. F. Goss, Director, En- 
gineering Experiment Station, Urbana, 111. 


The art is greatest which conveys to the mind of the 
spectator, by any means whatsoever, the greatest num- 
bers of the greatest ideas. — Modern Painters. 

March, 1916 



Pulverized Coal for Locomotive Fuel 

Theory of Coal Dust Combustion, Arrangement of Locomotive for Firing- 
Powdered Coal, and the Problems Involved in Successfully Burning- this Fuel 

A piece of chalk lying on the shelf of a school black- 
board is an example of a very closely compressed form 
of carbonate of lime. It is small in size and concen- 
trated in structure. If it is possible to conceive of 
this school crayon being burned it is evident that it 
would be hard to accomplish, because the air could not 
get at it. That is really why books, each page of which 
is highly inflammable, are so difficult to burn in bulk, 
and it is the principle used in slow-burning wooden 
construction in mills and factories. 

If, however, a teacher covered the school blackboard 
with innumerable parallel lines of chalk, each touching 
the other, he might cover 50 sq. ft. of blackboard with 
a film of chalk, in using up the concentrated white 
crayon he found at the board. The chalk so spread out 
would be in contact with the air, indeed every separate 
particle of chalk would then be in close contact with 

denly shut off, causes the muffled safety valves to buzz 
furiously, the small nozzles required to draw air 
through ash pan openings, grates, ashes, burning coal, 
flues and stack, cause back pressure in the cylinders 
which requires power, represented by fuel consump- 
tion, to overcome. 

The tendency to-day in the handling of coal is to 
break it up from large lumps to small and from small 
to dust. Shallow seams of coal are constantly encoun- 
tered and mechanical and powder methods of mining; 
together with the greater security demanded for labor; 
the high cost of developing, tunneling, timbering, pump- 
ing, ventilating and inspecting mines. The scarcity of, 
and higher wages for, labor; more rigid legislation and 
regulations all tend to increase the cost of solid fuels. 
Co-operation between the railways and the mine oper- 
ators necessitate that the railways make use of the 

«•*• , J* .... 

f mmm ' l "^""~wmm 

tirFI IMMU'^i i IiiHiWIH"^ JL , ,. IVj . - JMBBMpBlgB 

Sectional View of Locomotive Fitted for Use of Purverized Fuel 

the air of the room. It would not burn, of course, but 
this illustrates a method of very fine physical division. 
The same quantity of chalk is on the blackboard as was 
formerly consolidated in the small crayon. Although 
chalk will not burn in this way, coal will, and the idea 
of the fine division of solid particles has long been 
made use of in permitting the oxidizing of various sub- 
stances in the arts. 

The subject of pulverized fuel for locomotives was 
recently summarized by Mr. John E. Muhlfeld in a 
paper read before the New York Railroad Club, which 
forms more the text than it does the matter of what 
follows. It seems that at present the annual con- 
sumption in the United States of about 7,000,000 tons 
of solid fuel in pulverized form, in industrial kilns and 
furnaces, has demonstrated the effectiveness and the 
economy of this method of combustion. The Interstate 
Commerce Commission estimated the expenditure of 
$249,507,624, or about twenty-three per cent of the 
transportation expense of 242,657 operated miles of 
steam railway in the United States had taken place 
during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1915. This is, 
next to labor, the largest single item of cost in steam 
railway operation. 

The waste of coal in modern steam locomotives is 
known to all. When we consider the quantities of fine 
coal blown off tenders by the wind, the quantity of 
ashes containing combustible material which is daily 
thrown away. Unproductive burning of coal when an 
engine stands still, or having been worked hard, is sud- 

constantly increasing percentage of dust, slack, screen- 
ings, and other small sizes of gas, soft and anthracite 
coals, as well as of coke breeze, lignite and peat which 
cannot now be effectively or economically burned on 
grates in locomotives. 

The trend of development to-day points to steam 
locomotives being equipped to approximate to the con- 
dition of electric locomotives as regards the elimina- 
tion of smoke, soot, cinders and sparks; reduction of 
noise, time for dispatching at terminals, and standing 
losses; and to increase the daily mileage by producing 
longer runs and more nearly continuous service be- 
tween periods of general repair. 

There is a feeling that labor of a higher average 
standard should be induced to enter the service as fire- 
men, to make capable enginemen. This may be done by 
reducing the arduous work such as is now required to 
shovel ahead and supply coarse coal to grates ; and to 
rake and clean fires and ash-pans on the modern steam 
locomotives of great power. The future steam locomo- 
tive will be required to produce maximum hauling ca- 
pacity per unit of total weight, at the minimum cost per 
pound of draw-bar pull, and with the least liability for 
mechanical delay. 

The burning of pulverized coal in the firebox of an 
ordinary locomotive is nothing more than an approxi- 
mation to a series, and one might almost say, to a con- 
tinuous explosion of dust. The theory of dust explo- 
sion which is a menace in coal mines, mills, etc., may 
be made clear by an analogy. A stick of timber, about 



March, 1916 

the size of a railway track tie may be made to burn in 
say a week, if allowed to slowly consume away. If the 
timber had been split up into cordwood, it would have 
perhaps burned in a day. If, however, it had been re- 
duced to shavings by the action of a wood plane, and 
kept in the form of loose twirls of wood, free from com- 
pression, it might have burned in an hour. Still more 
divided, as with each shaving split and sliced and cut 
into small chips, still without compression, it might 
become a heap of ashes in a few minutes, and lastly, 
if each split and sliced and diminutive chip had been 
made so small as to resemble dust which would float 

Interior of Cab Arranged for Pulverized Fuel 

in the air, the almost simultaneous burning of each par- 
ticle would give rise to a volume of carbon dioxide, so 
expanded by the heat generated as to act as an ex- 
plosion. This is practically the theory upon which ex- 
plosives are made, the difference being that the ex- 
plosive mixture carries with it, in chemical form, the 
oxygen necessary for its own combustion. 

The problem for the mechanical engineer when using 
pulverized coal is to so mix it with air that the par- 
ticles of coal dust shall not adhere to one another, 
but that each shall be surrounded by a quantity of 
air. One cubic inch of solid coal exposes only 6 cu. ins. 
of surface for the attack of oxygen, a cubic inch of 
powdered coal provides an area of from 20 to 25 sq. 
ft. on which the oxygen may act. Like soldiers in solid 
or extended formation, it has been found that the more 
loosely the composition of the ranks is maintained the 
more effective is the work of each dissociated unit. 

The first steam railway locomotive of any consider- 
able size to be fitted up in the United States or Canada 
with a successful self-contained equipment for the 
burning of pulverized fuel in suspension, was a 10- 
wheel type on the New York Central Railroad. This 
locomotive has 22 x 26 ins. cylinders; 69 ins. diameter 
drivers; 200 lbs. boiler pressure; 55 sq. ft. of grate 
area; 2,649 sq. ft. of firebox and boiler heating surface; 
is equipped with Schmidt superheater and Walschearts 
valve gear; has 31,000 lbs. tractive power, and was first 
converted into a pulverized fuel burner during the early 
part of 1914. Since that application another similar in- 
stallation has been made to a Chicago & Northwestern 
Railway existing Atlantic type locomotive, and also to 
a new Consolidation type of locomotive recently built 
for the Delaware & Hudson Co. This latter locomo- 
tive has 63 ins. diameter drivers and about 63,000 lbs. 
tractive power, having been designed by the superin- 

tendent of motive power, Mr. J. H. Manning, for heavy 
and fast freight service. 

The burning of pulverized fuel in steam locomotives 
has now passed the experimental stage. The equip- 
ment, shown in general in our illustration, gives a good 
idea of the mechanism used. The apparatus is self- 
contained and is housed in a removable hopper which 
fits on the tender. A screw conveyor lies in a horizontal 
position at the bottom of this large hopper. The con- 
veyor is made with increasing pitch so that the move- 
ment of coal from back, middle and front shall be prac- 
tically continuous. The increased pitch of the screw 
permits coal at the front to drop in and be moved, with- 
out disturbing that from the back, which is already in 
the thread of the conveyor. An air pressure of about 
one-half ounce forces the coal dust into the commingler 
at the front end of the conveyor. The shaft is fitted 
with fins or paddles which destroy any tendency to 
adhere which damp coal dust may have, and the slight 
pressure of air not only mixes the loose mass with 
oxygen but urges it through the flexible hose to the 
"fuel and pressure air nozzle" as it is called. This por- 
tion of the apparatus is a nozzle in a larger receptacle, 
like the nozzle of an injector in the combining cham- 
ber. From this point the influence of the blast pipe 
carries the fuel (already separated completely and 
mixed with air in the commingler) on through the large 
tube into which induced air is brought in ample quan- 
tity and this action delivers the fuel under the short 
primary arch situated below the fire door. Ignition 
takes place here and the flame flows up around the edge 
of the primary arch and passes back along the under- 
side of the main arch and over its end close to the 
crown sheet and onward to the flues. Along the sides 
of the firebox and on the level of the primary arch the 
firebrick presents openings corresponding with those 
passing through the water legs. It is the arrangement 
of these holes and their size and position that exerts 

Interior of Firebox, Showing Arches 

practically a determining influence on the automatic 
disposal of the liquid slag. 

The process of feeding and burning pulverized fuel 
is as follows: The prepared fuel having been supplied 
to the enclosed fuel tank, gravitates to the conveyor 
screws, which carry it to the fuel and pressure air 
feeders, where it is thoroughly commingled with and 
carried by the light pressure of air. from the fan 
through the connecting hose to the fuel nozzles and 
blown into the mixers. 

The light pressure from the fan has been able to 

JIarch, 1916 



;place the coal dust in the air and fuel mixer. Its 
further progress, in the form of flame and hot gas, is 
induced by the draft action of the nozzle in smoke 
induced by the draft action of the nozzle in the smoke 
and air mixers, and this air-surrounded coal dust, 
now in combustible form, is carried into the furnace 
by the smokebox draft. 

For firing up a locomotive the usual steam blower is 
turned on in the stack, or a portable blower arrange- 
ment from a nearby engine may be used. A piece of 
lighted waste is then entered through the firebox door 
and placed on the furnace floor, just on the front of 
the primary arch, after which the pressure fan and one 
of the fuel and pressure air feeders are started. From 
-45 to 60 min. is ordinarily sufficient to get up 200 lbs. 
of steam from water at about 40 degs. Fahr. After 
lighting up, the regulation of the fuel and air supply 

steam will vary between 200 and 325 degs. Fahr., de- 
pending upon the rate of working. 

The only form of ash produced by pulverized fuel is 
a liquid slag. The liquid ash runs down the underside 
of the main arch and the front and sides of the forward 
combustion zone of the furnace and is precipitated into 
the self-clearing slag-pan, where is accumulates and is 
air-cooled and solidified into a button of slag which can 
be dumped by opening the drop bottom doors. The 
formation of this liquid ash or slag has been studied 
and its final or automatic disposal, without collecting 
and dumping it, is a problem which has been practically 
solved and adds that advantage to this system of com- 
bustion, as it stands. 

Coal is never absolutely pure and the reason of its 
contamination was made plain in our issue of Decem- 
ber, 1915, page 393. In the case of pulverized fuel, the 

Diagramatic View of Apparatus for Burning Powdered Coal 

Is adjusted to suit the standing, drifting or working 
conditions, the stack blower being employed only when 
the locomotive is not using steam. 

The flame produced at the time the combustible mix- 
ture enters the furnace, obtains its average maximum 
temperature, from 2,500 to 2,900 degs. Fahr. at the for- 
ward combustion zone under the main arch, and at this 
point axuiliary air is induced to enter through holes in 
the firebox sides by the smoke box draft and this finally 
completes the combustion process. 

The smokebox gas analysis averages between thir- 
teen and fourteen per cent of CO, when coal is fired at 
the rate of 3,000 lbs. per hour; between fourteen and 
fifteen per cent at the rate of 3,500 lbs. per hour, and 
between fifteen and sixteen per cent at the rate of 
4,000 lbs. per hour, so that as the rate of combustion 
increases, there is no proportionate falling off in ef- 
ficiency. While the smokebox temperatures have varied 
between 425 and 500 degs. Fahr., the superheat in the 

presence in the coal of iron, which fuses and holds any 
other non-combustible material, has a plugging action 
on the flues if it gets to them in the solid form. Iron 
becoming soft in the flame readily takes up oxygen and 
forms what is known to chemists as Ferrous Oxide, 
Fe 2 2 , and this substance, while viscous or pasty, set- 
tles on the protruding heads of crown staybolts, and 
takes up or holds any other matter, if present, that 
will not burn. In time the mass of soft ferrous oxide 
breaks away and may be drawn against the flue sheet 
by the induced draft from blast pipe. This ferrous 
oxide very readily forms another combination with 
oxygen, just as CO burns to C0 2 in a full and adequate 
supply of oxygen. With plenty of oxygen within its 
reach, the ferrous oxide turns to ferric oxide, sometimes 
called the sesquioxide of iron, Fe 2 3 . This ferric oxide 
is practically iron rust and is in a powdery state. In 
this form it does not hold other mineral dust particles, 
and it does not settle or drip, but being, if one may so 



March, 191& 

say, impure iron rust, it is dry and is easily drawn 
along in the flame-way, round the edges of the brick 
arch, through the flues and out of the stack. The defi- 
nite location of the air inlets along the line of the pri- 
mary or lower brick arch to suit various kinds of fuel 
is now being determined by experts, so that the auto- 
matic elimination of the liquid slag will soon be part of 
the process of combustion, and not necessarily requir- 
ing collection and disposal at the end of the run. 

The burning of a pure gas with an adequate supply 
of oxygen is more or less of an ideal process, to which 
the burning of fuel oil approximates. It may be that 
as the further advance of physical science, gradually 
establishes, as it has already distinctly indicated, the 
fundamental unity of matter, we shall find a close 
analogy in the complete oxidation or burning of the 
strictly combustible elements of fuel in a state of fine 
division, as but another approximation to the combus- 
tion of gas. Who shall say that pure carbon brought 
to the most exceedingly minute state of microscopic di- 
vision, almost reaching to that of an inpalpable powder, 
may not be but a step below the constitution of a gas, 
which our senses are unable to apprehend. If this is 
so, the worker along these lines most probably has 
placed his foot on the lower rung of the ladder of 
truth, as it is in nature. 

Not only is the combustion of coal dust, as here at- 
tempted, a modification of the Bunsen burner, in that 
the combustion is practically complete, but there is an 
absence of the blow-pipe action on the arch, owing to 
the inductive effect of blast in the smoke box. The 
blow-pipe action is practically the constant application 
of flame to one comparatively restricted area with more 
or less deleterious results. This induction of air, hav- 
ing to carry with it only light particles of coal or more 
correctly to draw the flame in a broad and unchecked 
sweep below and above the arch and through the flues, 
is produced by a nozzle larger than can otherwise be 
used in the smokebox. This permits reduction of back 
pressure in the cylinder with consequent advantage in 
steam consumption and fuel burnt. 

A mechanical advantage in the arrangement shown 
in our illustration is at once apparent to the railway 
man. It is the absence of carrying wheels under the 
cab. In this case the ash pan, dampers, shaker rig- 
ging grates and cinder dump have been done away 
with, the lower edge of the brick-lined combustion 
chamber is on a level with the mud ring, and the slope 
of the firebox enables a pair of driving wheels to be 
placed below the cab instead of a trailing truck. This 
pair of wheels carries weight and therefore adds its 
quota to the increased tractive effort that may now 
be obtained. The alteration of the firebox for pulver- 
ized fuel brings with it changes which eliminate the 
present smoke-box arrangement, and may lead to the 
abandonment of the extended front. The necessity for 
grates, ash pans, firedoor and operating gear disap- 
pears, a mica peep-hole in the door only is required. 
When closed, the door makes an air-tight joint. The 
connection between engine and tender is made by the 
use of one or more hose, which connect the fuel and 
fan pressure air outlets on the tender with the fuel 
and air nozzles on the engine. Also the use of metallic 
flexible conduits for conveying steam for the fan and 
fuel feeding motive power. After the hose connections 
are disconnected, engine and tender may be pinched or 
pulled apart. The enclosed fuel container on the tender 
makes the change to or from liquid fuel possible and 
easy, and when coal dust is in the container it cannot 
be stolen or blown away by wind or washed away by 

The use of pulverized coal eliminates the waste prod- 
ucts of combustion and fire hazards in towns and tim- 
ber limits, and permits the enlargement of exhaust 
steam passage. It permits of the use of such fuel as. 
cannot be readily disposed of by mine operators in- 
commercial trade, and provides for the utilization of 
existing refuse, and of lignite and peat. It renders 
possible the elimination of smoke,' soot, cinders and 
sparks; and does away with the time required on ash- 
pit tracks and thus increases the time available for 
transportation use. It also minimizes the necessity for 
selecting firemen on account of physical ability, and 
makes the position more attractive. Like the oil-fuel 
fireman, the pulverized coal man shuts off the fire as the 
engineman does the throttle and the heat of the firebox 
lights the flame again when the flow of fuel is turned 
on once more. . , 

Curious Old English Passenger Car 

Among the relics of the past in the railway world, 
the old passenger coach shown in our illustration is 
unique. This old car performed its service on the 
West Somerset Mineral Railway and was laid by at 
Watchet. It dates somewhere between 1840 and 1850. 

The railway was discontinued for many years, but 
was recently opened up again for traffic. The car was 
carried on four wheels with a semi-eliptic spring above 
each journal-box. The roof is slightly arched and the 
end paneled in what was the approved style of days- 
gone by. 

There were evidently three compartments in the car, 
possibly having the class system of fares as the reason. 
The up-and-down motion of the car was provided for 
by guide cylinders between journal boxes and side sills. 

Looking at the end of the car, one may observe the 
slight taper or rounding of the body as it approaches 

Old English Passenger Coach 

the side sill. This small structural detail never had 
any necessary function, but marks the curious survival 
of design which once had a use. It is derived from 
the stage coach, where the body was suspended, or 
rather supported, on broad leather straps, and the 
rounding of ends and sides prevented any sharp corner 
from being introduced into the design, which would in 
-time cut through the strap. In this car, the survival 
of this slight curve of the body is either for ornament 
or adherence to custom. 

At the present time a large number of English" car 
bodies are built, like those in this country, with no 
curves other than those dictated by considerations of 
utility, but yet, here and there, English designs show 
what is technically known as the "fall under" at the 
ends of the cars. 

.■March, 1916 



Friction with Reference to the Chilled Iron Wheel 

Brake Efficiency of the Chilled Iron and the Steel Wheel Compared, 
Rail Abrasion Analyzed, Tests Given, Friction and Train Resistance 

Having pointed out in our February issue the re- 
searches of Mr. F. K. Vial, chief engineer of the Griffin 
"Wheel Co., of Chicago, on the various chemical, metal- 
lurgical and physical properties of chilled iron and steel 
wheels, the next step is to consider how these properties 
shown to exist adapt themselves to the rail and the 
brake shoe, and the item considered is friction. A com- 
parison of the following items are fundamental : First, 
brake efficiency; second, brake shoe durability; third, 
rail abrasion; fourth, rail friction. 

Brake efficiency is measured by the coefficient of fric- 
tion between the brake shoe and the moving wheel. This 
is a variable quantity, depending upon the shoe pres- 
sure; the length of time shoe is applied; the kind of 
shoe; the kind of insert, and the condition of shoe. 
The M. C. B. Association has carried on a large num- 
ber of tests on both chilled iron and steel wheels to 
determine the coefficient of friction under widely vary- 
ing conditions. The result of the tests made in 1910 
are shown in M. C. B. Proceedings for 1911, and are 
here given in Table No. 1 : 

This would indicate that the M. C. B. Association 
requires for a minimum condition that the brake shoes 
on the chilled iron wheel shall exceed in brake efficiency 
the same shoe used on steel wheels by 15 to 20 per cent. 
The average of all the tests in Table 1 shows an advan- 
tage in favor of the chilled iron wheel of from 20 to 25 
per cent. The difference is even greater, and shoes 
with the highest coefficient of friction cannot be used 
on the steel wheels on account of their scoring effect. 
Engineers of tests often point out that the shoe with 
. the highest wearing value cannot be used because of 
the cutting action of inserts on steel wheels, none of 
which injure the chilled iron wheel. 

Taking these things into consideration, the conclu- 
sion is that the coefficient of brake shoe friction for 
modern brake shoes is fully 25 per cent greater on 
chilled iron wheels than on steel wheels. This brings 
out the very important fact that when brakes are 
applied, the retarding effort or the work done on chilled 
iron wheels is 25 per cent greater than on steel wheels. 
It is essential that cars equipped with steel wheels 

Table 1 — Mean Coefficients of Friction Developed by Various Brake Shoes on Both the Chilled Iron Wheel and 

Steel-Tired Wheel. Purdue University Tests. 

Shoe No. 



Mean coefficient in per cent. 

Initial speedof 40 M. P. H. 

chilled iron wheel 

Shoe Pressure, Pounds 

2808 4152 6840 

Plain cast iron 22.1 21.6 20.4 

Plain cast iron without reinforcement 30.3 27.7 24.5 

Congdon 7 inserts 22.2 19.8 16.4 

Congdon steel back, 5 inserts 24.4 22.6 19.1 

Streeter steel back 21.3 20.6 16.4 

Lappin chilled ends 20.5 19.6 18.9 

Lappin chilled ends 18.4 17.8 17.5 

Plain cast iron steel back 21.0 20.3 18.5 

Columbia 21.0 18.9 17.3 

Diamond S. steel back 22.8 20.5 18.3 

Walsh 23.7 20.5 19.8 

Pittsburgh malleable shell 26.8 • 25.4 21.5 

Pittsburgh steel shell 29.4 27.5 23.4 

National 19.3 16.4 14.3 

Averages 23.1 21.4 19.0 

Mean coefficient in percent. 
Stops from an initial speed of 
65 M, P. H. steel tired wheel 

Shoe Pressure, Pounds 







A study of this table shows the greater coefficient of 
friction on the chilled iron wheel, and therefore in 
making up specifications for brake shoes the M. C. B. 
Association calls for standard coefficients as follows: 
'Chilled iron wheel from an initial speed of 40 m. p. h., 
2,808 lbs. pressure, 22 per cent; 4,152 lbs. pressure, 20 
per cent; 6,840 lbs. pressure, 16 per cent. Steel wheel 
:from an initial speed of 65 m. p. h., 2,808 lbs. pressure, 
16 per cent; 4,152 lbs. pressure, 14 per cent; 6,840 
lbs. pressure, 12 per cent. 

It is found that the coefficient of friction per chilled 
wheels at 40 m. p. h. is about 15 per cent greater than 
at 65 m. p. h., where steel wheels are used. Reducing 
the coefficients for the steel wheel to the same basis 
as those at 40 m. p. h. on the chilled iron wheel by 
adding 15 per cent, we get: 

Coefficient of friction- 

Shoe press. 

'2,808 lbs 22.0 

4,152 lbs 20.0 

-6,840 lbs 16.0 





Per cent in 

favor of 




should have 20 to 25 per cent greater brake leverage in 
order to do the same work that is used on the chilled 
iron wheel. This indicates that chilled iron is su- 
perior to steel for car wheels, in this respect at least. 

Another very important point is the relation that the 
kind of metal used in the wheel may have on brake 
shoe durability. This feature has been determined in 
extensive tests made by the M. C. B. Association, Engi- 
neers of Tests of various railroads, and other associa- 
tions, have verified the results by the use of the brake 
shoe testing machine at Purdue University, and they 
have still further been verified by the American Brake 
Shoe & Foundry Co., at Mahwah, N. J. The results of 
these tests are shown in the chart, which is a graphical 
illustration of the tests on 12 various kinds of brake 
shoes under a shoe pressure of 2,808 lbs. at a constant 
speed of 20 m. p. h. One hundred to three hundred 
applications of each shoe were made for approximately 
200 revolutions at each application. A greater metal 
loss occurred in every case with shoe on the steel wheel 
than when on the chilled iron wheel. 



March, 19W 

Table 2— Brake Shoe Loss Per 100,000,000 Ft. Lbs. Work Done. 

Shoe No. Designation 

— Pressure 2808 lbs. Constant speed 20 m. p. h.- 
Chilled iron wheel Steel wheel 

Pressure 12,000 lbs. stops, 
from 65 m. p. h. steel wheel 
No. of 



No. pi Lbs. No. of Lbs. 

applications loss applications loss 

282 Plain cast iron " 400 .745 300 .856 9 1.917 

284 Plain cast iron without reinforcement 300 1.225 100 1.360 9 3.135 

286 Congdon 200 .163 300 .706 9 1.467 

288 Congdon steel back 300 s .212 100 .633 9 1.405 

290 Streeter steel back 300 .433 300 .482 9 2.240 

292 Lappin chilled ends 300 .592 300 .885 9 3.405 

294 Lappin chilled ends 300 .572 300 .590 9 2.280 

296 Plain cast iron steel back 300 .820 300 1.058 9 3.833 

298 Columbia 100 .537 100 .592 9 1.594 

300 Diamond "S" steel back 300 .565 300 .662 9 2.925 

302 Walsh 300 .671 300 .784 9 8.780 

304 Pittsburgh malleable shell 200 .292 200 .273 6 .705 

306 Pittsburgh steel shell 200 .239 200 .299 6 .918 

308 National 300 .396 300 .413 9 2.565 

Average .533 . . . .685 . . 2.886 

Table No. 2 shows the results of 14 shoes, in which 
.533 lbs. per million foot-pounds of energy were dissi- 
pated, was removed from the shoe when applied to the 
chilled iron wheel. It required .685 lbs. to do the same 
work on the steel wheel, or an increase of 28 1 / 4 per 

The shoes excluded from use on steel wheels on 
account of scoring have the greatest efficiency when 
applied to chilled iron wheels. The metal loss in one 
case was .163 lbs. and in the other .212 lbs., which is 
less than one-third the loss from the average of all 
shoes tested on the chilled iron wheels, and less than 
one-half the loss from the most durable shoe tested on 

1 1" — | 

Plain Cast Iron 


Plain Cast Iron 

7- Wrot 


5- Wrot 




Hard Iron Inserts 

Chilled Ends 

Chi/led rnds 

Plain Cast Iron 


Plain Cast Iron 

—I — — — ' 

Expanded Mefal Inserts 

— | 1 1 

Hard Iron Inserts 


-i— i— = 

Chilled rnds 


of all Tests 

Full Line Indicates 
Chilled Iron Wheel. 

I I I 
Broken line Indicates 

5teel Wheel 

Pressure, 2608 Lbs. 
Ccnstanf Speed 20M.P.H. 


25 -50 75 100 125 

Actual Loss m Pounds K 
per 100. 000.000 Ft. Lbs. of Work Done. 


Loss of Brake-Shoe Material on. Chilled and on Steel Wheels 

the steel wheel. This same feature has been brought 
out by engineers of tests for railroads, in which the 
Congdon shoe has been recommended for chilled iron 
wheels, and another shoe chosen having 100 per cent 
greater loss of metal per unit of work, for use on the 
steel wheel. This is a matter of great importance in 
special localities where brake shoe consumption is high, 
such as occurs in the mountainous mining districts of 

Utah, Arizona and Mexico, where, in some cases, as 
high as one brake shoe per week is used for each wheek 
This would be approximately 50 brake shoes per year,, 
which, at 50 cents each, would amount to $25, and if a 
saving of only 25 per cent is made in favor of the 
chilled iron wheel, this saving amounts to $5 per year 
per wheel; or, in other words, the full value of the 
wheel is saved each year in brake shoe economy, and 
inasmuch as the wheel lasts from four to six years 
under these maximum loads and maximum grades, it 
therefore appears that the study of brake shoe economy 
is of more importance than the cost of the wheel itself. 

The M. C. B. specifications for brake shoe durability 
is that on a cast iron wheel the loss shall be determined 
by making 100 applications of the shoe on the wheel 
under a pressure of 2,808 lbs. and at a constant speed of 
20 m. p. h., at each application the shoe to be in con- 
tact during 190 revolutions and out of contact during 
the succeeding 610 revolutions. That under these con- 
ditions the shoe shall lose in weight not more than 
eight-tenths pound for each 100 million foot-pounds of 
work done. That on a steel-tired wheel the loss shall 
be determined by making 10 stops from an initial speed 
of 65 m. p. h. under a shoe pressure of 12,000 lbs. and 
that the shoe shall lose in weight not more than 4 lbs. 
for each 100,000,000 foot-pounds of work done. The 
M. C. B. specifications call for much greater efficiency 
in the chilled iron wheel than on the steel wheel. 

One of the important items in connection with wheel 
economy is the relation of the wheel metal to rail fric- 
tion and abrasion. The effect of continuous skidding 
is shown in Fig. 1, the pressure on the wheel at the 
time being 6,840 lbs., in which case, notwithstanding 
that the number of revolutions of the chilled iron wheeL 
was twice that of the steel wheel, the metal loss in the 
rail in the case of the chilled iron wheel was .3 gram,, 
whereas with the steel wheel it was 23 grams. 

Fig. 2 shows result of the rail after 3,800 revolu- 
tions for the chilled iron wheel and 380 revolutions for 
the steel wheel, both wheels being loaded to 6,840 lbs. 
The average loss was 2.2 grams for each revolution of 
the chilled iron wheel, whereas the steel wheel lost 62.5 
grams a revolution. This indicates the great abrasion 
between steel and steel when one is slipping on the 
other, and illustrates the effect of a continuous rubbing 
of the steel flange on the steel rail, especially on curves 
where shavings are often cut from the rail and wheel,, 
doing damage by loss of metal, and the flange friction 
is much greater in the case of the steel wheel, which 
results in a material increase of train resistance. This 
is a greater factor in the cost of operation than the 

March, 1916 



mere loss of metal in wheel or rail. The small advan- 
tage which the steel wheel may have in the way of 
tractive efficiency in no way compensates for the exces- 
sive loss of metal and the increase in cost of motive 
power made to do useless work. 

The average life of rails may be taken at 100,000,000 
ton-miles, and since the total annual rail-borne traffic 
amounts to 750,000,000,000 ton-miles, the annual rail 
renewal must amount to 7,500 miles of track, and as- 
suming the cost of renewing one mile of track to be 
$3,000, the total cost of rail renewals amounts to 
$22,500,000 per annum. 

It was shown by tests that the abrasion from a steel 
rail used as a brake-shoe was about eighty times greater 

On Chilled Iron Wheel 

On Steel Wheel 

Fig. 1. Rail Used as Brake Shoe. Pressure 6,840 lbs. on 
Chilled Iron and Steel Wheels. Speed, 20 Miles per Hour 

in effecting a stop from 20 m. p. h. when applied to a 
steel wheel than when applied to a chilled iron wheel. 
This ratio is too high when considering differences in 
rail abrasion, especially on tangents, where rails do not 
wear out entirely by loss of metal but give out owing to 
distorted ends. We may assume as a minimum that 
steel wheels are 10 per cent more destructive to rails 
than chilled iron wheels, hence, if all wheels were of 
steel, rail renewals would be increased. 

The coefficient of friction against skidding is a vari- 
able quantity, depending upon the condition of the rail, 
whether clean, or greasy, and also on the kind of the 
metals in contact. In one case there may be friction on 
account of the inequalities in the surfaces without 
much loss in metal. There may be interlocking of the 
wheel and the rail, producing a heavy abrasion, in 
which both are scored, and so resulting in a high 
coefficient against skidding. This condition is illus- 
trated in Fig. 3, showing the condition of the rail after 
a slip of less than one-half inch. The slipping took place 
under loads of 2,808, 6,840, 12,000 and 20,000 lbs., re- 
spectively. The test was made at Purdue University, in 
which a piece of rail, shown in the figure, was used as 
a brake shoe, and the wheel was made to slip. The area 
of contact under each of the loads is indicated in Fig. 3, 
especially in the case of the chilled iron wheel, in which 
case there was practically true friction, which means 
that the inequalities in the surface passed over each 
other with but little loss of metal, the resistance being 
due to raising the load over the irregularities in sur- 
face. In the case of the steel wheel, the rail and wheel 
were badly scored on account of the metal in contact 
interlocking and rolling up and cutting away. It will 

be noted that the scoring was even greater under the 
light than under the heavy load. This is because the 
area of contact under various loads is roughly propor- 
tional to the load, and, therefore, the pressure per 
square inch is similar, regardless of the load carried. 
In a series of tests made by the Schoen Steel Wheel 
Co., and recorded in book form under the subject of 
"The Car Wheel," the coefficients against skidding are 
given as follows: 

Load on wheel 

Cast iron wheel 

Steel wheel 

2,000 lbs. 



4,000 lbs. 



6,000 lbs. 



8,000 lbs. 



10,000 lbs. 



12,000 lbs. 



16,000 lbs. 



20,000 lbs. 



24,000 lbs. 



28,000 lbs. 



30,000 lbs. 



These coefficients are the average results of several 
tests and shows that the coefficients are very close to 
each other. In the tests made at Purdue University for 
the Association of Manufacturers of Chilled Car Wheels 
in 1913, many tests were made, which have a consider- 
able range in results according to varying conditions 
of wheel and rail. The condition of contact, whether 

On Chilled Iron Wheel 
Fig. 2. Rail Used as Brake Shoe. 

On Steel Wheel 
Pressure 6,840 lbs. Chilled 

Wheel, 3,800 Revs.; Steel, 380 Revs. 

at a single point or where the tread bears across head of 
rail, affects the comparison, and also whether the rail 
is clean or dirty and covered with grease or leaves, etc., 
and also the condition of wheel, whether clean or 
covered with graphite from brake shoe wear. 

Fig. 4 shows the results when the tread of the wheel 
had a bearing of about 1% in. across the head of the 
rail. The condition of the rail after the slip test is 
shown in Fig. 4, the pressure being 2,808, 6,840, 12,000 



March, 1916 

and 20,000 lbs. on each wheel. At the lower pressure 
very little evidence of slip is left on the rail. As the 
load increases, the effect on the rail is more pronounced. 
The actual results in this case were as follows : 

Rail head planed down to fit taper of wheel 

Pressure between 
wheel and rail 

2,808 lbs. 

Chilled wheel 
Tang, pull Coef. of 

796 28.4 

Steel wheel 
Tang, pull Coef. of 

558 19.9 

6,840 lbs. 

1,724 25.2 



12,000 lbs. 

2,757 23.0 



20.000 lbs. 

3,312 16.6 



This indicates a material advantage in tractive effort 
for the chilled iron wheel, especially on the lighter 
loads, in which case the steel wheel did not score the 

Steel Wheel 

Chilled Iron Wheel 

Fig. 3. Condition of Rail After Slippage of Wheels. Pres- 
sure, 2,808, 5,840, 12.000, 20,000 lbs., Respectively. 

rail. The advantage in favor of the chilled wheel at 
2,808 lbs. and 6,840 lbs. is 43 and 18 per cent, re- 
spectively. Under loads of 12,000 to 20,000 lbs. the 
advantage in favor of the steel wheel is 3 and 7 per 
cent, respectively. In every case the tractive effort of 
the steel wheel is dependent upon the amount of scoring 
of the wheel and rail, which only occurs when the metal 
is comparatively clean. 

In another test a normal rail head as rolled and the 
wheels with the regular M. C. B. tread with the 1 in 20 
slope were tested after the rail had been flooded with 
engine oil, the results of this test being as follows : 

head as rolled — wheel and rail flooded 
with engine oil 

Pressure between 
wheel and rail 

2,808 lbs. 

Chilled iron pull Coef. of 


537 19.1 

Steel wheel 
Tang, pull Coef. of 

557 19.8 

6,840 lbs. 

1,198 17.5 



12,000 lbs. 

2,289 19.1 



20,000 lbs. 

2,890 14.5 



was slightly in favor of the chilled iron wheel. In a 
third test with normal rail and wheel with cone 1 in 20, 
the following results were obtained: 

Rail head as rolled 

Pressure between 
wheel and rail 

2,808 lbs. 

Chilled iron 
Tang, pull Coef. of 

818 29.1 

Steel wheel 
Tang, pull Coef. of 

1.127 40.0 

6,840 lbs. 

1,737 25.4 

2,093 30.5 

12,000 lbs. 

2,688 22.4 

2,863 23.8 

20,000 lbs. 

3,286 16.4 

3,432 17.1 

The results on the rail appear in Fig. 3. The advan- 
tage was in favor of the steel wheel. The reason is 
clearly indicated in the result on the rail on account of 
the greater scoring of the rail than when the heavy 
load was applied. If all conditions were averaged such 
as varying shape of tread and rail on account of wear 
and the materials picked up from the brake shoe, espe- 
cially on the steel wheel, and various conditions of 
track, whether dry or wet, it will be found that the 
tractive efficiency of both wheels is so near alike that 
neither can be said to have the advantage over the 
other, but that on a clean rail and clean tread of the 
wheel, the abrasion between the steel wheel and steel 

In this case the tractive effort as shown by the tan- 
gential pull was practically alike in both the chilled iron 
and steel wheel. Under the heavy load, the advantage 

Chilled Iron Wheel 

Fig. 4. Condition of Rail After Slippage of Wheels. Pres- 
s-ore, 2,808, 6,840, 12,000, 20,000 lbs., Respectively. 

rail may run up very much and the damage to both 
wheel and rail becomes excessive. 

The friction between the steel wheel and rail is high 
only when the rail and wheel are clean. This was also 
shown when considering the coefficient of friction 
between wheel and brake shoe. The flange and side of 
the rail are always clean on account of the continuous 
wearing away and, therefore, abrasion is abnormally 
high and the power required to keep the rubbing sur- 
faces in motion in some tests reached 80 per cent of 
the load. 

March, 1916 


The steel flange is softer than the chilled iron flange. 
This prevents wearing to a smooth surface, and the loss 
of metal from the flange is much greater per ton-mile 
carried than from the chilled iron flange. For that rea- 
son, steel flanges are usually sharp, and remain so a 
greater portion of the life of the wheels than in chilled 
iron wheels. For this reason flange resistance is an 
item of importance, and the cost of motive power neces- 
sary to overcome the excessive resistance amounts to 
more than the entire cost of the wheel. 

That part of train resistance arising from tread slip- 
page and flange grinding, amounts to approximately 2.-2 
lbs. per ton hauled on average curves of 2 a 2 degs. It 
has been shown that the difference in the coefficient of 
rail friction between chilled iron and steel wheels is a 
variable quantity, and in some instances on a clean 
rail, roughened by the grinding action of a wheel, the 
coefficient is 100 per cent greater for a steel wheel than 
for a chilled iron wheel. 

A test at Perdue University showed a material in- 
crease in train resistance when cars had sharp flanged 
wheels as compared with normal wheels. If we assume 
steel to have 10 per cent greater coefficient of friction, 
and include in this percentage the large number of 
sharp steel flanges, there is an increased resistance on 
curves of .25 lbs. per ton hauled, and on tangents this 
may be reduced to as low as .10 lbs. per ton. This 
affords a ready means for calculating the cost per year 
of the increased drawbar pull required for steel wheels, 

Total traffic 750 billion ton miles. 

Traffic on curves 20 per centj . . 150 billion ton miles. 
Traffic on tangents (80 per cent) .600 billion ton miles. 
Increased drawar pull in case 
steel should be used would 
amount to the following: 

150 billion x .25 lbs 37.500,000,000 lb. miles. 

600 billion x .10 lbs 60,000,000,000 lb. miles. 

Total increase 97,500,000,000 lb. miles. 

Average drawbar pull per ton. .8 lbs. 

Equivalent inc. in ton miles 12,187,500,000 

Average freight rate per ton 
mile is S.0075. Assuming 
that any small increase in 
load can be hauled for one- 
tenth this amount, and us- 
ing S.00075 per ton miles as 
the actual increased cost for 
the increased ton mileage, or 

12,187,500,000 x S.00075 -59.140,625 

This amount, $9,140,625, is the annual cost for the 
additional drawbar pull that would be required in case 
all railroad car wheels in the U. S. were changed to 
steel. It is believed that the unit cost for haulage per 
ton mile is so small that it more than offsets any pos- 
sible error in estimating the increased train resistance 
due to greater coefficient of friction between the steel 
wheel and steel rail as compared with the chilled iron 
wheel and steel rail. These economies are so large that 
they indicate the importance of carefully analyzing all 
the elements that in any way are influenced by wheel 

As far as tests are concerned, the chilled iron wheel 
has the advantage in structure, hardness of wearing 
surface, in flange friction, train resistance, brake shoe 
durability and brake efficiency. These items at once 
establish the economy of the chilled iron wheel, without 
reference to wheel cost or wheel mileage. The only 
advantage enjoyed by the steel wheel is its tensile 

Training of Railway Apprentices 

What is Done on English Railways in this Mat- 
ter in Regard to Qualifications and Training 

On the Great Western Rail" ray :: England young men 
between the ages of 15-2 and 1 . are engaged 

as apprentices to the trades of engine fitting and turn- 
ing whenever vacancies occur. The apprenticeship 
for a period of five years and the incumbent must be- 
come a member of the science and art classes in the 
technical schools of the company. While the appren- 
ticeship is terminable at the end of any six months, a 
one month's trial without wages is required. The com- 
pensation is not extravagantly high, being 60 cents per 
day of 9 hours. This is the maximum, continuing for 
the entire course. 

The applicant presents a birth certificate and also a 
doctor's health certificate. He receives a certificate 
mating his character and worth on completing the term 
of five years. When a young man has gone through 
this apprenticeship he is certainly well fitted as an 
engine shop man. The company and the employe both 
profit by it. 

The Midland Railway Company secures its appren- 
tices from among the sons of workmen in the service. 
This apprenticeship continues from the age of 15 to 21 
years, the engagement covering a particular trade — 
turning, fitting, boiler making, pattern making or mold- 
ing. There are privileged and ordinary apprentices on 
the list; the "privileged" being young men of better 
education and generally better qualifications at the cur- 
set, who begin work at the age of 17. These may be 
accepted after either an examination or by promotion 
from the so-called ordinary class. 

The superintendent of apprentices is a sympathetic 
man, to whom the apprentices may appeal on occasion 
cr from whom they may get advice to aid them in their 
work. The superintendent, of course, must be a thor- 
ough workman and a person of all-around training. 
There are evening classes and lectures, all of which are 
promoted by the company — encouragement being sus- 
tained by scholarship awards and suitable prizes. 

The Great Eastern apprentice is any young man who 
starts with the company to learn a trade. In his first 
year he must devote 15 weeks to a course of instruction, 
including practical mathematics, drawing, geometry 
and general science. This must be followed, after a 
satisfactory examination, by a course of study in the 
evening classes of the Mechanic's Institution. Practical 
classes are held in the Stratford works of the company 
in matters relating to iron, steel, copper, bronze, setting 
locomotive valves and making experiments. On none 
of the railways is any special course taken relating to 
air brakes, but the subject is taken up in the general 
training as the young men pass from one shop to an- 
other while they are fitting themselves as mechanics. 
On all the railways, however, the strictest discipline is 
maintained, so that when an apprentice becomes a full- 
fledged shop man he is fitted to take charge of othe: 
if necessary, and render at all times his "test service to 
the company. Exceptional ability is rewarded by ap- 
propriate advancement, depending upon the situation. 
In this matter of apprentices, some of our American 
railway managers might secure excellent information 
by a study of the English apprenticeship method. To 
Vice-Consul Ripley Wilson at London we are indebted 
for this general outline and brief resume of what some 
English railways are doing. It is noticeable how gen- 
eral the practice is of providing for the future in the 
way of first-el - shop men, and similar efforts are in 
vogue here. 



March, 1916- 

Reclamation of Condemned Freight Cars 

By J. J. TATUM, Supt. Freight Car Dept., B. & O. 

Method of Dismantling, Sorting and 
Using Material from Worn Out Cars 

The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Co. has in past 
years, following the custom of other roads, disposed of 
freight cars by having them turned over banks by 
wrecking cranes and piled up in heaps covering consid- 
erable space, after which they were lighted and per- 
mitted to burn, destroying good lumber having consid- 
erable value. The burning of the cars not only de- 
stroyed the lumber, but also made f orgings, bolts, nuts, 
washers, etc., unfit for further use. 

A careful study of disposing of cars in this manner 
developed that many items of lumber in the old cars, as 
well as metal parts, could be reclaimed and used in re- 
pairing similar cars; or used in putting up buildings, 
material platforms, icing platforms and freight sheds, 
giving as good value in service as if new material was 
used. In many instances material reclaimed in this 
way is of better quality than new material purchased 
today, for the reason that when the cars were first built 
the lumber market was such that a more rigid specifica- 
tion for lumber could be followed than in the present 
lumber market, due to the growing scarcity of timber. 
It is fair to say that a considerable quantity of this 
lumber reclaimed is of a quality that if purchased in 
the present lumber market would cost $40 per 1,000 ft. 

The side lining and roofing removed from cars is 
made use of by cutting it to proper lengths and apply- 
ing it again as the board roof on cars receiving metal 
roof. The better boards of siding are used in many 
instances in making new doors and repairing the inside 
lining of box cars. The flooring of the old cars is used 
to patch and repair floors of other equipment. Im- 
provements were needed not long ago at Keyser, W. Va., 
which included a platform 90 ft. long. This was built 
with material furnished by the Reclamation Agent. An 
icing station at Cumberland, Md., 300 ft. long has been 
constructed in the same way. It will be readily under- 
stood that it required no argument to prove the saving 
that can be effected by having cars dismantled care- 
fully, reclaiming this material so that it can be made 
use of in the various ways referred to. Cars which 
used to be spotted as "scrap" are now referred to as 
"reclamation" and so labeled. 

A large number of nuts, bolts and washers are used 
just as they are reclaimed from the dismantled cars in 
other equipment being repaired. Bolts that have had 
the threads distorted or corroded in such a way as to 
make the bolt unfit for use with the thread it retains 
when removed from the old cars are shortened so that 
the maximum length is obtained, and they are re- 
threaded and made equivalent to new bolts of the sizes 
into which they are made. The nuts removed are care- 
fully inspected and those that have substantial threads 
are given oil baths by placing them in oil vats, allow- 
ing them to soak and clear the thread of rust, making 
them by this process equal in value for further use to 
new material. 

Malleable iron castings, gray iron castings and steel 
castings are sorted, and those of patterns still found in 
use on other equipment are reclaimed and put into 
properly designated material bins, where they are again 
made use of in repairing equipment or rebuilding 
equipment, as conditions may require. Forgings are 
handled in the same way as castings. 

The saving in cost of material alone is not all that is 
to be considered by making re-use of forged parts. It 

further makes it possible, at points where facilities are 
not available to meet the demands on the blacksmith or 
forge shop, to relieve the overcrowded facilities, and 
also makes it unnecessary to go out on the open market 
and purchase forgings at a higher market price than 
the cost of manufacture in the railroad's own shops. 

On large railroads where cars are dismantled careful 
consideration must be given as to whether it is justifi- 
able to move all cars to be dismantled to a central point 
where they can be dismantled. Such an arrangement, 
if not carefully thought out, can be made expensive and 
the saving very much offset by unnecessary handling 
of cars, with defects, to such plants, and by further 
damage to other equipment in which defective cars are 
hauled. In some instances it might even be necessary 
to make repairs that would make the cars meet the re- 
quirements of the Federal Safety Appliance Law so 
that such cars could be hauled to these plants. All of 
these items would contribute toward bringing about a 
loss in dismantling cars over the old method in place of 
a saving. Therefore, on the Baltimore and Ohio Rail- 
road this matter is given serious thought, and at points 
where the equipment would naturally locate through 
service are established points for dismantling freight 
equipment. The material is reclaimed at such points 
in the same manner as would be done at one central 
plant. Such a method brings about a further saving 
by reducing the freighting of material to and from one 
central plant, as many times this reclaimed material 
can be made use of at the point where the cars are dis- 
mantled, making it unnecessary for much of it being 
freighted to any distant point for use. 

A saving of $20 per car seems to be a modest esti- 
mate of the possible saving, for the reason that if all 
parts referred to are reclaimed a much greater saving 
can be effected. The sale price of scrap is very much 
higher when reclaimed by dissecting cars than if the 
cars are burned. It can also be stated that a large por- 
tion of the lumber reclaimed from these cars is used in 
repairing similar cars, and it is not only the value of 
the lumber that is saved, but it is also the manufactur- 
ing of it, the freighting of the raw material, the mill 
work and the freighting of the manufactured material 
from the mill to the shops where it is to be used. 

A summary of the saving which can be brought about 
by this method of dismantling cars and reclaiming the 
material includes the switching of the cars to a distant 
point from the shops where the burning of them would 
not endanger the property; the moving of the wrecking 
crane with its crew to points where they have been 
switched, to turn them over and burn them; the switch- 
ing of revenue cars to points where cars are burned, for 
the loading of scrap; the sending of forces from the 
shops to points where cars are burned, to load the 
scrap; the moving of cars back to the scrap docks 
where the material is unloaded from the revenue cars 
and sorted into classes; the reloading of sorted mate- 
rial; the purchasing raw material, such as forgings and 
iron, freighting them to manufacturing shops, where 
they are unloaded and manufactured and reloaded and 
shipped to points for use; the damaging of good parts 
of the condemned cars in hauling them to the points 
where the wrecking crane is permitted to turn them 
over the bank for burning; the taking of chances in 
hauling condemned or crippled cars from distant points 
and from shops to points where they are to be burned, 
for, due to their condition, there is the possibility of 
derailments and wrecks that tie up the proper opera- 
tion of- the system, the expense of which is high beyond 

March, 1916 



Freight Car Repairs on the Boston and Maine Railroad 

Facilities, Methods and Organization for Freight Car Reconstruc- 
tion and Repairs at Concord, N. H., and East Fitchburg, Mass. 

The freight car repair work of the Boston and Maine 
Railroad is carried on in shops located at various con- 
venient points over the system. Conditions in the 
shops at Concord and East Fitchburg may be consid- 
ered as representative of practices obtaining at all 
points on the system. At the smaller points where 
facilities are not as complete as in these two much 
heavy work cannot be carried on in the shops them- 
selves, but heavy machine work is done for these 
smaller points on shop orders by the larger shops and 
the advantage of having machine work concentrated in 
points where automatic machinery can be used to ad- 
vantage will be readily appreciated. 

Concord Shop 

The shop at Concord, in charge of George A. Wyman, 
Master Mechanic, carries on the locomotive repair 
work for the northern part of the system and all freight 
repairs for points north of Concord and within econom- 
ical distances south. Much of the passenger repair 
work of the system was done in the Concord shops be- 
fore the construction of the new shop at North Biller- 
ica, where passenger work is now concentrated. 

The present freight shop at Concord is divided into 
three shops, of which the first two are under one roof, 
and comprise together 16 tracks, each long enough for 
three cars and their trucks rolled out for repair work. 
Shop No. 3, separated from the first two by a transfer 
table, contains 10 tracks, each long enough for three 

A shifter brings cars for repairs to a track outside 
of the shop and a shop shifter working on the transfer 
table distributes the cars through all three shops. The 
first two tracks in shop No. 1 are assigned to steel coal 
car work. A large number of these gondolas were pur- 

Fuel Oil Rivet Heater, Steel Gondola Having Draw-Sills 


chased by the Boston and Maine shortly before the 
United States safety appliance laws were formulated, 
and this part of the shop is being devoted to making 
what changes are necessary in this class of cars to 
make them comply with the safety requirements. 

The principal change in the construction of these 
steel cars involves lengthening the underframe 3 in. 

at each end, in order to secure the required clearance 
between the cars. 

A Boyer rivet buster is used to remove the rivets, 
securing the draft sills to the ends of the underframes. 
Three men with this automatic machine remove the 96 
rivets necessary in one and a half days, doing the work 
which before the use of the automatic machine re- 
quired eight men with sledge hammers and chisels for 
two days. 

A pneumatic anvil, illustrated, has been designed 
and constructed in these 
shops to go between the 
channels used in extend- 
ing the draft sills and 
hold the heads of the riv- 
ets, in pairs, while they 
are riveted into place. 
The pneumatic anvil con- 
sists of a piston working 
in a cylinder in such a 
way that the heads of two 
hot rivets which have 
been inserted from be- 
tween the channels are 
held apart by air pressure 
introduced between the 
head of the piston and the 
cylinder, while air rivet- 
ers are used outside the 
channels. This anvil, hold- 
ing two rivets at once, 
does so more securely 
than a hand-operated tool. 
These anvils have been made in 6-in. and 8-in. sizes for 
use on different classes of equipment. 

An oil heater, illustrated, has been built to burn 
fuel oil by the use of compressed air. The oil is heated 
in the pipe, which passes around the front of the heater, 
and the furnace will heat rivets at a sufficient speed to 
keep a gang of four men supplied. One man heats and 
inserts the rivets, a second operates the pneumatic 
anvil and a third and fourth on opposite sides of the 
center sill drive up the rivets with pneumatic riveters. 
The heater has been so designed as to enclose a com- 
bustion chamber and a lining of firebrick utilizes the 
heat from the burner to maximum advantage and pre- 
vents wasteful radiation of heat as well as makes a 
more comfortable machine for the men who operate it. 
The heater is mounted on small cast iron wheels and 
can be easily moved from car to car as the work pro- 
gresses. A good size oil reservoir is included and com- 
pressed air is available at convenient points in the shop. 

At the same time that the clearance between the 
cars is being increased all necessary interstate safety 
equipment is being applied and whatever repairs would 
ordinarily be made owing to the condition of the cars- 
when they enter the shop are being taken care of, 
Space in the shop for six cars at a time is being de- 
voted to this work and the records show that with 
present forces six cars a week is the average output. 

Another track in shop No. 1 is being used for caboose 
work and a fourth track for snow plows, cranes and 
special work. The remaining twelve tracks in shops- 
Nos. 1 and 2 are being used to apply new steel sub- 

Rivet "Buster" and Pneu- 
matic Anvil 



March, 1916 

underframes as fast as the cars undergoing this recon- 
struction can be released from service. Any tracks in 
the shop not devoted to this work and all of the tracks 
in shop No. 3 are being used for miscellaneous freight 

Twelve hundred SO-ft. 30-ton box cars are being 
equipped with steel sub-underframes as rapidly as the 

Steel Sub-Underframes as Received at Shop 

cars can be taken from service. The increased traffic 
demands and the heavier equipment being put into 
service in the way of cars and locomotives have made 
it necessary that these cars be strengthened if they are 
to play an active part in the movement of freight in 
The steel sub-underframe, several of which are 
shown ready for use, consists of two channels, pressed 
steel bolsters and cover-plates at the bolsters. These 
frames are fabricated outside of the shops of the Bos- 
ton and Maine and are delivered as shown in the illus- 
tration. Cars to be equipped with these frames enter 

Car Stripped for Application of Sub-Underframe 

the shop, and all parts are removed from the bottom of 
the car up to the level of the sills. A car so stripped is 
shown resting on wooden horses. Truss rods, dead- 
wood and other parts which can be used after the new 
sills have been placed under the car are returned to the 
car if they are in good condition. Holes are bored 
through the sills and bolsters of the car through which 
bolts are used to secure the car to the underframe. 
The king post, queen post, cross ties, brake cylinder, 
reservoir and piping are secured to the underframe 
and the underframes are run under the car, and 

the car let down and secured with bolts through 
the holes previously bored in the sills and bolsters. 
The original cross ties are used by shaping the ends 
where they rest on the center sills so that they fit be- 
tween the flanges of the channels, and the original 
couplers are used by changing the pocket strap. The 
appearance of the car after the new underframe has 
been applied is shown. The work as it is carried on in 
this shop takes from 40 to 45 hours for four men in a 
gang. Other repairs warranted by the condition of the 
car when it reaches the shop are carried on at the same 

The general appearance of shop No. 3 can be appre- 
ciated from the view taken down through the center of 

Re-Built Car After Application of Sub-Underframe 

the shop, which also shows the form of staging with 
which the entire shop is equipped. The experimental 
work done in design, construction and maintaining this 
staging was taken advantage of in the new passenger 
shops at North Billerica and the design of the staging 
used there has been adopted as standard for the whole 

In the mill room there are facilities for all of the 
work for the Concord shop and for other outlying re- 
pair points for which heavy mill work is done on shop 

General View of Shop No. 3, Concord, N. H., Showing Staging 

orders. A room is devoted to cab work for the locomo- 
tive repair shop and others to pattern work, piping and 
air brake work, tinsmith's work, and in the upholstery 
room in shop No. 3 are made the side and end curtains 
for all of the locomotives for the system, some 2,000 to 
3,000 curtains a year. 

March, 1916 



All three shops are under the direct charge of gen- 
eral foreman Hatch, who has six assistant foremen, two 
in shop No. 3, each with one-half of the men, and four 
in shops Nos. 1 and 2, one assistant foreman having 
charge of the work on steel gondolas, another of the 
steel underframe work and two having charge of the 
miscellaneous repair work in those shops. 

Including the mill room, cab shop, pipers, tinsmiths, 
air brake and truck repair work, there are 256 men in 

Axle Turning Department at East Fitchburg, Mass. 

the freight car repair department at this point. The 
men work in gangs of two and are moved from track 
to track in the shop in the order in which they finish 
the work they are on and new cars enter the shop. This 
arrangement has been found to work very satisfactor- 

flfc, m 



■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ! 


"■iff , 

' % 

"**• •*-«. 

-~n — -SStfK ' 

>,2h fa, f i 

; . 


Valve Repairing and Testing Room, East Fitchburg, Mass. 

ily as it insures an impartial distribution of the heavy 
and light repair work among the men in the shop. 

East Fitchburg Shop 

The freight car repair work at Fitchburg is in 
charge of F. H. Eddy, shop superintendent. The repair 
work is done in three shops — steel car repairing and 
steel underframe application work are carried on in 
shop A — general freight car repair work is done in 
shop B, and shop C is devoted to painting and to re- 
pairs on caboose, refrigerator and miscellaneous cars. 
Each of the three shops contains 24 tracks long enough 
for two cars each, giving the shop a capacity of 144 

In the machine shop are three axle lathes served by 
gib cranes carrying air hoists, and the freight car 
axle work for the system is concentrated here where 
it can be done most economically. The air-brake triple- 
valve testing and repairing is carried on in the ma- 

Forge Truck of Rivet Gang at East Fitchburg, Mass. 

chine shop and facilities are provided for rapid and 
thorough work. This end of the shop containing the 
repair equipment and rack of tested triple valves is 
shown. The riveting gang have a portable truck, illus- 
trated, on which is mounted a rivet heating forge and 
racks for pneumatic tools, piping, etc., used by this 
gang. The truck is moved from point to point in the 
shop, and conveniently located compressed air con- 
nections facilitate rapid work. 

The shop operates on a piece-work basis, the men 
are divided into gangs of two and are definitely placed, 
one gang at each car location, taking the work as it 
comes to them in the course of operation. 

In addition to these repair men, forces are main- 
tained in the mill room, boiler room, machine shop, 
smith shop, pipe shop, tin shop and paint shop, a cer- 
tain number of men are maintained on a basis of day 
work, and there is a force of laborers. The present 
complement of the shop includes some 400 men. 

Water Power in South Central Alaska 

For several years the United States Geological Survey 
has been making a study of the water supply of parts 
of Alaska. At first this work was confined to Seward 
Peninsula; later it was extended to the Yukon-Tanana 
region; and Water-Supply Paper 372, just issued, de- 
scribes the water resources of the region tributary to 
Copper River, Prince William Sound, and the lower 
Susitna. Stream measurements made during only one 
season can not, of course, be relied upon for estimating 
average flows, but the Survey engineers, besides mak- 
ing measurements of the flow of some of the streams, 
obtained much information on the topography of the 
drainage basins, reservoirs, and power sites. The data 
thus obtained, when combined with the Weather Bu- 
reau's records of precipitation, will serve as a general 
guide to the railway engineer, who, however, will at 
once realize, that these facts must be supplemented 
by careful and thorough surveys and measurements be- 
fore he can plan in detail any water-power project. The 
paper will at least show that the water powers available 
throughout the year are not so abundant in the south- 
central part of Alaska as has sometimes been assumed. 



Marcn, 1916 

Wrought Iron or Steel Pipes 

Corrosion of Iron and Steel Compared with Reference to the 
Endurance of Pipes. Tables and Results of Tests Analyzed 

Iron and steel may be made less susceptible to cor- 
rosion by the addition of certain elements, but even 
then it is found that some parts resist corrosive action 
better than others, without these elements being pres- 
ent. Iron made today is not exactly the same as it was 
when manufactured by older processes. These ideas 
are contained in an article by Mr. L. C. Wilson, printed 
in a recent issue of "The Engineering Magazine." It 
also appears that modern methods have produced a 
metal, chemically and physically different from that 
turned out formerly, and at the same time the use of 
iron and steel has tremendously increased. 

The carrying of steam and water in pipes causes them 
to be exposed to somewhat unusual conditions, or at 
least to conditions not present in the ordinary use of 
steel and iron, where these metals are only occasionally 

After a time the metal in the furnace becomes pasty as 
the impurities are burned out and the mass is worked 
into a ball. This ball is rolled into bars, which are cut 
and piled up, then reheated to a welding heat and rolled 
again into a bar of convenient size. 

Wrought iron thus produced is nearly pure; the 
greatest and most objectionable part of the impurities is 
the slag, which is scattered all through it and gives it 
the apparently fibrous structure, characteristic of its 
appearance after rolling. These slag lines are easily 
seen and are a means of distinguishing between wrought 
iron and that produced by other methods. 

The puddling process is slow and expensive, as only 
a few hundred pounds at most can be treated at a time. 
About an hour and a half is required for a charge, and 
considerable skill and care are needed for a good prod- 


Prof. H. M. Howe 

Prof. H. M. Howe 
Prof. H. M. Howe 

U. S. Navy Dep't 
National Tube Co. 
National Tube Co. 
National Tube Co. 

Prof. H. M. Howe 

Investigations on the Corrosion of Wrought Iron and Steel 








of test 

of test 

Sea water 

norm. temp. 

2 years 

River water 

norm. temp. 

2 years 


2 years 

Aer. dist. water 

norm. temp. 

64 wks. 

Aerated brine 

Norm. temp. 

6 mos. 

Aerated water 

180 deg. F. 

3 mos. 

Aerated brine 

180 deg. F. 

3 mos. 


sea water 

3 mos. 

180 deg. F. 

Material tested 

Relative loss 
of weight 

(Steel skelp 

117 per cent 

\W. I. skelp 


< t 

j Steel skelp 


< i 

VW. I. skelp 


< < 

jSteel skelp 


< < 

}W. I. skelp 

100 • 

< < 

^Charcoal iron 


< < 

|Pipe steel 


< < 

j Puddled iron 


< t 

^Pipe steel 


< < 

jPuddled iron 


i i 

)Pipe steel 


< < 

(Charcoal iron 


t i 

-{Puddled iron 


« < 

Pipe steel 


< < 

Charcoal iron 


< < 

< Puddled iron 


< < 

[Pipe steel 


i t 

wet or in contact with an excess of air containing vary- 
ing amounts of moisture and gases. The inside of a 
pipe is constantly in contact with large amounts of 
water, which may contain much or little air or oxygen. 
In pipes drained out constantly or where they hold a 
large amount of air, the conditions for rapid and severe 
corrosion are present. From a steel pipe failure under 
such conditions some are led to conclude steel is in- 
ferior to iron in resisting corrosion. 

Steel produced ten or fifteen years ago was not equal, 
in many respects, to that now made, but improvements 
in its mode of manufacture have brought it up to a point 
where it cannot be unfavorably compared with iron. A 
brief outline of the processes employed in the manu- 
facture of iron and steel may here be in order. The 
way iron ore is reduced in the blast furnace, to produce 
pig, is such that several per cent of other metals and 
metaloids are present. The iron may be refined in sev- 
eral ways, such as that used in puddling or in the Bes- 
semer process. 

In puddling, the iron is melted on a bed of iron ore, 
which gives up part of its oxygen to combine with the 
carbon, silicon and manganese, and to a less extent, 
sulphur and phosphorus. The greater the purity of 
iron, the higher is the temperature at which it melts. 

uct. The presence of 2 per cent of slag distributed ir- 
regularly throughout the mass does not increase its 
homogeneity, and the lack of homogeneity is of more im- 
portance, as far as corrosion is concerned, than the 
presence of a reasonable amount of impurities thor- 
oughly and uniformly mixed in. 

When the Bessemer process is employed, melted cast 
iron is run into mixers and then into the Bessemer con- 
verters and air is blown into the molten maas from the 
bottom. The oxygen of the air burns out the impuri- 
ties. The flame issuing from the mouth of the con- 
verter indicates, by its color, the progress of the "con- 
version." Some iron is necessarily oxidized, but the 
addition of manganese corrects this. It may only 
take 10 or 15 minutes to convert several tons of 
iron into steel, so that in point of speed and economy 
the Bessemer process is superior to the other. This 
process is best for the production of low-carbon steel 
and the metal is purer than that obtained by hand 

Generally speaking, carbon, silicon, sulphur, man- 
ganese and phosphorus may be lower in wrought iron 
than in steel, but the wrought iron usually contains 
about 2 per cent of oxides, while in steel these will not 
exceed about 1.2 per cent. Whatever impurities there 

March, 1916 



are, they are well distributed. The steel is rolled with- 
out cutting and rewelding, which is part of the process 
of making wrought iron, and therefore the danger of 
laminations in steel is less than in wrought iron. 

Up to twenty-eight years ago, puddling iron was used 
entirely for making pipe. With the increasing use of 
pipe and the discovery that steel could be welded, when 
treated properly, and the cheapening of the process of 
manufacture, caused it to be used even to a greater ex- 
tent, and iron and steel pipe came on the market. With 
a large number of makers in the field, different grades 
of each appeared. In fact, there is as much difference 
between some wrought iron pipes as there is between 
wrought iron and the steels, and there is a correspond- 
ing difference between grades of steel pipe. 

This has tended to cause confusion, and there has 
been engendered a lack of agreement as to the life of 
wrought iron pipe when contrasted with steel pipe. Ow- 
ing to this, much experimental work has had to be done. 
An experiment, twelve years ago, was made by the 
Bureau of Steam Engineering of the Navy Department, 
on lap-welded Bessemer steel, lap-welded iron, seamless 
cold-drawn steel and seamless hot-drawn steel boiler 
tubes. The tabulated results are here given. Care was 
taken to secure good representative samples, and the 
analysis showed them to be composed, on the average, 
as follows : 

Cold Drawn Hot Drawn Bessemer 

seamless seamless steel Iron 

Silicon 0.005 0.005 0.008 0.024 

Sulphur 0.043 0.039 0.081 0.014 

Phosphorus ....0.015 0.016 0.110 0.038 

Manganese 0.50 0.49 0.31 Trace 

Carbon 0.16 0.14 0.063 Trace 

Oxide 0.23 0.30 0.28 1.03 

Without going into detail, the test consisted in weigh- 
ing the parts, then immersing them in distilled water, 
through which air was passed, for 64 weeks, divided 
into four periods of 16 weeks each. At the end of each 
period the samples were removed, cleaned and weighed. 
The results may be averaged thus: 

Average Loss in Grams Per Square Inch 

First Second Third Fourth Total with iron 
period period period 1 period loss as 100 

Hot - drawn open- 
hearth steel 3034 .5333 .3510 .5070 1.6947 93.7 

Bessemer steel... .3147 .4950 .4043 .4945 1.7085 94.5 

Cold-drawn open- 
hearth steel 3232 .5564 .4502 .5017 1.8315 101.3 

Charcoal iron 3326 .5896 .3966 .4893 1.8081 100. 

There was no great difference in the behavior of 

these four classes as far as loss of weight is concerned; 

the charcoal iron samples, which showed the greatest 

initial loss, ended up with a decrease about 6.3 per 

cent larger than that of the open-hearth, hot-drawn 

tubes, which had suffered the least. 

From data collected by the American Society for 

Testing Materials, 1908, and experiments reported in 

"The Iron Age," a table has been drawn up: 

Laboratory tests are useful in giving indications of 

what may be expected in practice, but the results in 

service are more reliable. 

Later Prof. Thomson joined up a hot water line of 

wrought iron and steel pipe in alternate sections, so 

that they would all be subjected to the same conditions. 

After a year of service, he concluded that steel might 

be expected to stand up about 7.5 per cent longer, under 

such conditions, than wrought iron. 

A short time later a test was carried out under similar 

circumstances by the American Society of Heating and 

Ventilating Engineers, using steel and iron pipes sup- 
plied by several makers; the report of the trial con- 
cludes : "We believe (this test) demonstrates that mod- 
ern steel pipe of good quality is at least as durable as 
modern strictly wrought-iron pipe of good quality, and 
is very much superior to a poor quality of wrought iron 
in this class of work." 

Various other tests carried out by different observers 
under a variety of conditions have lead to the same 
general conclusion. Several experiments conducted by 
the Pittsburgh Coal Co. and the H. C. Frick Coke Co., 
where the samples were immersed in running mine 
water containing acid, showed that steel corroded no 
quicker than wrought iron. 

The tests which resulted in favor of steel were one 
pipe for seven months in hot aerated salt water; an- 
other, sixteen months in damp ashes, exposed to sul- 
phuric acid coal-mine water; still another in railroad 
interlocking signal service; and lastly in locomotive 
boiler service. Other tests were made by Prof. Wool- 
son on eleven public bath houses in New York. The 
following typical results show the chemical analysis. 
The contracts called for wrought iron pipe galvanized, 
but plumbers do not make any close distinction be- 
tween iron and steel pipe. 

Analyses of Pipe, New York Bath Houses 



Per cent 

Per cent 

Per cent 




































Bearing in mind that the two kinds of pipe were used 
indiscriminately and were all exposed to the same con- 
ditions, that all samples were tested to destruction, and 
that probably not more than ten per cent of the welded 
pipe on the market is wrought iron, it appears that 
steel gave good results. 

Prof. Woolson says: "In my judgment, from the evi- 
dence collected, there was absolutely no difference in 
the corrosion of the two classes of pipe. They ap- 
peared to be equally susceptible to the attack." 

A similar study was made by Dr. Walker to deter- 
mine how these materials stood in service when both 
were used in the same system, separated only from 
each other by a coupling. The method was to examine 
a large number of steam and hot-water systems in dif- 
ferent conditions, and to collect samples of wrought- 
iron and steel pipe. Others were obtained from live 
and exhaust steam lines to make the results of general 

The specimens, after service, were split lengthwise 
and cleaned, then the extent of corrosion was calcu- 
lated by measuring with a micrometer the ten deepest 
pits occurring in a length of about 12 ins. 

In all, sixty-four comparisons were made and the re- 
sults may be summed up thus: 

Comparative Corrosion of Wrought-iron and Steel Pipe 

Instances where iron corroded more than steel 20 

Instances where steel corroded more than iron.... 18 
Instances where iron and steel corroded equally, . . 9 

Instances where corrosion was negligible 17 

In the light of the facts brought out by this work, 



March, 1916 

Dr. Walker concluded that on the average there is no 
difference in the corrosion of iron and steel pipe. 

Immersion in sulphuric acid of a certain strength has 
been used as a means of determining the comparative 
resistance to corrosion of different samples of iron 
and steel, and Dr. Walker conducted some experiments 
to find out whether this test had any real value. He 
says: "Although the greatest care was taken to have 
the specimen the same size, cleaned in the same way, 
and in the same physical condition, the results show 
that no reliance can be placed in this accelerated acid 
test, but that it may be entirely erroneous and very 
misleading. Not only did the acid test not agree with 
the service test when steel was compared with iron, 
but the steels failed to agree among themselves, and 
the irons showed no agreement when considered by 
themselves." It may be added that these conclusions 
have been reached by other investigators, working in- 

Viewing impartially all of the data presented so far, 
there seems to be little to choose between wrought iron 
and steel pipe on the whole, as to resistance to corro- 
sion. With steel the rusting takes place more uni- 
formly over the surface. Wrought iron shows a ten- 
dency to form deep pits. Dr. Walker brought out the 
fact that the average depth of pitting for iron was 
0.130 of an inch and 0.118 for steel. In samples from 
the H. C. Frick Coke Co., the average of the deepest 
pits was 0.112 of an inch and for steel 0.108. Both 
these sets of twenty-six pipes each were from hot- 
water boiler-feed lines. The differences are slight, 
but, if anything, are in favor of steel pipe. 


Peat Powder for Locomotives in Sweden 

Experiments in the use of peat powder on locomo- 
tives of the state railways of Sweden have been made. 
The statement issued by the Swedish government bu- 
reau declares that the powder can technically, as well 
as economically, take the place of anthracite as fuel 
for locomotives. The railway has decided to under- 
take the development of this class of fuel by two differ- 
ent methods for purposes of comparison. Two experts 
have been requested to give complete estimates of the 
cost of preparing a certain bog for the manufacture 
of peat powder, together with estimates of running ex- 
penses, by the respective methods. The bog selected is 
said to be that at Hasthagen, about 1% miles from the 
station at Vislanda, with an area of about 500 acres. 


Locomotives and Cars for the Lehigh Valley 

The Lehigh Valley Railroad announces that it has 
just placed orders for 1,500 new automobile cars. The 
new cars will be 40 ft. long with 10-ft. double-stag- 
gered doors, which are generally regarded as of ap- 
proved design for automobile equipment. The cars 
will have both steel underframes and steel ends. In 
order to facilitate delivery, the cars were ordered in 
three lots of 500 each from the Standard Steel Car 
Company. The Pullman Company and the American 
Car and Foundry Company. 

At the same time the Lehigh Valley Railroad an- 
nounced that it had placed an order with the Baldwin 
Locomotive Works for ten more new Mikado freight 
locomotives, to be equipped with superheaters, Wal- 
chaerts valve gear, automatic stokers and other new 
features in locomotive appliances. This order of ten 
locomotives is in addition to the ten, ordered two 
months ago. Fifteen new switching engines have also 
been ordered from the same concern. 

The Many-Times Used Envelope 

Editor Railway Master Mechanic: 

Sir: — Your article on page 7 of the January 1916 
issue upon the subject of envelopes was read with 
considerable interest and the writer thought that your 
readers might be interested in the method of handling 
correspondence on the Pittsburgh, Shawmut & North- 
ern Railroad when the letters are not of a personal 
nature. Enclosed you will find a sample of our "Circul- 
ating Envelope" that is supposed to make 48 trips in 
its life-time and this particular one has made 22 trips 
and is good for 26 more. 

This envelope went to the agent at Hazelhurst, on its 
first trip, and in turn as follows: Auditor, St. Marys; 

,Vn R n C W2 .ft.. 2M. S-13 

R. R. B. 



t • Li 


Write Title awl Addreis on One Line 


...^i',y;- ■ ...'■ ; _ 

'j*y;ic- ■*;f**rr\ 

. /^y^^^^vig^^teg 

Much-Traveled Envelope on the P., S. & N. 

Supt. Car Service, St. Marys; Agent, Knoxdale; Agent, 
Rayard; Agent, Knoxdale; Agent, Rayard; Agent, Knox- 
dale; Agent, Timblin; Weigh Master, Rayard; Agent, 
Timblin; Agent, Brookville; Supt,, St. Mary's; Agent, 
St. Marys; Storekeeper, St. Marys; Agent, St. Marys; 
Agent, Byrnedale; Agent, St. Marys; Storekeeper, St. 
Marys, and wound up its career in my office. 

We are having excellent service from this class of 
stationery and the envelope we use is usually in fair 
condition after it has made its 48 trips. 

E. F. GIVIN, Mechanical Engineer, 
Pittsburgh, Shawmut & Northern Railroad. 

St. Marys, Pa. 

March, 1916 



Principles of Dynamo-Electric Machinery 


Induction, Magnetic Field, and Electro Motive Force 
Defined, and Simple Demonstrations Illustrated 

In order to clearly understand the action of a dynamo 
or electric generator and its counterpart, an electric 
motor, the following experiments with simple apparatus 
will serve to make the matter plain. In the first illus- 
tration, Fig. 1, a coil of wire having an iron core is 
shown connected with an indicator or galvanometer. 
The latter is a coil of many turns of fine wire, at the 
centre of which is a magnetic needle, whose motions 




Galvanometer or Inrfic&tor 

Fig. 1 

show the direction and strength of the magnetic field 
produced by a current in the coil. There is no battery 
in this circuit, yet when the large magnet shown is 
brought near or moved away from the end of the coil, 



rrcw ShowS 

direction of rotation 

the indicator shows the existence of an electric current 
through its windings. The indicator swings one way 
on the approach of the magnet, and in the opposite di- 
rection on its withdrawal. The same effect is produced 
whether the coil or the magnet is moved. 

In the next diagram, Fig. 2, the same principle is 

shown by representing a coil of wire rotated in the field 
produced by the two poles of a magnet similar to those 
of the common type of magneto-generator. 

Before going any farther, however, it is necessary to 
remind the reader that in speaking of energy, whether 
in large or small amounts, one must distinguish between 
quantity and pressure. The amount of power developed 
by a water wheel, for instance, is known definitely only 
when the number of gallons per minute and the height 
through which the water falls are known. So with elec- 
tric energy, the quantity is expressed by the unit Am- 
pere and the height or head or pressure or electro- 
motive force is designated by the unit called the Volt. 
These are distinctly different ideas or concepts and 
unless clearly registered in mind may lead to confusion. 

Referring again to the second diagram, the coil is 
shown in the magnetic field in front of the pole N. 
When the coil is rotated in the direction shown by the 
arrow, an electro-motive force (abbreviated e.m.f.) is 
at once set up in it, which decreases in intensity until 
it is zero when it reaches the position indicated by k, 
midway between the two poles. As soon as the coil 
passes the point k, this e.m.f. begins again and becomes 
stronger in the same sense, as the coil moves around un- 
til the latter reaches the point f, where it is a maximum 
and where it suddenly reverses, decreasing to zero as 
it moves from f to t and again increasing in the same 
sense in approaching the pole N at h. In other words, 
a conductor rotated through a bi-polar field such as that 
shown in Fig. 2, has a current of electricity generated 
in it that is reversed in direction twice during each 
revolution. This is usually shown by the conventional 
diagram of the third illustration, Fig. 3, where the 
height of the curve above or below the line N S repre- 


Positive Pj, e 

Nkga-tive Phase 

Fig. 3. — Curve Showing Intensity and Direction of 
Electro-Motive Force 

sents the values of the voltage developed at any point 
during one rotation of the coil from t to t. 

The points h and f of the curve indicate the two 
points of reversal of the e.m.f. in front of the two poles 
respectively. The point k indicates the zero value of 
the e.m.f. on passing beyond the influence of pole N 
and coming nearer the pole S, and the dropping of the 



March, 1916 

curve below the line NS indicates a change in the direc- 
tion or sense of the e.m.f ., but shows its development in 
the same manner with reference to the poles as in the 
first half of the revolution. Incidentally, this curve will 
help to explain the distinction between alternating cur- 
rent and direct or continuous current, as the latter is 
sometimes called. In the last experiment the electric 
current is in the same sense in passing through one- 
half of a revolution of the coil and in the opposite sense 
in passing through the other half. The rotation of the 
coil in the magnetic field under these conditions gives 
rise then to a pulsating or alternating current and the 
sequence of events during one-half of a complete revo- 
lution, and shown by the curve above and below the 


Fig. 4. — Commutator Attached to Rotating Conductor, 
Generating Direct Current 

line NS from h to h constitutes what is called one com- 
plete "cycle." Each half of this cycle is called a 
"phase." The electric current generated in the coil dur- 
ing the first half of the revolution is in one phase and 
pulsating. The next illustration, Fig. 4, shows a 
single conductor, for the sake of clearness, in a mag- 
netic field arranged to avoid the reversal of the e.m.f. 
just described. The commutator shown allows the cur- 
rent generated in one part of the conductor when pass- 
ing the reversing point in front of a pole, to be discon- 
nected from the terminal or brush to which electricity 
had been passing. A moment later the same part of the 
conductor is connected to the other brush, thus sending 
current in the opposite sense into the external circuit. 
This arrangement furnishes a pulsating current, but 
direct in the sense of not suffering reversal. Generators 
are built with a large number of conducting coils on 
the armature or rotor so as to give as many impulses as 
possible for each revolution. In all that has been said, 
the field has been produced by a permanent magnet, 
constituting a magneto-electric generator. A dynamo- 
electric generator is so constructed that the current de- 
veloped in the armature is wholly or in part utilized to 
create the magnetic field. 


Locomotives at the Centennial 


Early Appearance of the Walschaerts Gear 
Automatic Locomotive Bell in Canada 

The elaborate exposition held at San Francisco dur- 
ing 1915 recalls the famous one of 1876, called the Cen- 
tennial; and this affords an excellent occasion for com- 
ment on the latter. There have been other exhibitions 
since then at which locomotives constituted some of 
the chief attractions, notably the Chicago, World's Fair 

in 1893; but the Centennial appears to have made a 
lasting impression on those who visited Philadelphia 
at the time, and to have now made possible some in- 
teresting contrasts between the exhibits and other mo- 
tive power tendencies of the same general epoch. 

One of the most interesting exhibits was a little 
"bogie" built by William Mason of Taunton, Mass. It 
was his 554th engine and was completed November 
29, 1875. Its cylinders were 12 x 16 ins., and its drivers 
were 33 ins. in diameter, its total weight being 72,000 
lbs. What really attracted attention to this engine, 
however, was the fact that it had the Walschaerts valve 
gear, then practically unknown in this country. The 
gear aroused some interest, but did not seem of any 
value to those who inspected it. The gear was ridi- 
culed by some and looked upon with good-natured in- 
difference by others, who also volunteered the opinion 
that the engine's flexible steam connections would 
leak and make no end of trouble. 

The Walschaerts gear has certain well-known and 
very obvious advantages, in the case of large engines, 
notably as regards accessibility for inspection and re- 
pair, which, however, it fully shares with all the forms 
of outside gear now used. But the big engine, as we 
know it today, was a possibility too remote in 1876 to 
merit consideration. 

Mr. Mason appears to have adopted the Walschaerts 
gear for his "bogies," many of which had their drivers 
grouped very closely together, as a result of which it 
was difficult to inspect anything between the frames. 
Inasmuch, however, as the eight-wheeler was then the 
favorite type and its links and eccentrics could easily 
be seen and reached, there was no demand for an out- 
side gear. Even the "bogies" were not, in all cases, 
equipped with Walschaerts gear, although it was in- 
cluded in Mr. Mason's "recommended practice" for that 

The "bogie" described here is shown in Fig. 1. It 
was originally built for the Illinois Midland Railway, 

1 ifes«a#» 

.-~- - . ,-jfsma 

A * :'." /S 

l „_ . u *V-..,-„v^ 

■, — -■. -~ 

- 7 ,> 







Fig. 1. — Mason Engine at the Centennial, 1876 

but delivered to the New York and Manhattan Beach 
road. Aside from the particulars already given, it 
should be stated that this engine was very beautifully 
finished. The scheme of decoration included stars as 
in harmony with the patriotic nature of the exhibition. 
A very neat eight-wheel passenger engine, shown in 
Fig. 2, was exhibited by the Rhode Island Locomotive 
Works of Providence, R. I. There was nothing unusual 
about this engine; in fact, although nicely decorated, 
its finish was less elaborate than that of many other 
engines in regular service. To be sure, some roads 
carried the matter of decoration to an extreme, their 
engines being literally covered with gold striping and 
scroll-work. However, it was the style in those days., 
and any exception to the rule was conspicuous. Even 
so, this Rhode Island engine presented a very hand- 
some appearance, and included such regulation features 

March, 1916 



as short front, diamond stack and carefully polished 
machinery. Exact dimensions are not now available, 
and, although there were a number of other interest- 
ing exhibits, the passing of nearly forty years has 
made photographs and data relating to them difficult 
to get, as much has been lost or scattered. In any 
case, they are not obtainable at the present writing. 

However, a very interesting engine, of the same gen- 
eral period, is shown in Fig. 3. It is included here as 
an example of Canadian practice, which, at the time, 
reflected English influence. This engine was built by 
the Rhode Island Locomotive Works for the Great West- 
ern Railway of Canada, which subsequently became 
part of the Grand Trunk. An examination of the 
photograph will reveal the fact that it had English 
safety valves, which were carried up to the level of 
the cab roof, so that the steam blown off would not 
obscure the view of the engineman through the front 
windows. The tank, though mounted on two four- 
wheel trucks, was of pronounced English style and 
fitted with railings above the collar after the manner 
of British railways. The gangway steps were also 
English. Perhaps the most curious feature of the en- 
gine was the location of the bell, which was on the 
pilot beam. 

It appears that the Canadian laws relating to the 
■ necessity of warning persons off the track were very 
rigorous at the time. In order to keep out of trouble, 
the Great Western tried the scheme of putting the bell 
on the pilot beam and operating it by a cam on the lead- 
ing truck axle, which at each revolution of the wheel 
struck a rod and knocked it forward. The rod was held 
in guides and the end of the rod was the knocker of the 
bell. A coil spring on the rod carried it back from the 
bell after each blow. This device insured the constant 

count of the scarcity of photographs of motive power 
used on Canadian roads long ago. This type often had 
a hand rail along the running boards and across the 
pilot beam. 

Canadian practice differed from American practice 
just enough to make comparisons instructive and enter- 
taining to students of locomotive design. Railroad prac- 
tice in the United States and in Canada is much alike. In 
fact one may say both are now identical, but the slight 
differences of days was not only due to individual 
choice of design, but the influence of the old country, 
present in both cases, was perhaps a little more strong- 
ly marked on the Canadian roads. It is on this account 
that the writer invites attention to the various features 

Fig. 2. — Old Rhode Island Engine 

and automatic ringing of the bell while the engine 
was in motion. 

From this it also appears that then, as now, the 
railroads were confronted by a problem created by care- 
less or thoughtless people. How acute this problem has 
become within recent years, especially in the United 
States, is known to most railroad officials. Neither a 
bell nor a whistle will positively prevent an accident. 
There are, no doubt, many fraudulent cases, and there 
are people who will state that they did not hear the 
bell, but the object of the Canadian device on the 
G. W. R. engines was to enable the railway to establish 
the fact in court that the bell had been rung, even 
though the warning had been unheeded. 

Other interesting features of the engine shown in 
Fig. 3 were the large balloon, or hay stack, and it was 
probably the resemblance to the form in which straw 
is preserved which introduced the word "stack." 
The whistle which was perched at the very apex of the 
dome casing. Altogether, this locomotive is one of the 
most interesting examples of old-time designing that 
the writer knows of, and it. is of special value on ac- 

Fig. 3. — Great Western of Canada with Automatic Bell 

of the old Great Western engine, and expresses the 
hope that an examination of them will be of value to 
those hitherto unfamiliar with the facts disclosed, and 
he also hopes it will be a source of pleasure to those 
who remember them. This, after all, is one of the 
reasons why the old-time engine should receive recog- 
nition, as it incidentally supplies a stimulus to the in- 
terest taken by many in the railroading of a past day. 
It also opens the way for the present day student and 
young railroad man to see and know what has gone 


The Result of War in Mexico 

On the National Railways of Mexico there were 729 
locomotives in service before the troubles began in 
1910. Today there are but 19 of them fit to run. Out 
of more than 18,000 freight cars in use up to the time 
the revolutions commenced, there are now only 3,400 
which are serviceable. As to passenger cars, they have 
all practically disappeared. The few that are in evi- 
dence will have to be completely overhauled. The rail- 
way tracks and bridges have almost been demolished. 
Two-thirds of all the crossties must be renewed, some- 
thing more than half the rails are worn out and all the 
bridges throughout the country will have to be rebuilt. 
Telegraph equipment, as well as buildings of all kinds, 
seem to have been completely destroyed. Repair shops 
and other important structures have been burned and 
all machinery has met complete destruction. 

The country's industries which depend largely upon 
the railways are at a standstill, as a matter of course, 
and it will take years to remove wreckage and restore 
affairs generally to their usual condition. It would ap- 
pear from this showing of destruction that a vast quan- 
tity of steel and other materials will be in demand and 
that the United States will come in for a large share of 
orders to cover the needed replacements. 

In these days, war's doings appear to Outclass the 
results which have heretofore seemed more' than awful: 
There will have to be some more forceful expression in- 
vented to put war properly before thinking people than" 
the simple definition, only, that it is "Hell." 



March, 1916 

Practical Suggestions from Railway Shop Men 

Appliances on the St. Louis & San Francisco 

By JOHN F. LONG, Springfield/ Mo. 

I was very much interested in your department of 
practical suggestions from railway shop men, in your 
December issue of the Railway Master Mechanic. 
I submit the following, if you care to use them in your 

View No. 1 is a corner in the power plant at North 
Shop at Springfield, on the St. Louis & San Francisco 

Fig. 1. — Corner of North Springfield Shop 

Railroad. It shows a bicycle rack, where all bicycles 
that are used by the employes of the shop are stored, 
instead of the bicycles being scattered around the 
shop, and instead of being in the way of everyone, they 
are all put in one place, out of the way of the shop 
force. This view shows, also, a handy portable pipe 
bench, in position to be moved to any point that a 
workman may care to move it. When in actual use the 
wheel is folded down and the bench sets firm on the 

View No. 2 shows the wheel shop at this point on the 

Fig. 2. View of Wheel Shop 

St. L. & S. F. View No. 3 shows the wheel yard. View 
No. 4 shows the car material arrangement in the car 
yards. View No. 5 shows a metallic rack for the brass 
in the brass lathe department, the air department in 
the background. 




H : 

; ; I '" . 

HP' 4 '' 4 **-' '"v 



JKtr fl Ui 

Fig. 3.— View of Wheel Yard 

I also note in this same issue a brake on a boring 
mill. As soon as I get an opportunity, will take a pic- 
ture of one I made at this shop, and I believe that mine 
is a good one. . 

Foundry operations that influence the properties of 
physical test specimens of bronze have been investi- 

Fig. 4. — Arrangement of Bins for Car Material 

gated by the United States Bureau of Standards. One 
of the most generally used alloys in government bronze 
is composed of copper 88 per cent, tin 10 per cent, and 
zinc 2 per cent. The effects of temperatures of casting, 
the methods of gating and moulding, the kind of sand 
and heat treatment on the mechanical properties of the 
bronze have been studied. 

■;' : "'-■••-• 

Hs ~ 

■—j *:»S 

W r"vjj 

H •~*.--tJrl 

ii H ^H j 

H|:: WjL 


■ / 



Fig. 5. — Metallic Rack for Brass 

March, 1916 



Chief Interchange Car Inspectors' and Car Foremen's Assn, 

Proceedings of the Special Open Meeting of the Executive 
Committee, Hotel La Salle, Chicago, 111., February 21, 1916 

Meeting called to order at 9 :45 a. m., Chairman F. H. 
Hanson of the executive committee presiding. The fol- 
lowing officers, members and visitors registered: 




A. Kipp 
W. J. Stoll 
M. R. McMunn 

G. C. I. 
C. C. I. 
G. C. I. 


F. H. Hanson 
Wm. Hanson 
M. W. Halbert 
Z. B. Wilson 
A. Armstrong 
C. J. Stroke 
J. P. Carney 

A. M. C. B. 
C. I. I. 
C. I. I. 
G. F. C. D. 
C. I. I. 
A. G. F. 
G. C. I. 

N. Y. O. & W. 
Toledo, Ohio. 
N. Y. C. B. R. 

N. Y. C. R. R. 

Denver, Colo. 
E. St. Louis, 111, 
Southern Ry. 
Atlanta, Ga. 
N. Y. C. R. R. 
M. C. R. R. 

J. E. Vittrum 

B. M. Waldo 
W. G. Wallace 

C. A. Watler 
W. T. West all 
E. H. Wood 
L. S. Wright 
C. J. Wymer 
A. Ziebold 


C. J. I. 
C. I. I. 

G. F. F. R. 
G. C. F. 

G. C. F. 
G. C. I. 


All lines 

Dallas Car Inter.Br. 
Amer. Steel Fdrs. 
C. I. & W. R. R. 
N. Y. C. R. R. 
M. C. R. R. 
Natl. Mall. Cstgs.Co 
Belt Ry. of Chicago 
Hocking Valley R.R. 


Columbus, O. 
Dallas, Tex. 
Chicago, 111. 
IndianapTs, Ind. 
Collinwood, O. 
Chicago, 111. 
Chicago, 111. 
Chicago, 111. 
Columbus, O. 




Gust. Bahr Foreman 

W. E. Benham Car Acct. 

W. H. Bettcher M. C. B. 

G. W. Bill D. C. I. 

H. Boutet C. I. I. 

Chas. Bossert A. C. I. I. 

Geo. Briden Car Fore. 

Chas. Broo 

Chas. Burlingame Supt. 

W. K. Carr G. C. I. 

C. II. Carey G. C. I. 
S. W. Caton G. C. I. 

M. F. Covert A. M. C. B. 

W. H. Cressey G. F. 

D. P. Crillman G. C. F. 
Wm. Cunningham C. I. I. 
Joel DeVault G. F. 
John Dixey M. C. B. 
C. R. Dobson G. F. C. D. 
J. T. Downs G. F. 
Joseph Dyer C. J. I. 

H. L. Ebert M. C. B. 

W. B. Elliott F. C. D. 

J. F. Ewell G. C. F. 

F. A. Eyman Chf. Clerk 
Jos. Forche G. C. F. 
John Funk G. C. F. 

J. J. Gainey G. F. C. D. 

W. M. Govert T. C. I. 

E. H. Hall G. C. I. 
Harvey Halvoern M. C. B. 
Sam Hanson G. C. F. 
H. H. Harvey G. C. F. 
E. H. Harmon Sec'y. 

R. R. Hawk Sec'y. 

A. Herbster D. G. F. 
O. P. Hiltabiddle A. G. F. 
Wm. Hogarth M. C. B. 

B. Husband G. C. F. 
E. E. Jett M. C. B. 
Adolph Johnson C. F. A. 
J. C. Keene T. C. I. 
P. F. Kennedy F. C. I. 
Newman Kline Supt. 

L. J. Koeppen M. C. B. 

Henry Krush C. F. 

W. K. Lauis Fore. 

C. H. Lembke D. F. C. D. 
J. W. Luke T. C. I. 

K. H. Martin G. E. I. 

J. P. McNally 

J. R. Mitchell 

J. S. Naery M. C. B. 

H. E. Nelson CC-GCF 

R. H. Niehaus F. C. D. 

J. J. O'Brien S. C. D. 

T. J. O'Donnell Arb. 

C. E. Oliver G. C. F. 

C. W. Osley 

J. W. Peebles C. I. I. 

Edw. Pendleton C. I. I. 

A. K. Plummer G. C. F. 

G. C. Pool 

H. G. Powell 

E. R. Prindle Fore. Shg. 
J. G. Rauen C. C. I. 
Jas. Reed A. M. C. B. 
L. H. Retan MCB Clk. 
C. E. Rickey Supt. Term. 
W. J. Rourke Car Fore. 

F. S. Ryan 

E. Sande Car Fore. 

F. C. Schultz C. I. T. 
A. E. Schultz A. I. I. 

C. Setzekorn Meeh. Supt. 

J. A. Shepa.rd Supt. Term. 

C. S. Shearman M. C. B. 

H. A. Simms Supt. 

A. J. Thrall 

C. B. & Q. R. R. 
C. M. & St. P. Ry. 
C. I. & W. R. R. 
Union 1 Tank; Line Co. 
All lines 

Chi. Car Inter.Bur. 
C. I. & L. R. R. 

Chicago, 111. 
Chicago, 111. 
IndianapTs, Ind. 
Whiting, Ind. 
Cincinnati, O. 
Chicago, 111. 
Hammond, Ind. 

Wiggins Ferry Co. 
N. & W. R. R. 
E. J. & E. R. R. 
W. M. R. R. 
Swift 1 Car Lines 
S. Omaha Jt. I. Ass 
M. C. R. R. 
Det. Inter. Assn. 
T. St. L. & W. 
Dairy Shippers' Des. 
C. R. I. & P. Ry. 
M. C. R. R. 
Erie & P. & L. E. 
Union Ta'n.k Line Co. 
Term. R. R. Assn. 
Barrett Mfg. Co. 
E. J. & E. R. R. 
L. E. & W. R. R. 
Soo Line 

C. N. O. & T. P. Ry. 
E. J. & E. R. R. 
C. G. W. R. R. 
Soo Line 
P. & P. U. Ry. 
C. B. & Q. R. R. 
A(m.As;sn;R.R.S , upts. 
Cold BlastTrans.Co'. 
N. Y. C. R. R. 
Wabash R. R. 
Cudahy Refg. Line 
111. Cent. R. R. 
Morris & Co. 
S. D. 

Wabash R. R. 
A. T. & S. F. Ry. 
Nor. Pac. Ry. 
C. & L W. R. R. 
Soo Line 
C. B. & Q. R. R. 
Mo. Pac. R. R. 
A. T. & S. F. R. R- 
Southern Ry. 
O. F. Jordan Co. 
W. H. Miner 
C. I. & L. Ry. 
C. & E. I. R. R. 
Wabash R. R. 
Term. R. R. Assn. 
A. T. & S. F. Ry. 
The Texas Company 
Un. Pac. R. R. 
All lines 

C. B. & Q. R. R. 
The Q. & C. Co. 
Cudahy Refg. Line 
Barrett Mfg. Co. 
C. & E. I. R. R. 
N. Y. C. R. R. 
Ann Arbor R. R. 
Q. & C. Route 
M. C. R. R. 
Crystal Car Line 
C. & N. W. R. R. 
Chi. Car Inter. Bur. 
Chi. Car Inter. Bur. 
A. R. T. Co. 
Missouri Pac. Ry. 
Chi. Jet. Ry. 
Wells Fargo Co. 
Atlas Car Co. 

St. Louis, Mo. 
Roanoke, Va. 
Chicago, 111. 
Hagestown, Md. 
Chicago, 111. 
• So. Omaha, Neb. 
N. Toledo, O. 
Detroit, Mich. 
Toledo, O. 
Chicago, 111. 
Cedar R'p'ds, la. 
Bay City, Mich. 
Youngstown, O. 
So. Chicago, 111. 
St. Louis, Mo. 
Chicago. 111. 
Joliet, 111. 
Lima, O. 
Kolze, 111. 
Ludlow, Ky. 
Schererville, Ind. 
Oelwein, la. 
Fond d'Lac, Wis. 
Peoria, 111. 
Chicago, 111. 
St. Louis, Mo. 
Chicago, 111. 
Englewood, 111. 
Chicago, 111. 
E. Chicago, Ind. 
Chicago, 111. 
Chicago, 111. 
Chicago, 111. 
Decatur, 111. 
Kansas City, Mo. 
M'n'p'lis, Minn. 
Chicago, 111. 
Manitowoc, Wis. 
Chicago, 111. 
Kansas City, Mo. 
Topeka, Kan. 
Wash'gt'n, D. C. 
Chicago, 111. 
Chicago, 111. 
Lafayette, Ind. 
Yd. Center, 111. 
St. Louis, Mo. 
St. Louis, Mo. 
Buffalo, N. Y. 
Chicago, 111. 
Chicago, 111. 
Kansas C'y, Mo. 
Peoria, 111. 
Chicago, 111. 
Chicago, 111. 
E. Chicago. Ind. 
Chicago, 111. 
Yd. Center, 111. 
Englewood, 111. 
Owosso, Mich. 

Jackson, Mich. 
Chicago, 111. 
Manitowoc, Wis. 
Chicago, 111. 
Chicago, 111. 
St. Louis, Mo. 
Kansas C'y, Mo. 
Chicago, 111. 
Chicago, 111. 
Chicago, 111. 

There were about ten members who arrvied after the 
registration who are not included in the above. 

A number of invitations which had been received 
from the various cities would be read, and there were 
also a few representatives of different cities present 
who would also be given an opportunity to set forth 
the advantages to be gained in having the convention 
held at their city. 

It was thought advisable to dispose of the matter 
of the convention city first, and the secretary read let- 
ters from the following: 

Manager Convention Bureau, City of Columbus, O. 
(accompanied by booklet describing the various fea- 
tures of the city) ; secretary Colorado Springs Chamber 
of Commerce, Detroit Convention and Tourist Bureau, 
governor of the State of Indiana (for Indianapolis), 
mayor city of Buffalo, Chamber of Commerce 
of Buffalo, manager Convention Bureau, Merchants' 
Association, City of New York; governor State 
of Georgia (for Atlanta) ; Chamber of Commerce, 
City of Atlanta; Georgia Hotel Men's Association, City 
of Atlanta; Business Men's Club of Memphis, Cham- 
ber of Commerce, City of Cleveland; Cedar Point Re- 
sort Co., Cedar Point, Ohio; Charleston, West Vir- 
ginia, Isle of Palms; Convention Bureau, Cham- 
ber of Commerce, San Francisco. 

Mr. Hanson advised, for the benefit of those present, 
that so far as the date was concerned, that could be 
changed by the executive committee to meet the condi- 
tions at the individual city that was finally decided 

Indianapolis was selected for the meeting and the 
dates chosen were October 3, 4 and 5, 1916. 

Several members of the American Association of 
R. R. Supts. were present. Mr. C. E. Rickey, the second 
vice-president, stated, when called on, that the associa- 
tion was known to his organization as one that was 
accomplishing very meritorious progress in promoting 
a more thorough understanding of the rules and meth- 
ods of handling repairs and interchange, and they were 
very pleased to have had the opportunity of being able 
to be present for at least the forenoon session, and if 
time permitted would again drop in on the meeting 
later on during the afternoon session providing their 
meeting adjourned early enough. 

Mr. Schultz spoke at length on the meeting recently 
held by the several chief interchange inspectors at Cin- 
cinnati, at which time it developed that something 
should be done with a view of adopting uniform meth- 
ods of handling interchange and enforcing the rules at 
the large terminals throughout the country. For in- 
stance, along one of the large trunk lines he knew of, 
which was all under one management, extending past 
five or six large terminals, the work at each point was 
handled differently, although in the main the conditions 
were similar, and which, of course, resulted in a great 
deal of confusion, as before any definite action could 



March, 1916 

be taken by the road it was necessary to first go into 
the different instructions which were in force at each 
point. There should be no reason for this, and it would 
not exist if everyone would get together, and decide on 
a uniform manner that would properly take care of 
each individual point, and, as well, the various points 
as a whole. 

After considerable discussion by the various chief 
interchange inspectors, as well as the members, it was 
decided by the chairman that this was rather a matter 
to be looked into by the interchange inspectors, and 
possibly could be taken care of, or some solution of the 
question offered, by placing the matter in the hands of 
a committee for investigation and recommendation. It 
was cited that it was the intent in the meeting of the 
executive committee, which would take place on the 
morrow, to appoint a committee to handle work along 
such lines, and after the committee was formally ap- 
pointed it would be asked to make this one of their 
main themes; in other words they should prepare or 
secure a paper, or papers, on the matter for presenta- 
tion and discussion at the convention. 

Chairman Hanson then called for the taking up of the 
principal subject of the meeting, namely, the discus- 
sion and recommendations for changes in the rules, 
statins' that, as per the arrangement previously men- 
tioned, the secretary would first read the rule as it 
was at present and it would then be in order to present 
recommendations, if any, which, after discussion would 
be voted on by the executive committee, in accordance 
with the by-laws of the association, and if the motion 
carried the change would be embodied in the associa- 
tion's recommendations to the M. C. B. Association. 

The secretary then read a letter from Mr. F. W. 
Trapnell, chief interchange inspector of the Kansas 
City Car Interchange Bureau, under date of the 19th of 

The secretary was instructed to handle Mr. Trap- 
nell's recommendation by placing them before the as- 
sociation in their proper order, and on their being sec- 
onded by a member would be open for discussion and 
vote the same as the recommendations made verbally 
by the members present. 

Changes in Rules Recommended 

The following changes in rules were recommended 
to the Master Car Builders' Association: 

Rule 2, Paragraph 2: Be changed to read as follows: 
"Empty cars offered in interchange must be accepted 
in safe and serviceable condition, the receiving line to 
be the judge. Owners must accept their own cars, also 
foreign cars, routing home via their line when offered 
at any point on their line, and dispose of them in ac- 
cordance with M. C. B. Rules." 

Reason : To make it obligatory for railroads to ac- 
cept foreign cars routing home via their line the same 
as their own cars and to keep the cars moving in their 
proper direction of travel instead of shifting back and 
forth between the lines and the current of traffic as 
they are at present being handled, causing endless con- 
fusion and controversy. 

Rule 3, Paragraph E: Be changed to read as follows: 
"Tank cars equipped with safety valves will be ac- 
cepted in interchange if stenciled on the body of tank 
to show that safety valves have been tested, adjusted, 
etc., within the time limit as required by paragraphs 6 
and 7 of the M. C. B. specifications for tank cars." 

Reason: To eliminate the danger incident to car in- 
spectors getting on top of tank cars with lights of va- 

rious kinds to ascertain whether or not valves are 
stamped, which is a violation of the rules of the Bu- 
reau of Explosives. 

A great deal of discussion arose through a misunder- 
standing that the safety valve testing and stamping 
should be protected by the M. C. B. rules in requiring 
an interchange inspection of the valve to see if 
stamped. This feature was now covered by the tank 
car specifications and it was obligatory for the owner 
to make such test and stencil the body of car to indicate 
that such test had been made, as well as placing this 
information on the safety valve itself. It was clearly 
brought out that by waiving the inspection of the safety 
valve itself on the part of the inspector and letting him 
be governed solely by the stencilling on the tank, the 
matter would be fully protected so far as this feature 
was concerned in interchange; in other words, it was 
obligatory on the owner to test the safety valve and 
stamp thereon the information relative to such test, and 
at the same time, in addition, stencil the same informa- 
tion on the body of the tank- — indicating at what pres- 
sure, when, where and by whom the safety valve had 
been tested, and the inspector could accept car in inter- 
change solely on the tank stencilling. 

Rule 3, Paragraph G: Be changed to read as follows: 

"After July 1, 1917, cars will not be accepted in in- 
terchange unless stenciled showing the year and month 
originally built. Cars built prior to 1895 may be sten- 
cilled 'Built prior to 1895.' " 

Reason. — As this is in connection with the safety 
appliance work and the limit for the compliance with 
the safety appliance act has been extended to July 1, 
1917, by the Interstate Commerce Commission, this rule 
as well should have the time limit extended accord- 

Rule 8: The words "or typewritten" be added to rule. 

Reason. — As the rule at present reads it leaves it 
optional with the roads as to whether they will accept 
typewritten repair cards, which should be made obliga- 
tory from the fact that in a large number of cases the 
individual characteristics in handwriting make the 
cards very hard to decipher, and, as well, in the type- 
written cards it would overcome the tendency of errors 
in car numbers, initials, etc. 

Rule 41: Be changed to read as follows: 
"Damaged longitudinal sills, if necessitating replace- 
ment or splicing of more than three sills." 

Rule 42: Be eliminated, thus placing responsibility 
for ends broken out on car owner. 

Reason. — On a majority of the old cars still in service 
where this damage occurs it is largely due to decayed 
tenons and original weak construction of the end, and 
the handling lines should not be forced to assume the 
burden of expense on account of the fault lying with the 
construction or decayed condition of the car. Most of 
the roads had equipped their cars with steel or rein- 
forced ends and it was not fair, after they had gone to 
the great expense of placing their cars in condition to 
meet the present service conditions to also force them 
to assume the expense of replacing ends on foreign cars 
which could not withstand ordinary service conditions. 

Rule 59: A paragraph be added to this rule to permit 
the removal of air hose from foreign cars after three 
years' service. 

Reason. — Under the rule as at present the hose are 
left on until they burst and cause trouble. Recent in- 
vestigation of accidents caused by burst air hose, as 
well as hose removed in regular service, developed that 

March, 1916 



the majority of the hose were over three years of age; 
that is, betwen the period three years and three months, 
which hose in prior inspection had revealed no indica- 
tion of being in other than O. K. condition. 

Rule 99: Addition to be made to this rule as follows: 

"When axle is removed by owner account of cut 
journal on authority of defect card and the journal has 
additional defects condemnable under rule 85, no ma- 
terial charge shall be made for the axle applied." 

Reason. — It has been proven by experience that the 
lengthening of journal and other wear to same has been 
the primary cause of the journal heating and cutting, 
which, under ordinary conditions, could not be detected 
before the failure and it is felt that owner may take 
unfair advantage by charging a scrap axle to the deliv- 
ering line, and, from the general tend of the various 
M. C. B. Rules to protect the delivering line from pay- 
ing for a betterment, the recommendation is felt to be 
fair and just to all concerned. 

Rule 103: The following paragraph be added: 

"Sheet metal parts removed from superstructure of 
steel cars shall be credited at one-half the weight of 
material applied." 

Reason. — Account of the rapid deterioration of such 
parts they only weigh half as much as the new ma- 
terial applied. 

The chief interchange inspector at Cincinnati called 
attention to the different instructions issued at various 
points concerning interchange rules which were not 
uniform, this having been brought out in the recent 
meeting of several of the chief joint inspectors at Cin- 
cinnati. The methods followed, while they accom- 
plished the same results, were widely different in na- 
ture and should be straightened out so that rather than 
having such a number of special arrangements at the 
various interchange inspection points, it should be han- 
dled uniformly. As an instance he cited the various 
interpretations of the loading rules — at some points no 
exceptions were taken to cars unless the doors showed 
signs of distress ; at others, exceptions were taken if it 
could be ascertained in some manner that the doorways 
were not protected regardless of whether or not the 
door was actually in distress at the time. This permit- 
ted a car to be received at one point with no door pro- 
tection and no exceptions taken account of the door not 
being in distress at such time, but after the car had 
moved over the road -and received a few shocks the 
lading shifted against the door and placed it in dis- 
tress, and on receipt by another handling line that road 
was "stung" for the cost of adjusting lading and ap- 
plying the necessary door protection. If uniform in- 
structions had existed at all points where this car was 
handled, namely, a strict interpretation of the loading 
rules, rather than special arrangements, this would not 
occur, as they could go back at the. initial road. 

It was stated that this condition could be overcome 
if the initial roads were made responsible for the trans- 
fer or adjustment of lading due to the doors being 
bulged on account of lack of door protection. 

One of the members called attention to the fact that 
one of the American Railway Association officials was 
present and he understood that that body had the ques- 
tion under consideration at the present time and might 
possibly have something to offer on the subject. 

The chairman called on Mr. DeGroot, who addressed 
the meeting, stating that the work of the Chief Inter- 
change Inspectors' and Car Foremen's Association was 
becoming recognized in many circles due to the excel- 
lent work it had, and was, doing, particularly at the 
larger interchange points, and he was very glad to be 
able to be present at the meeting. As to the question 

under discussion, he could only say that his association 
and several other organizations now had this same 
question under consideration but nothing definite had 
been determined. 

An executive session of the executive committee was 
held February 22, which will be reported in the April 
issue of the Railway Master Mechanic. 

Effect of Vibration of Structures 

, Recognizing that practically every one is certain that 
higher speed, better work, and greater human efficiency 
are possible in a stable as compared with a vibrating 
building, but that exact data proving this fact are dif- 
ficult to obtain, the Aberthaw Construction Co. of Bos- 
ton, Mass., is undertaking an exhaustive investigation 
in the effort to bring together conclusive evidence. 
They will greatly appreciate any suggestions or reports 
of experience that our readers may be able to send to 
them. These may have to do with any aspect of the 
case that will assist in the collection of facts or the 
reaching of conclusions. 

Power Plant Costs 

To-day power is manufactured, sold and bought just 
like any other marketed commodity. The cost of pro- 
duction depends on several factors, viz. : cost of fuel, 
cost of generators, labor cost, amount produced, and 
this cost is the chief criterion on which the market 
price depends. Of interest to the power consumer is 
what his power costs him, what it should cost, and 
where and why any loss may have occurred. 

At a recent meeting of the American Society of 
Mechanical Engineers, in the Engineering Societies 
Building, Mr. Walter N. Polakov, superintendent of 
power of the New York, New Haven and Hartford Rail- 
road, discussed the question of standardization and pre- 
determination of the cost of power. He gave informa- 
tion concerning a simple method by which the owner of 
a power plant of any kind can, without the necessity of 
study of technical details, determine just how close the 
cost of his own plant is to the possible minimum cost 
of such a plant. In other words, how much more he is 
paying for power than he should pay, if such is the 

Mr. Polakov has spent several years in cost standard- 
ization work. At one time he was expert consulting 
engineer to the Board of Estimate and Apportionment 
of the City of New York. He has been in charge of re- 
organization work and introduction of scientific man- 
agement in several large industrial plants in this coun- 
try. His paper is of value to railroad officials on whose 
lines electric power is used for machine drive in shops, 
or for the propulsion of trains. 


Training Italian Apprentices 

The Director-General of the Italian State Railways 
has furnished United States Consul William F. Kelley, 
at Rome, with some interesting information as to how 
railway apprentices are trained in that country. Upon 
entering the service the young men are given a theoret- 
ical course by engineers and receive special training in 
the machine shops. After six to nine months, the 
apprentices, having previously had elementary state 
schooling, must submit to an examination before being 
accepted as locomotive firemen. The firemen's exam- 
ination requires some knowledge of the air brake and 
its working. 



March, 1916 

36-in. Head Rotary Planing Machine 

The Newtoni Machine Tool Works, Inc., Philadelphia, 
Pa., has recently designed a machine for finishing flat 
surfaces on steel and iron castings, such as bases of 
columns or other structural shapes at greater product- 
ive rates than were possible with a single tool carried 

36-in. Newton Rotary Planer 

on a swinging arm, such as was formerly employed, 
which has even greater capacity than previous models. 
In this latest development a belt connection is em- 
ployed to transmit power from the motor to the driving 
shaft. The motor is mounted on the saddle and travels 
with it, an arrangement which is relied upon to elim- 
inate vibration due to torsion in the long feed screws 
and splined driving shafts of the earlier machines. A 
machine of this type has been used in the builder's shop 
on the erecting floor for finishing cast iron surfaces 
20 ins. wide. Here it has removed metal to a depth of 
Y± in. at a feed of 6 ins. per minute without any ap- 
preciable strain on the machine or wear on the cutters. 




*# 4 

^B "* 



The cutter head used is a steel casting surrounded 
with a steel band, to which are fitted submerged tool 
clamping screws to comply with the recent liability 
laws enacted by the various state legislatures. The 
drive to the head is transmitted through an internal 
gear, the teeth of which are cut from a solid casting in 
the back of the head. A patented feed box renders six 
changes available. Latch levers control the sliding 
sleeves, which are incorporated in the construction of 
the feed box, and each sleeve carries one of several 
groups of gears, giving feed changes and reversing fast 
power traverse to the saddle. The work table on the 
machine is of the fixed type, and the depth of the cut is 
controlled by an adjustment of the spindle travel. In 
the design of the machine care was taken to insure 
flexible and convenient control to secure production at 
the highest possible rate by reducing as far as possible 
the time that the machines were idle. 

One of the special features of the machine is that 
there are only three points of control — the top lever 
regulates the direction of traverse for the feed and fast 
power motion clutches and is arranged to prevent con- 
flict, while the in and out adjustment of the spindle 
saddle which gives the depth of cut is controlled by a 
handwheel. . 

Portable Pneumatic Drill for Heavy Duty 

The Ingersoll-Rand Co., 11 Broadway, New York, have 
recently added to the "Little David" line of pneumatic 
drills an exceptionally powerful compound geared model 
No. 11-SE. 

This drill is reversible and is adapted to the heaviest 
flue rolling, drilling, reaming and tapping. It is par- 
ticularly recommended by the manufacturer for tapping 
on flexible stay bolt work, running in stay bolt sleeves, 

Back of 36-in. Newton Rotary Planer 

Powerful Compound Geared "Little David" Drill 

locomotive valve setting, and kindred heavy duty opera- 
tion. It is so constructed that it develops full power on 
the reverse as well as the forward motion. This is 
pointed out to be of particular advantage in that, after 
running a flexible stay bolt sleeve up tight, the No. 
11-SE, due to its unusual power on the reverse motion, 
will unscrew the sleeve cap. This obviates the neces- 
sity for the usual cumbersome wrench. 

In setting locomotive valves this new "Little David" 

March, 1916 



tool has the same advantage in that it will revolve the 
drivers in either direction, facilitating the valve setting 

This drill has the one piece gear-timed valves and 
ball and roller bearing crank shaft and connecting rods 
and general simplicity of construction which have been 
features of the pneumatic drills of this manufacturer. 

This drill is ordinarily furnished with a No. 5 Morse 
taper socket. It operates at a free spindle speed of 
100 R.P.M. 

The illustration shows the outfit in operation, the 
welder with the reclaiming attachment is behind the 
furnace, the clamp on the pipe shows between the 
operator and the furnace and the mandrel can be seen 
at the right edge of the picture. 


Flue Reclaiming Attachments 

The Draper Manufacturing Co., Port Huron, Mich., 
have recently placed on the market an outfit for weld- 
ing long ends on boiler tubes, pipes or rods, and for 
welding splits or flaws in pipes or tubes. These at- 
tachments are used in connection with the Draper Im- 
proved Pneumatic Flue Welder and an ordinary flue 
furnace. The flue welder is placed behind the furnace 
with the end of a long mandrel between the dies of the 
hammer in line with the center of the furnace. A hole 
is made through the back of the furnace of such a 
shape that the operator can view the flue while being 
heated and welded. Flues are prepared in the ordinary 
way, scarfed and one piece expanded. The shorter 
piece is then pushed through the furnace on to the 
mandrel and the long piece is placed over the lap. A 
clamp is placed on the tube at a predetermined dis- 
tance from the weld equal to the distance between the 
center of the furnace and the center of the welder. 
When the tube is at the proper heat for welding, it is 
pushed forward into the flue welder and the clamp on 
the tube engages a lever operating the flue welder. 
The flue is welded in a very few seconds after it leaves 
the fire, which is a great advantage in welding thin 
flues. The clamp is removed after this operation and 
the flue pulled out on the tilting table. The heated 
flue rolls over this table and is straightened and is 
then allowed to cool until it will support its own 
weight. By this method the only limit to the length 
of end that can be welded is the length of the mandrel 
behind the flue welder. 

Locomotive Cylinder and Valve Chamber 
Bushing Boring Bar 

E. J. Rooksby, 435 N. Eleventh St., Philadelphia, has 
recently placed on the market a new design of the 
Rooksby Portable Boring Bar, illustrated herewith, in 
which the manufacturers have been guided by the very 
commendable "Safety First" principle of safeguarding 
all moving parts, and have carefully guarded all 
exposed gears and moving parts, making the machine 

Portable Boring Bar With Gear Guard 

compact and of ample strength, yet simple and acces- 
sible throughout. 

These machines are especially designed for reboring 
locomotive cylinders and valve chamber bushings. 
They can be used with one or both cylinder heads 
removed and are easily and quickly set up. The cross- 
head blocks are bolted to the cylinder with the cylinder 
head studs, and the bar revolves in the sleeves sup- 
ported and centered by set screws in the crossheads. 
When boring with only one head removed, the expand- 

i J jl Draper Flue Reclaiming Attachments Arranged to Weld Long Flue Ends 



March, 191.6 

ing chuck and pin, having five sets of taper gibs to 
fit in stuffing boxes of various diameters, is used to 
support the crank end of the bar. 

The power is applied to the bar by means of a back- 
geared driving power, having a "two-speed, quick- 
change gear drive." This is a recent improvement of 
particular advantage where the same bar is used » to 
rebore cylinders and valve chamber bushings of 
various sizes. The "quick change" is accomplished by 

chrome nickle steel, heat treated and hardened. All 
working elements in this gear box are under constant 
flood lubrication. Complete and simple interlocking 
mechanism is provided between shift lever and start- 
ing and stopping clutch so that conflicting gear trains 
cannot be engaged. 

The lathe is provided with four-sided turret tool- 
posts, of steel, which are tooled up for all the opera- 
tions incident to finishing axles from the rough, en- 

Front View Putnam Heavy Double Axle Lathe 

simply pulling out a slip pin, shifting the primary 
pinion out of gear and driving by the intermediate 
shaft. As the illustration shows, all gears are 
completely encased. 

The tool holder has been re-designed to use high- 
speed cutters for extra-hard service. The cutterhead 
is fed by means of an automatic feed case having two 
changes of feed controlled by a slip pin. This is also 
completely encased. 

For setting the bar up, in valve chamber bushings, a 
device is used to enable the operation to be quickly and 
accurately performed, consisting of a set of tapered 
cone sleeves in halves, fitting in the counter bore, sup- 
porting the bar centrally while bolting up the blocks 
and crossheads, after which the cones are removed and 
the bar is ready for re-boring. The sleeves being 
tapered, one set can be used in bushings of various 
sizes within their range. 

These portable boring bars are made in a number of 
sizes to rebore cylinders of the smallest simple shift- 
ing or contractor's locomotives to the largest low pres- 
sure cylinders on the latest types of compound loco- 
motives, and all sizes of valve chamber bushings. 
Bulletin L, illustrating and describing these tools, will 
be sent to all interested parties on request. 

tirely eliminating tool changes. Carriages have extra 
large V bearings and broad area flat bearing surfaces 
directly in line with tool thrust, and are gibbed on 
both horizontal and vertical bearing surfaces to resist 
pressure of burnishing tools which is really the sever- 
est operation that an axle lathe has to perform. It 
will be readily recalled by most railroad shop men in 
the operation of axle lathes of older design, that when 
the burnishing tools were brought into operation, dis- 

Putnam Heavy Double Axle Lathe 

The Putnam Machine Co., Department of Manning, 
Maxwell & Moore, Fitchburg, Mass., have recently 
placed on the market a new design of heavy double 
axle lathe containing several important changes in 
what has been considered standard practice in the de- 
sign of tools of this character. One of the most in- 
teresting features is the use of four speed selective 
type gear transmission boxes, in which all gears are of 

Back View Putnam Axle Lathe 

tortion of the carriage was in many cases very notice- 
able, and obviously this tended to a high rate of de- 
preciation on the machine as well as to a reduction in 

Aprons are of unit casting, double wall type, with 
all-steel gears and carry the necessary mechanism for 
automatically disengaging feeds at any predetermined 
point. Practically all bearings throughout machine are 
of the reservoir self-oiling type, relieving the operator 
of the necessity of frequent attention and insuring 
automatically that parts are properly lubricated. 

March, 3916 



Calculating Machine for Mechanical Offices 

The Monroe Calculating Machine Co., Orange, N. J., 
has placed on the market a calculating machine spe- 
cially adapted for handling the payroll distribution in 
railroad shops, also fuel, oil and locomotive perform- 
ance reports, especially where percentages are required. 
Great facility in making these distributions can be at- 

Calculating Machine for Mechanical Department Offices 

tained inasmuch as the percentages can readily be car- 
ried to five or more places of decimals, and after the 
first percentage is reached and set up on the keyboard 
it is not disturbed until each account is covered, elim- 
inating any danger of error in calculation. 

The machine does not require an expert. Any one 
can operate it with speed almost immediately. It not 
only adds, but subtracts, divides and multiplies easily. 
Problems of the most complicated kind can be handled 
with remarkable simplicity. Extracting of square root 
and even cube root can be accomplished with very 
little practice. 


Safety First Belt Shifter 

The Ready Tool Co., Bridgeport, Conn., have recently 
placed on the market a belt stick on which are mounted 

three rollers, two of which 
are tapered in such a way 
that there is no possibility 
of the shifter getting 
caught in the belt. The 
rolls are so designed that 
there is at all times a tend- 
ency for the belt to slip 
away from the shifter onto 
the pulley. Accidents so 
frequently caused by an 
operator climbing a ladder 
to put on a belt or by using 
old-fashioned belt sticks 
with a pin in the end, are 
eliminated by the use of 
this tool. The belt shifter 
is made in two sizes, for 
belts 1 inch to 4 inches, 
and a second size from 4 
inches to 6 inches. The 
operation of the Safety- 
First Belt Shifter is simi- 
lar to that of the older-type 
belt stick with a bolt or pin at the end, but it is much 
less likely to bind. 

Pneumatic Spring- Banding Press 

Joseph T. Ryerson & Sons, Chicago, have recently 
placed on the market a pneumatic spring banding press, 
especially designed for railroad spring manufacturing 
and repair shops which are not equipped with hydraulic 

There are a large number of railroad shops through- 
out the country which have a considerable amount of 
spring repairing to handle, and a good part of these 
roads have been performing certain operations of the 
spring repair work by hand. One of these operations 
has been to make up the bands, as well as put the band 
on the finished spring, and on account of the necessity 
of having an extra power plant where a hydraulic 
banding machine is used, with the additional cost of 
operation, the smaller shops could not well afford to 
have such an expensive installation. 

The machine illustrated will handle all the usual 
run of spring banding work and has a capacity of ex- 
erting pressure up to 60 tons. The machine can be 
operated from the regular shop air line, and on this 
account, and due to the fact of simple design and con- 
struction, the equipment is within the reach of the 
smallest railroad repair shop. A number of machines 

Ryerson Pneumatic Spring Banding Press 

in service have demonstrated their value. It has been 
found that with the use of proper dies the bands them- 
selves can be easily manufactured on these machines. 
The cylinders of this machine are of such a size that 
with air at 100 lbs. to the square inch, a pressure of 
60 tons is exerted on the rams. By means of both hori- 
zontal and vertical ram, a positive and known pressure 
is exerted on the spring band, which insures uniformity 
and rapid work, and has many other advantages as 
compared with hand banding. Each machine is fur- 
nished complete with three-way hand-operated valves 
and the necessary pressure gauges. The machine il- 
lustrated weighs 6,500 lbs., has cylinders of 16 ins. 
diameter, and a capacity of 60 tons. 

Safety Belt Shifter 

What a piece of work is a man. How noble in rea- 
son ; how infinite in faculties ; in form and moving, how 
express and admirable ; in action, how like an angel ; in 
apprehension, how like a god. — Shakespeare. 



March, 1916 

New Motor Drive for Power Hammers 

Beaudry & Co., Inc., Boston, Mass., have recently 
arranged a number of Beaudry Champion Power Ham- 
mers for motor drive, permitting a neat and compact 
equipment where there is an objection to the use of 
overhead shafting or where the blacksmith shop is too 

Motor-Driven Beaudry Power Hammer 

far from the main power plant for convenient drive in 
that form. The motor for such an equipment should 
have a speed not exceeding 900 r.p.m., and must be 


Cross-Section of Beaudry Champion Friction Clutch 

fitted with a belt-tightener attachment and a flange 
metal pulley. 

For the operation of these motor-driven hammers a 
friction clutch pulley is placed on the hammer. Pres- 
sure on a foot treadle engages the clutch and starts 
the hammer with same graduations in the speed and 

force of blow that are obtained by the use of loose 
belt and idle pulley on belt-driven hammers. 

The friction clutch, which is shown in section, is 
composed of pulley, ring, brake section, cam, lever, ex- 
pansion pin, roll and washer. The ring is split to fit 
the head of the expansion pin, and this slot in the ring 
has steel faces which make good wearing surfaces. 
The brake section is keyed to the shaft. The pulley 
runs loose on the hub of the brake and is lubricated 
from a grease cup. The cam is made in spiral form and 
held in neutral position by a spring on the frame. The 
hardened steel roll is fitted into a slot in the lever. 
The expansion pin is fitted with adjusting screws and 
check nuts, making it possible by removing the washer 
and sliding the pulley back to make all necessary 

Motor-Driven Beaudry Power Hammer 

adjustments. The operator has the hammer under 
perfect control, according to the pressure exerted on 
the treadle. A light pressure allows the pulley to slip, 
giving a light blow, and by increasing the pressure on 
the treadle, the maximum blow can be obtained. The 
brake is automatically released when the hammer is in 

These hammers can be supplied complete with motor 
and belting as illustrated or arranged for motor drive, 
a 900 r.p.m. motor, motor pulley and belting to be 
mounted on the hammer when it is installed. 

Electric Turbo-Generators 

The modern steam turbo-generator makes it possible 
to concentrate enormous amounts of power generation 
in one place. This makes possible and advantageous 
very large individual generating units. The growth in 
the capacity of generators has been enormous, and it 
has been made possible by the steam turbine. Electric- 
ity can now be transmitted long distances in large or 
small quantities, and its characteristics changed at will, 
and all this can be done with small losses and at com- 
paratively low cost. 

March, 1916 



.1 IIMiil 

Supply Trade Notes 


J. A. & W. Bird & Co., New York City, manufacturers 
of Ripolin enamel paint, announce that their New York 
offices have been changed from 66 Beaver street to the 
Equitable Building, 20 Broadway, where larger quar- 
ters and better facilities have been provided. Owing to 
the fact that the Ripolin enamel paint is manufactured 
in Holland, there has been no difficulty in obtaining 
regular shipments and stock has not been depleted on 
account of the war. 

Frederick Hebert Eaton died on January 27. By it 
the industrial world has lost one of its foremost cap- 
tains. He was born in Berwick, Pa., April 15, 1863, and 
was descended from early Colonial stock. 

Mr. Eaton had been for many years a commanding 
figure in the car manufacturing industry and had been 
engaged therein practically all his life. He obtained 
his early experience as chief clerk in the office of the 
Berwick Rolling Mill Company, then a subsidiary of the 
old Jackson & Woodin Car Manufacturing Company. 
From 1892 to 1899 he was successively secretary, vice- 
president and president of the Jackson & Woodin Com- 
pany, at Berwick. In 1899 he was an important factor 
in the formation of the American Car and Foundry 
Company, a consolidation of many car building com- 
panies in the United States, and which is one of the 
largest industrial organizations in the country today. 
Mr. Eaton was president and a member of the executive 
committee of the American Car and Foundry Company 
from 1901 to the time of his death. In 1906 Mr. Eaton 





Frederick Hebert Eaton 

was presidential elector on the McKinley-Hobart ticket 
for his native state of Pennsylvania. 

Mr. Eaton was a director of the American Agricul- 
tural Chemical Company, American Beet Sugar Com- 

pany, Columbia Trust Company, Hoyt & Woodin Manu- 
facturing Company, National Surety Company, Seaboard 
National Bank, and Sligo & Eastern Railroad Company; 
chairman of the board of directors of American Car 
and Foundry Export Company, and was a trustee of 
the Mutual Life Insurance Company of New York. 

He was also a member of the New York Chamber of 
Commerce, the Pennsylavnia Society in New York, the 
Society of Colonial Wars, Sons of the Revolution, Eco- 
nomic Club, American Geographical Society, American 
Society of Political and Social Science, Academy of 
Political Science, Peace Society of New York, Navy 
League of U. S., New York Geneological and Biograph- 
ical Society. 

Mr. Eaton was also a member of many clubs. He is 
survived by his widow, Elizabeth Furman Eaton, and a 
daughter, Mae Eaton Crispin of Berwick. His city 
residence was Alwyn Court, 182 West 58th street, and 
his country place "Maibenfritz," Allenhurst, N. J. 

The Electric Storage Battery Co., Philadelphia, Pa., 
have recently announced that George R. Murphy, Rialto 
building, San Francisco, Cal., will hereafter represent 
them on the Pacific Coast. Mr. Murphy will make use 
of the stock carried at the Exide Battery depot, San 
Francisco, to insure prompt shipments. 

The International Acheson Graphite Co. of Niagara 
Falls, N. Y., has changed its name and hereafter will be 
known as Acheson Graphite Co. It will be noted that 
the word "International" has been dropped and that the 
company name now begins with the name of the noted 
inventor of the process for making graphite artificially 
in the electric furnace. The change was brought about 
through the conception that the word "International" 
had no significance in the company's business and only 
served to conceal the identity of the company when in- 
dexes and other references were examined for the name 
and address. 

The J. C. Russell Shovel Co., Pittsburgh, Pa., an- 
nounces that they have made an arrangement with R. 
L. Mason, 1501 Oliver Bldg., Pittsburgh, Pa., to act as 
special representative in the railway field. Mr. Mason 
will have charge of railroad sales on track shovels and 
locomotive scoops and his broad experience in the last 
fourteen years especially qualifies him to be of servive. 

Westinghouse Electric and Manufacturing Co., East 
Pittsburgh Works, have announced the appointment of 
R. L. Wilson, manager of the railway department of the 
East Pittsburgh works, as assistant general superin- 
tendent, looking directly after trade apprentices, em- 
ployment, working conditions and other matters of 
similar nature. Mr. Wilson entered the employ of that 
company in 1893 as student draughtsman and subse- 
quently became inspector, engineer of construction, and 
later superintendent of construction, at one time being 
in charge of erection work in the New York district. 
Later Mr. Wilson was made superintendent of the rail- 
way division, which position he continues to hold. 

He is chairman of the joint committee appointed by 
the company and the employes for the settlement of dif- 



March, 1916 

ferences in opinion arising between the employes and 
the company, and is also trustee of the Veteran Em- 
ployes' Association of the Westinghouse Electric Co. 

The Westinghouse Electric and Manufacturing Co. 
Veteran Employes' Association, at its third annual ban- 
quet, held recently in Pittsburgh, presented to the com- 
pany a handsome bronze memorial tablet of the late 
George Westinghouse, founder of the numerous indus- 
tries bearing his name. 

This organization, though only three years old and 
composed of those who have been in the employ of the 
company for twenty or more years, is one of the most 
active of the numerous Westinghouse organizations. 
About 450 veterans were present. President I. De- 
Kaiser of the association made the opening address. 

Bronze Tablet Dedicated to George Westinghouse 

The memorial tablet is approximately 4x3 ft., made 
of solid cast bronze and weighs about 300 lbs. It shows 
a true bas-relief likeness of Mr. Westinghouse taken 
from one of his best photographic poses seated in an 
armchair. It bears the inscription, "George Westing- 
house, Master Workman, Inventor, Founder, Organizer, 
184&-1914." It will be placed in the reception room of 
the East Pittsburgh works of the electric company. 

The model for this tablet was made by Lorado Taft, 
one of America's famous sculptors. It was cast in 
bronze and placed in position by the James H. Matthews 
& Co. of Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Addresses were made by a number of veterans, for- 
mer associates of Mr. Westinghouse, including E. M. 
Herr, president; L. A. Osborne, vice-president; N. S. 
Storer, general engineer; B. Kupferberg of the store- 
room office; Charles F. Scott, consulting engineer, and 
Guy E. Tripp, chairman of the board of directors. Each 
speaker referred to some different phase of the great 
inventor's life which had particularly impressed him. 

The tablet was presented on behalf of the veterans 

by Charles F. Scott, consulting engineer, and was un- 
veiled by Miss Rose Kennedy, one of the four women 
members of the Veteran Association. The tablet was 
accepted on behalf of the company by Guy E. Tripp, 
chairman of the board. 

William H. Woodin has recently been elected by the 
directors of the American Car & Foundry Company, 
president, to succeed the late Frederick H. Eaton. Since 
1902 he has been a director and assistant to the presi- 
dent, in which capacity he had general direction, under 
Mr. Eaton, of the company's affairs. Mr. Woodin is a 
car builder by inheritance, his father and grandfather 
having both been leading figures in that industry. He 
received his training in the old Jackson & Woodin 
Manufacturing Co., which was established by his grand- 
father in 1842 at Berwick, Pa., and which was one of 
the companies amalgamated with the American Car & 
Foundry Company. Mr. Woodin received his technical 
education and his degree at Columbia University School 
of Mines, and then worked his way through the shops. 
In 1892 he was general superintendent of the Jackson & 
Woodin Manufacturing Company, and continued as such 
until 1895; from 1895 to 1899 he was vice-president of 
that company; in 1899, when the American Car & Foun- 
dry Company was formed, he became district manager 
in charge of the Berwick plant, which is the largest 
car building plant in the country. 

New Trade Literature 


The Columbia Nut & Bolt Co., Bridgeport, Conn., 
have recently issued a 24-page illustrated booklet de- 
scribing in addition to their original Columbia Lock 
Nut and improved Columbia Lock Nut, their new Co- 
lumbia Jib Nut Lock and Kling bolt. The jib nut lock 
is a 3-thread nut with bent edge on each side, made 
either square or hexagon. The cling bolt has a di- 
vided head which permits the head to be put through a 
hole the size of the bolt and lock, where only one side 
of a sheet to which something must be bolted is acces- 

The Monarch Engineering and Manufacturing Co., 

Baltimore, Md., have recently issued a 28-page illus- 
trated booklet describing the Monarch line of metal 
melting furnaces, core ovens, burners, ladle heaters, 
blowers, etc., using oil or gas or air. 

The Putnam Machine Co., department of Manning, 
Maxwell & Moore, Inc., Fitchburg, Mass., have recently 
issued an 8-page illustrated bulletin on the Putnam 
Heavy Double Axle Lathe, which is built for maximum 
duty, and is proportioned throughout to successfully 
absorb all strains and vibrations incident to heavy 

Strauss & Buegeleisen, 489 5th ave., New York City, 
have recently issued a folder on the Micalite and All- 
won eye shields. The material is similar to celluloid, 
but will not support combustion. The Allwon eye shield 
has two shades of color, affording a variation in pro- 
duction from light. 

The Vanadium-Alloys Steel Co., Pittsburgh, Pa., have 
recently issued a circular dealing frankly with the 
high-speed steel situation, as regards stock on hand, 
specifications for future delivery, raw material and 
manufacturing conditions. 

March, 1916 



A. J. Allen, recently apointed general foreman of the 
Hayne shops of the Southern Railway at Spartanburg, 
S. C, entered the service of the Southern Railway in 
1898 and served for nine years as machinist and round- 
house foreman. In 1907 he was employed as machinist 
by the Charleston & West Carolina at Augusta, Ga., 
and in 1915 he returned to the Southern Railway at 
Columbia, S. C, where he remained until his recent 
appointment, in which he succeeds R. F. Harril, pro- 
moted to general foreman at Charleston, S. C. 

James W. Brookhart, recently appointed master 
mechanic of the Thornton & Alexandria Ry. at Thorn- 
ton, Ark., entered the service of the Lima Locomotive 
Works in 1902, and in 1907 was appointed erecting 
foreman. In 1914 he became master mechanic of the 
Cotton Belt Lumber Co., and in his recent appointment 
succeeds W. M. Taylor, who has left the service. 

W. J. Brooks, recently appointed locomotive foreman 
for the Chicago & Alton in their Glenn Yards, Chicago, 
served his apprenticeship with the Pennsylvania R. R. 
at Dennison, Ohio, and in 1900 was appointed assistant 
roundhouse foreman on the Alton. In 1911 he was ap- 
pointed general foreman at Venice, 111., and in 1914 he 
was made general roundhouse foreman at Bloomington. 
He succeeds in the Glenn Yards J. W. Brewer, who 
has resigned to accept service with the Lima Locomo- 
tive Works, at Lima, Ohio. 

J. D. W. Dellinger, recently appointed general fore- 
man of the Detroit, Toledo & Ironton Railway, at Lima, 
Ohio, entered the employ of that road at Lima in 1896 
as car inspector and general foreman. In 1909 he was 
appointed car foreman for the St. Louis, Iron Mountain 
& Southern, at Monroe, La. In 1911 he returned to the 
Detroit, Toledo & Ironton as general foreman at Lima 
In 1913 he was appointed car foreman on the Missouri, 
Kansas & Texas, at Smithville, Tex., and now returns 
to his position on the Detroit, Toledo & Ironton, suc- 
ceeding A. Stoll, transferred to Delray, Mich. 

J. C. Dunham, recently appointed general foreman in 
the Southern Railway shops at Greenville, S. C, en- 
tered the service of that road at Spencer, N. C, in 
1901 as machinist's helper, and when he completed his 
apprenticeship in 1907, he was appointed assistant 
foreman of freight repairs. In 1913 he was made gen- 
eral foreman at Charleston, S. C, where he remained 
until in his present appointment he succeeds C. E. 
Keever, appointed trainmaster at Greenville. 

D. B. Graham, recently appointed foreman of shops 
of the Chicago Northwestern at Deadwood, S. D., en- 
tered the employ of that road in 1910 as apprentice at 
Missouri Valley, Iowa, and remained in the motive 
power department there until his recent appointment, 
where he succeeds Walter Smith, apointed foreman of 
shops at Chadrane, Nebr. 

H. E. Greenwood, recently appointed master mechanic 
of the Indiana division of the Baltimore & Ohio South- 
western at Seymour, Ind., served his apprenticeship 
and was for a number of years roundhouse foreman 

for the New York Central at Brightwood, Ind. He was 
later erecting foreman of their shops at Beach Grove, 
Ind., and later was made general foreman of the Cin- 
cinnati, Hamilton & Dayton at Indianapolis. In 1915 
he was appointed master mechanic of the Baltimore & 
Ohio Southewestern at Flora, 111., where he remained 
until his recent appointment, in which he succeeds E. 
A. McMillen, promoted. 

R. F. Harrill, reecntly appointed general foreman for 
the Southern Railway at Greenville, S. C, has been 
transferred from a similar position at Charleston, S. C. 
He succeeds J. C. Dunham. 

Louis D. Moore, recently appointed electrical engi- 
neer of the Missouri Pacific at St. Louis, has been serv- 
ing since 1910 as general assistant to the electrical 
engineer. Previous to this he had been engaged in 
miscellaneous electrical work since 1906. In his new 
position he succeeds C. Garner, who has retired on 
account of ill health. 

John S. Naery, recently appointed master car builder 
of the Chicago, Indianapolis & Louisville at Lafayette, 
Ind., entered the service of that road as apprentice, and 
has held successively positions of foreman, general fore- 
man, mechanical engineer, and has now been appointed 
to the newly created office of master car builder. 

J. E. Quigley, recently appointed master mechanic 
of the Baltimore & Ohio Southwestern at Flora, Ilk, 
entered railroad service in 1893 as machinist's appren- 
tice on the C. N. O. & T. P. at Chattanooga, Tenn. In 
1897 he was appointed machinist; in 1900 engine house 
foreman; in 1904 general foreman at Somerset, Ky., 
and in 1907 he was made master mechanic at Chatta- 
nooga. In 1910 he was made master mechanic of the 
Alabama Great Southern at Birmingham, Ala., and in 
1911 master mechanic of the C. N. O. & T. P. at Somer- 
set. In 1914 he was appointed engine house foreman 
of the Baltimore & Ohio at Parkersburg, and in 1915 
engine house foreman at Holloway. January 1, 1916, 
he was appointed general foreman of the Ohio & South- 
western at East St. Louis, and he has since been ap- 
pointed master mechanic at Flora, 111. 

J. T„ Sullivan, recently appointed road foreman of 
engines on the Buffalo, Rochester & Pittsburgh at 
Punxsutawney, Pa., entered the service of that road in 
1902 as fireman; was appointed engineman in 1906, 
and now fills the newly created position of assistant 
road foreman of engines. 



Thomas James Hennessy, formerly division master 
mechanic on the Michigan Central R. R., died recently. 

Mr. Hennessy was born at London, Ont., January 1, 
1845, and entered railroad service as a fireman on the 
Michigan Central in 1872. In 1874 he was promoted to 
engineman and in 1889 became traveling engineer. In 



March, 1916 

1893 he was appointed division master mechanic at 
Detroit and in 1896 at Jackson, Mich. In 1902 he was 
transferred to Bay City as division master mechanic 
and February 1, 1915, was retired from service, having 
reached the age limit. 

Mr. Hennessy leaves behind a host of friends, not 
only on the Michigan Central, but among all railroad 
men with whom he has come into contact in his long 
and useful career. 

J. W. Hogsett, late chief joint inspector, Fort Worth, 
Tex., was born November 13, 1861, in Platte County, 
Mo., near Barry, and died after a very short illness 
December 24, 1915, at Fort Worth, Tex. 

Mr. Hogsett left his native town in 1884, taking up 
residence in Watrous, Lamy, Los Vegas, Wagonmound, 
N. Mex., until 1889. In the fall of that year he became 
identified with the Sante Fe Railroad, subsequently 
moving to Fort Worth, where he became a car inspector, 
and on January 31, 1893, was promoted to the position 
of chief joint inspector, all lines. 

Mr. Hogsett became identified with the Chief Inter- 
change Car Inspectors' and Car Foremen's Association 
a great many years ago and has always taken a very 
active interest in the association. His death will be 
keenly felt, as he was well and favorably known among 
its members. He was of a kindly disposition, treating 
all with whom he came in contact with the utmost cour- 
tesy and was known far and wide for his thorough 
knowledge of car interchange work. His standard of 
business ideals was high and he more than lived up 
to that standard. In his death the railroads at Fort 
Worth have lost an efficient officer and his associates 

a loyal friend. 

+ — 

Book Reviews 

Scientific Management and Labor, by Robert Franklin 
Hoxie, Associate Professor of Political Economy, 
University of Chicago. Published by D. Appleton 
& Co. New York: Price, $1.50. 

This book is one in which a comprehensive study of 
the labor conditions and problems connected with, and 
resulting from, the introduction and practice of scien- 
tific management, is discussed, from the standpoint of 
the individual shop and the industrial and social out- 
come generally. The book is based on extensive inves- 
tigations made for the Commission on Industrial Rela- 
tions. Mr. Hoxie presents a summary of statements for 
and against scientific management, on which both em- 
ployers and employes have agreed, it is said, accurate 
and exhaustive. 

The book begins with a careful analysis of the claims 
of scientific managers relative to labor and labor meth- 
ods, the objections of organized labor to scientific man- 
agement, and the possible benefits to labor. It presents 
a number of interesting and valuable suggestions and 
criticisms based on the actual methods employed in the 
shops and studied and results achieved. These cover: 
the installation of the systems ; functional f oremanship, 
as it affects labor; the selection and hiring of workmen; 
adaptation, instruction and training of workers; time 
study and task setting, their purposes, methods and re- 
sults ; methods of payment and their operation ; the pro- 
tection of the workers from over-exertion and exhaus- 
tion; the methods of advancement and promotion, disci- 
pline and discharge of employes, the resulting labor 
turn-over, etc. 

It gives also the results of investigation with respect 
to the general relationships of employers and workers in 
shops where scientific management prevails, and the 
general effects of the system on labor together with 

labor's attitude toward them and the causes involved. 
In the appendix, a full statement is made of the vital 
points at issue between scientific management and or- 
ganized labor, and an analysis of the fundamental and 
specific facts which are required as a basis of judgment 
with regard to the labor standards of any shop, and the 
means necessary to raise these standards. 

Oxy-Acetylene Welding and Cutting, including the 
operation and care of acetylene generating plants 
and the oxygen process for removal of carbon, by 
Calvin F. Swingle, M. E. Published by Frederick 
J. Drake & Co., Chicago, 1916. Price, cloth, $1.00; 
leather, $1.50. 
This book contains thirteen chapters which cover the 
following subjects: Welding, Welding Flames, Oxygen, 
Acetylene, Acetylene Gas Purification and Handling, 
Oxy-Acetylene Torches, Characteristics of Welding 
Torches, Welding Installations, Preheating and Anneal- 
ing, Operating a Welding Installation, Metal Weld- 
ing Practice, Oxy-Acetylene Cutting, Oxygen Carbon 
Removal, and an Index. 

It was originally pointed out by Mr. Chatelier that 
the oxy-acetylene flame results from the combustion of 
a mixture of oxygen and acetylene in equal volumes. 
Theoretically, it requires 2V2 volumes of oxygen to com- 
pletely burn one volume of acetylene, and this is 
actually what takes place, if the oxygen of the air is 
taken into account. In practice the volumes are in the 
ratio of 1.28 to 1.13 of oxygen to one of acetylene. 

These and similar facts of theoretical value are 
brought out, as well as those of more practical import. 
The management and regulation of the apparatus has 
to be considered in the light of whether it is to be used 
by experts or inexperienced men, and how this is to be 
done, and what and how adjustments are to be made, as 
all apparatus does not give precisely similar results. 

The book is a valuable contribution to the subject, 
and will be found useful to those who have the handling 
and manipulation of apparatus. It is in pocket size, 
convenient to carry and easy of undestanding. 

Valves and Valve Gears, Volume I. By Franklin De 
Ronde Furman, M.E., Professor of Mechanism and 
Machine Design at Stevens Institute of Technology. 
This is a second edition, reset and enlarged, and 
treats of Steam Engines and Steam Turbines. Pub- 
lished by John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, and 
Chapman & Hall, Limited, London. Price, $2.00. 
This volume discusses elementary reciprocating en- 
gines, valve diagrams for steam engines, fundamental 
valve forms, fundamental valve gear mechanisms, prac- 
tical types of valves, eccentrics and shaft governors, 
practical steam engine valves and steam turbine valve 
gears. The work treats of mechanism rather than 
power and tells in particular just how an engine or 
motor is regulated. Volume one before us is complete 
and interesting and cannot help to be of great value to 
any one who is engaged in the field which the book 


Standard Car Truck Co., Chicago, 111., has recently is- 
sued a 25-page illustrated catalogue giving informa- 
tion concerning Barber trucks, centre plates, side bear- 
ings, tilting brake staffs and special four-point bearing 
underframes. In the Barber arrangement the truck 
sides are each cast in one piece, the bolster is steel, as 
is the truck frame, and the spring "board" is made of 
two steel angles. The rollers above the truck springs, 
which permit the lateral motion of the bolster are made 
of steel and lie in a hollow curve the deepest portion of 
which brings the rollers to the central position. 


Vol. XL 

Established 1878 


Copyright 1916 

No. 4 



Supplies, Scrap & Reclamation 

Spontaneous Combustion 

Extra Professional Duties of an Engineer 

Rolled Steel Pistons 

British East African Railway System 

American-Built Locomotives in Foreign Lands 
Belgian and Russian Railways using 
the product of our shops. American 
designs adapted to suit climatic condi- 
tions. Prompt delivery a prominent 

American Master Mechanics' Association 

Report of the Proceedings of the 
Forty-eight Annual Convention, June, 

Master Car Builders' Association 

Proceedings of the Forty-ninth An- 
nual Convention, June, 1915. 

The Life of a Steel Freight Car 

Effort to get maximum service out of 
steel cars. Estimate of life in years 
not always accurate. Steel of better 
quality used in recent years. 

Chattering Slip of Electric Driving Wheels 
Abstract of paper presented to the 
American Institute of Electrical Engi- 
neers by Mr. G. M. Eaton. 

Welding by the Electric Arc 

Description of the Method of Applying 
the Process to Boiler and other kinds 
of work. 

The Chilled Iron Car Wheel 

The origin of the flat spot and seams 
in wheel treads, both in steel and 
chilled iron wheels — remedies that 
may be applied — record of perform- 
ance in winter. 

Lehigh Valley Round-House at Sayre, Pa. 

Typical, well-appointed round-house. 
Accidental destruction of wall opposite 
a track does not cause extensive damage. 

Dynamo-Electric Machinery for Railroads 

Generating and Transforming units 
described and their operation ex- 










Tractive Effort of Electric Locomotives 

Difference between the constant trac- 
tive effort of a steam locomotive com- 
pared with the variable tractive effort 
of an electric motor. 

Maintenance of Foundation Brakes 

Things seemingly unimportant are 
found to be essential when intelli- 
gently examined by the expert. 

Electric Lighting of Railway Passenger Cars 
The various systems in use today. 
What they aim to accomplish, how they 
do it. How the systems are cared for. 

Prompt Rise of Brake Cylinder Pressure 

How the rapid filling of the brake 
cylinder is accomplished for various 
kinds of applications. 

Electricity for the Railroad Mechanic 

First aid suggestions for workmen as 
to how to handle troubles in the shop. 

Safety First on the N. C. & St. L. 

Comparison of Railway Electric Locomotives 
Historical Review of their adoption; 
characteristics of types; the various 
types compared. 

C. I. C. I. & C. F. A. Executive Com. Meeting 
Report of meeting held at Hotel La- 
Salle, Chicago, 111., February 22, 1916. 

The Mount Washington Railway 

Practical Suggestions for R. R. Men 

Waste Receptacle for Round House 

by C. W. Schane, Huntington, Ind. 
Grinding Up Old Boiler Lagging 
by C. L. Dickert, Asst. M. M. Central 
of Ga. Ry., Macon, Ga. 
Structural Steel Material Bins 
by W. H. Wolfgang, Toledo, Ohio 

Book Reviews 


New Methods and Appliances 
Flat-Link Chain 
Water Joint for Injector Connection 

New Trade Literature 

Supply Trade News 

Railway Supply Manufacturers' Association 

Personal Items for Railroad Men 














Published monthly by RAILWAY PERIODICALS COMPANY, INC., at Vanderbilt Concourse Building, 52 Van- 
derbilt Avenue, corner East 45th Street, New York ; Telephone, Murray Hill 8246 ; Cable, "Progage, New York." 

Chicago Office, 1635 Old Col»ny Building; Telephone, Harrison 6360. 

Ernest C. Brown, President. 
C. S. Myers, Vice-President. F. W. Nolting, Secretary. 

J. A. Kucera, Business Manager. J. W. Barbour, Western Manager 

Benjamin Norton, Editor-in-Chief. 
Geo. S. Hodgins, Managing Editor. L. A. Horswell, Associate Editor. 

A Railway Journal devoted to the interests of railway motive power, 
cars, equipment, appliances, shops, machinery and supplies. 
Communications on any topic suitable to our columns are solicited. 

Subscription Price, Domestic, $1 a year ; Foreign countries, $1.50, 
free of postage. Single copies, 20 cents. Advertising rates given on 
application to the office, by mail or in person. 
Make Checks Payable to the Railway Periodicals Company, Inc. 
Copyright, 1916, by the Railway Periodicals Company, Inc. 
Entered at the New York Post Office as second-class mail matter. 



April, 1916 


(Its Relation To Moving Trains) 

Energy is an element which pervades the universe — 
mobile, fluid, restless, resistless and eternal. 

The Scientist, in attempting a definition, says Energy is 
the capacity for doing work. 

The only difference between a train at rest and a train 
in motion is one of Energy. The whole function of the 
Locomotive is to change the Energy of Heat to the Energy 
of Motion. The sole purpose of the Air Brake is to 
return (dissipate) the Energy of Motion to the Energy 
of Heat. 

Energy flows — as a fluid — under pressure. 

The acceleration of a heavy railroad train from rest to 
60 miles per hour — in about 6 minutes of time — is due to an 
enormous flow of Energy (from heat to motion). 

The modern brake is required to return this train to 
rest in 20 seconds. To do so the flow of Energy 
(from motion to heat) must be eighteen times 

As Air Brake Designers and Engineers we must give, 
continuously, the most careful consideration to the problems 
of Energy. 

Westinghouse Air Brake Co. 



Vol. XL 

Established 1878 


Copyright 1916 

No. 4 

Supplies, Scrap and Reclamation 

In the early days of railroad operations economies 
were exercised, as a matter of course, but as mileage 
increased and general conditions changed, the idea of 
thrift became more pronounced, and to'-day we have a 
picture set in a somewhat different frame, with a phase 
of what is now termed efficiency, resulting in econom- 
ies and methods of operation based upon science. It 
cannot be said yet that railroad operations in every 
particular are founded upon a science that is exact, 
but they are working that way rapidly; in fact, on some 
railroads it is so absolutely, and the examples set are 
being followed by degrees on all railroads. 

Among interesting experiences are conditions which 
prevailed on one of the large railroad systems some 
years ago. A long receivership had left the property 
in bad repute financially and suffering, at the same 
time, from a series of careless operations. A new 
president promptly called into service experts in dif- 
ferent fields of railroading to adjust affairs so that the 
machinery of the organization might work to the best 
advantage. The methods then adopted resulted finally 
in an institution of the first class. To-day it is one of 
the stable high dividend paying railroads of the coun- 
try and its prosperity is established for all time. 

No order prevailed in the supply department. Heads 
of departments sent requisitions to the Purchasing 
Agent directly, and in turn supplies were delivered di- 
rectly to these various departments. This resulted in 
an excessive accumulation of all sorts of not properly 
accounted for supplies, while old material lay along 
the line in haphazard clusters and was seldom disposed 
of. Following a two months' investigation a report was 
submitted to the board of directors to the effect that 
under a proper system $1,000,000 could be saved in the 
then next twelve months. This report — regarded as a 
joke — furnished ground for a good laugh; but instruc- 
tions were given, nevertheless, to act on the lines sug- 
gested, with the hope of some good results at all events. 
A reorganization was promptly begun, and the results 
showed a saving of more than $1,000,000 that year. A 
general store house, with convenient sub-store houses, 
was established and put under the charge of a compe- 
tent storekeeper, who took careful account of all sup- 
plies and material received, distributing the same on 
approved orders and making the necessary and appro- 
priate charges therefor. 

All old material was picked up, shipped to headquar- 
ters and sold. At that time prices for old railroad 

scrap of all kinds were fairly high. Old oil barrels by 
the thousands, wrought and cast iron scrap, old rails, 
old car wheels and other varieties of old material had 
been accumulating for many months and, together, 
made up a valuable collection of saleable articles, the 
returns from which netted more than $300,000. A lum- 
ber yard of several acres was found containing oak car 
timber, bridge timbers and track material, while requi- 
sitions for the same sizes and dimensions were coming 
in daily, under the claim that there were none on hand. 
The same state of affairs prevailed as to general sup- 
plies. Altogether it was an interesting exhibit of what 
a railroad carelessly handled could do. The oil account 
ran into enormous figures, and economy exercised in 
the purchase and consumption of this all important 
product resulted in a saving of more than $100,000. The 
car timber, lumber and other material which was 
brought to light in the lumber yard were sufficient to 
furnish such needs for five years! It would not be pos- 
sible to find an instance similar to this to-day; but it 
is safe to say that on many railroads much less care is 
paid to the supply department than should be. A spirit 
of reclamation, however, is abroad in these times, mak- 
ing use of old material, where possible, and rehabilitat- 
ing this, that and the other thing by judicious use of 
the available parts of one to make good the missing 
parts of another. The thrift now exercised is worthy 
X)f the highest commendation, while the results are 
almost astounding. There are excellent examples of 
this sort of tidiness to-day on the Baltimore & Ohio 
and other large systems. This good work helps to meet 
interest; assists at pay-roll time, and is the means, 
indirectly, of partially providing dividend money. It 
all goes toward establishing credit as well as securing 
results which are both surprising and satisfactory. 

Spontaneous Combustion 

The spontaneous ignition of coal or other substances 
was for a long time regarded as a mysterious occur- 
rence, and it was apt to be classed among those natural 
destructive agencies for which mankind had not pro- 
vided and had therefore conveniently described them 
each as an act of God. Spontaneous combustion, like 
other natural phenomena, is now easily referred to as 
a specific cause and the prevention of a fire so produced 
is well within the range of the practical knowledge and 
the common sense of the community. Charles Dickens. 



April, 1916 

in "Bleak House," details the death of an unfortunate 
victim of spontaneous combustion and gives references 
to scientific and medical testimony as to the existence 
of such cases, though happily they are few and far be- 

A heap of rags, waste, wool, clothing, paper, etc., 
more or less saturated with oil, has long been regarded 
as a menace to railway shops, and these accumulations 
of rubbish are now regularly cleared away. The cause 
of the fire in a heap of oily rags, however, is due to the 
oxidation of the oil, and this takes place so rapidly that 
the temperature of the mass is raised to the point of 
ignition without the application of external heat. Oil 
alone will not burst into flame, and clean bits of cotton 
or wool, though rich in carbon, will not ignite of them- 
selves. The combination such as is found in a pile of 
these things, where the heat is not radiated away as 
fast as it is formed, causes the mass to become hotter 
and hotter, and the oxidation, always rapid, is now 
rendered still more rapid, until the mass bursts into 
flame and sets fire to surrounding objects. 

In the case of coal, spontaneous combustion is usual- 
ly the result of the rapid oxidation of the iron pyrites 
which occurs as an impurity in the coal. Iron pyrites 
is the di-sulphide of iron, FeS or where two atoms of 
sulphur are combined with one of iron. This substance 
very readily takes up oxygen from the air, and the 
chemical combination results in a rise of temperature, 
which, in confined space, where the radiation of heat 
is not active, soon brings the pyrites up to the igniting 
temperature and flame is the result, which sets fire to 
the coal. 

A mechanical method of preventing the spontaneous 
combustion of coal where iron pyrites is present is to 
cool the whole mass as far as possible. One prominent 
railroad, which kept a large stock of coal in a hugh 
heap on the ground at each of its various locomotive 
stations, tried the experiment of driving 3 /£- or 1-in. 
round iron bars deep down into the coal and having 
the iron rods turned round or lifted up and pushed 
down each day. The moving of the rods was intended 
to prevent damp coal from adhering to them and so 
enabling the rods, which are good conductors of heat, 
to be kept clear of a heat-absorbing mass of fine coal. 
The object in the use of the rods was to afford a means 
of carrying off the heat as fast as it was generated by 
the process of oxidation of the iron pyrites, and so 
keeping the mass below the igniting temperature. Thus 
constant care is required where large masses of coal are 

Whether or not spontaneous combustion takes place, 
coal stored in the air gradually deteriorates. The ef- 
fect of weathering is to lessen the quantity of carbon 
and disposable hydrogen, while it sometimes increases 
the total weight of the whole. It increases the amount 
of oxygen and the indisposable hydrogen and reduces 
its heat-producing power. An experiment by Richters 
proved that three samples of coal at a temperature of 
158 to 180 deg. Fahr., lost in fourteen days an average 
of 3.6 per cent of calorific value. 

Extra Professional Duties of an Engineer 

As a definition of the word mechanical engineer it has 
been said that he is a man who has helped to bring 
about many wonderful developments in utilizing the 
forces of Nature and by so doing he has increased the 
efficiency of each worker many fold. It might be added 
that he has added to the material comfort of millions 
and has given to life a wider and more satisfying out- 
look. It has been said that an engineer is a "dreamer 
whose dreams come true." 

In presenting a paper to the A. S. M. E. not long ago, 
Mr. F. H. Newall drew the generally accepted and con- 
ventional picture of the engineer when he described 
him as one who, to the ordinary public, appears as a 
man seated in his office, perhaps removed from inter- 
ruption, absorbed in abstruse calculations, and unaware 
of the changes going on outside in other lines of en- 
deavor. If this is true, as no doubt it is, in part at 
least, the engineer fails to receive the recognition from 
the public to which he is justly entitled. He is a con- 
scientious worker and usually possesses a great deal of 
modesty, so much so that he does not concern himself 
with the task of enlightening the public. He may re- 
gard that as the legitimate work of others, but by not 
telling his own story a lack of recognition is his meed. 
The mechanical man, unlike those in other profes- 
sions, has to deal with elemental physical conditions. 
His success does not depend on convincing an audience, 
nor on directing or even leading the thoughts of his fel- 
low men, whose opinions and beliefs are transitory. The 
mechanical engineer's work must be judged by higher 
and more rigidly exacting standards, for he deals with 
forces of nature, which do not lie and cannot be de- 
ceived ; he may not flatter, and he would browbeat them 
but in vain. 

It has been said that the work of an engineer should 
speak fur itself, but much of his best work is not visi- 
ble, and even if it is conspicuous, it is often unobserved 
and seldom understood. From the very circumstances- 
of the case much of his work is unseen, but its quality 
is of the highest. That which is essential is not neces- 
sarily apparent. The information concerning his 
work may be read in the technical press or in 
the transactions of professional societies and clubs, 
but the man in the street does not read these accounts. 
Mr. Newell further charges that much that appears in 
the periodic press, of the professions is highly technical, 
and is often only within the mental grasp of a few ex- 
perts. Many of the technical papers read at society 
meetings are not presented so as to be readily taken in 
by the practical railway man, on whom rests the bulk 
of the actual performance of railway work. 

It is true that to the technically educated man it is- 
easier to write so as to reach the trained and well-in- 
formed few, but the necessity for simplication exists if 
the profession is to do all that is expected of it. Years 
ago Huxley, who was a trained and expert biologist, 
took up the cause of organic evolution as set forth by 
Darwin, and brought the subject to the level of the 

April, 1916 



ordinary intelligence, so that in the end his devotees 
practically embraced all who could read or think. In- 
deed, so completely was the difficult task of reaching so 
vast an audience accomplished that at the twenty-first 
anniversary of Darwin's book Huxley said that the 
theory of evolution had been so widely and completely 
accepted that a little healthy opposition would do it 

Mr. Newell very rightly advocates the formation of 
local societies of engineers, and the vigorous prosecu- 
tion of the work supposed to be done by them. In the 
railway world we have special societies, associations 
and clubs each of which publish proceedings, and the 
technical press of the country is doing much good work 
in spreading abroad the information gathered by ex- 
perts in the various engineering lines. 

It is not, however, only the presentation of ascer- 
tained facts, good as they are, that is all important. 
Facts pure and simple are like the tempting viands on 
the table, their enjoyment is another thing, but their 
assimilation produces the results upon which growth 
depend. The exchange of ideas, and the comments of 
an experimenter or worker, on the experience of an- 
other is one of the most potent factors in the progress 
of railroad men. Meetings such as are held at Atlan- 
tic City in June, with the exhibition of railroad 
appliances and the demonstration of their utility, must 
occupy a high place in the estimation of the railroad 
man as a means of acquainting himself with the most 
recent progress which has been made in the science of 
transportation, in which he is vitally interested and 
with the success of which he himself is intimately con- 
cerned. He does not have to study behind closed doors, 
but may mingle with his fellows and in the open; see, 
observe and make the labors and the industry of others 
his own. 

— * — 

Rolled Steel Pistons 

Of late years the increasing size of locomotives and 
the size of their reciprocating parts has been in evi- 
dence. Increase of size has of course meant increase 
of weight as well, and incidentally this has run up the 
cost as each successive type of heavy locomotive has 
made its appearance. The weight of reciprocating 
parts has affected the counterbalancing and if things 
had kept on going in the direction in which they started 
a point would one day have been reached when the 
tendency to leave the track at high speed might have 
become a serious matter. 

Some years ago experiments on what was poetically 
called the "footprints of the locomotive" showed that at 
high speeds the counterpoise on the driving wheels ex- 
hibited a tendency to deliver a severe hammer blow on 
the track as the weight struck down and an equally 
pronounced tendency to bound upwards when the 
counterweight swung up to its highest point. The proof 
of these facts was gained by passing a wire between 
wheel and rail and noting the heavy and light depres- 
sions on the wire as it passed along. 

In order to have lighter counterweights and thus 
diminish what has been called the dynamic augment, it 
becomes necessary to make the reciprocating parts com- 
paratively light and yet have them strong enough to 
stand the increased work on modern steam locomotives. 
Steel of various kinds and alloy steels forced their way 
into the realm of serious consideration and very bene- 
ficial results soon became apparent. The use of the 
Walschaerts valve gear also contributed to the same 

Some time ago Mr. W. W. Scott, Jr., in a paper read to 
the Railway Club of Pittsburgh, advocated the use of 
forged and rolled steel pistons for modern locomotives 
as a means to this end. Not only is there a decrease of 
weight where forged and rolled steel is used, but there 
is a reducing of cylinder wear. Observation of the 
locomotive cylinder shows that a fair percentage of this 
cylinder wear is on the top. A good deal of this is 
due to poor lining of the guides, loose crossheads, and 
the fact that when working the steam tends to lift the 
piston, by working under the piston rings. 

A suggested remedy for this state of affairs was, of 
course, more careful lining of the guides, keeping the 
piston tight on the rod and further the use of forged 
and rolled steel pistons, made solid and cut with one 
or more dovetail grooves in the face with an inserted 
segment of malleable bearing metal, which is very solid- 
ly hammered into a dovetail groove. This, it is claimed,, 
would have the advantage of forming an oil groove be- 
tween the metal bearing face and the piston rings. An- 
other suggestion was made by Mr. Scott that the solid 
rolled steel pistons be made with two steel rings of 
bearing metal. Solid steel rolled pistons used on the 
P. R. R. have extended hollow piston rods, which re- 
duces uneven cylinder wear and simplifies lubrication. 
The lighter weight of the piston, of course, has an ad- 
vantage which is obvious. 


British East African Railway System 

The general manager of the Uganda Railway, in his 
last annual report, shows a total capital expenditure up 
to that date, of $31,181,739. Gross receipts were, for 
the fiscal year, 1914-1915, $2,510,744. Operating ex- 
penditures amounted to $1,631,854, leaving net earnings 
of $878,890, or 2.81 per cent to apply on the capital 
invested, against 3.39 per cent and 3.52 per cent for the 
two previous years, respectively. Since 20 per cent of 
the gross income was cut off by reason of the European 
war, on account of the German East African trade, it 
seriously affected the net results. Many improvements 
were added to the property in spite of this, all of which 
had the approval of the Imperial authorities. It would 
appear that all workshops, as well as roadway and 
structures, are maintained in excellent order. 


I believe there are quiet victories and struggles, great 
sacrifices of self and noble acts of heroism done every 
day in nooks and corners, and in little households, and 
in men's and women's hearts. — The Battle of Life. 



April, 1916 

American - Built Locomotives in Foreign Lands 

Belgian and Russian Railways Using the Product of Our Shops. American De- 
signs Adapted to Suit Climatic Conditions. Prompt Delivery a Prominent Factor 

Belgian State Railway 

Twenty 2-6-0 type locomotives of unique design 
were ordered, and the first engine was shipped two 
and a half months later. In Belgium overhead trolley 
wires are not allowed. While electricity is used in the 
cities, all interurban traffic is handled by small steam 
engines. These engines haul passengers and produce 
to the distributing centers in the large cities where 
the tracks connect with the electric lines. 

As the soil is of a very sandy nature it is necessary 
to enclose all running gear so as to exclude dust. Hav- 
ing outside frames, the enclosing sheet metal runs from 
the bottom of the frames to the bottom of the side 
tanks. Five swinging doors on each side allow access 
to the moving parts. These engines are also arranged 
for operation from either end. The throttle and reverse 
lever handles are fitted with a steel link, which holds 
the latch levers in an open position when engine is 
being operated from the opposite end. 

The gauge of the track is 39% ins. The engines have 
a total weight of 58,900 lbs. in running order. Having 
cylinders 11% ins. in diameter and 16 ins. in stroke, 
driving wheels 34 ins. in diameter, and a steam pressure 
of 180 lbs. They thus have a tractive effort of 9,520 
lbs. The boiler is of the Belpaire type, 42 ins. in 
diameter at the front end, and is designed to burn coal 
briquettes. It is fitted with 144 tubes, IV2 ins. in 
diameter and 6 ft. 4 ins. long. The firebox is 42 ins. 
long by 28 1 /4 ins. wide, and is designed so as to drop 
down between the frames for repairs. Ten engines 

paire; O. D. first ring, 42 ins.; working pressure, 180 
lbs. Firebox, type, narrow; length, 42 ins.; width, 
28 1 /4 ins.; thickness of crown, % in.; tube, V2 in.; back, 
% in.; water space front, 3 ins.; side, 2% ins.; back, 
2^ ins.; depth (top of grate to center of lowest tube), 
13% ins. Crown staying, radial. Tubes, material, 
brass, C. D. S. S. for ten engines; number, 144; diam., 
1V 2 ins. Thickness tubes, No. 13 B. W. G. Tube, 
length, 6 ft. 4 ins.; spacing, % in. Heating surface, 
tubes and flues, 354 sq. ft.; firebox, 39 sq. ft.; total, 
393 sq. ft. Grate area, 8.2 sq. ft. Wheels, driving 
diam. outside tire, 865 m. m. (34 ins.) ; center diam., 
745 m. m. (29% ins.). Wheels, driving material, main, 
C. S. ; others, C. S. Axles, driving, journals main, 6 ins. 
by 7 ins.; other, 6 ins. by 7 ins. Boxes, driving, main, 
C. S.; others, C. S. Brake, driver, A. L. Co. West.; 
pump, 1 8-in. West.; reservoir, 1 16 ins. by 48 ins. 
Exhaust pipe, single; nozzles, 2% ins.; 2% ins. Grate, 
style, rocking. Piston, rod diam., 2% ins.; piston pack- 
ing, C. I. rings. Smoke stack, diam., 9% ins.; top above 
rail, 10 ft. 6 ins. Tank, style, one on each side of 
engine; capacity, 528 gals.; fuel, 1,100 lbs. coal. Valves, 
type, Richardson balanced; travel, 4 ins.; steam lap, 
% in.; ex. lap, line and line; setting, 1/16 in. lead. 

Russian Government 

An order for one hundred 2-10-0 type locomotives for 
the Russian State Railways was received. The design 
was entirely new, and as delivery was an important 
factor the work was pushed with the utmost speed. 

American Locomotive Company 2-6-0 Type for the Belgian State Railways 

have steel tubes and steel fireboxes and the other ten 
have brass tubes, copper fireboxes and copper stay- 
bolts. A hand operated automobile horn is installed on 
each end. 

Belgian State Railways, 2-6-0 Type 

Track gauge, 3 ft. 3% ins. Fuel, briquette coal. Cy- 
linder, diam., HV2 ins.; stroke, 16 ins. slide valves. 
Tractive power, simple, 7,300 lbs. Factor of adhesion, 
simple, 6.6. Wheel base driving, 6 ft. 6 ins.; rigid, 
6 ft. 6 ins.; total, 6 ft. 6 ins. Weight in working order, 
58,500 lbs.; on drivers, 58,500 lbs. Boiler, type, Bel- 

These engines operate on the main lines of the Rus- 
sian State Railways, which have a gauge of track of 5 
ft. They are guaranteed to haul, under favorable con- 
ditions, on an 0.8 per cent grade, without curves, a 
train of 1,000 tons in fully loaded cars at a speed of 
12 to 15 versts (7.96 to 9.95 miles) an hour. The design 
in general follows American practice with the excep- 
tion of the proportion between weight and tractive 
power; these engines having exceptional power for the 
weight limitations imposed. The total weight of en- 
gine is 195,000 lbs. and the weight on drivers is 174,000 
lbs. Cylinders being 25 by 28 ins., driving wheel 

April, 1916 



diameter 52 ins., and steam pressure 180 lbs., gives a 
tractive power of 51,500 lbs. and a factor of adhesion 
of 3.39. This factor of adhesion is less than what 
would be considered good American practice, but Euro- 
pean engines do not work at the same cut-offs as is 
used in this country. This reduces their figure for 
tractive power and necessarily increases the factor of 

The boiler is of the straight top, radial stay type. It 

connected to the throttle. By this change steam is in- 
stantaneously admitted to the damper cylinder when 
the throttle is opened and the by-pass valves are at 
once closed. In a similar way the by-pass valves open 
when the throttle is closed. 

A very neatly constructed link bracket is used. This 
link bracket is unique in that it forms by being a small 
and light casting, a support for the link, at the back 
end of guides, and also carries the bearing for the 

American Locomotive Company, 2-10-0 Type for the Russian Government Railways 

is 70 1 / 4 ins. outside diameter at the front end and con- 
tains one hundred and ninety-five 2-in. tubes 17 ft. 
long. It is also fitted with a 28-unit Schmidt super- 
heater. The firebox is of copper and is 107% ins. long 
by 85 3 /4 ins. wide and has copper water space stays, 
with tell-tale holes drilled in both ends. A Security fire 
brick arch supported on tubes was also included. 

An interesting feature is an arrangement whereby 
the by-pass valves are operated by the superheater- 

reversing shaft. Connections on front and back knuckle 
pins are made by ball joints. This eliminates the bend- 
ing strain on side rods when engine is on curve. Lateral 
motion on first and fifth drivers allows the engines to 
operate on curves up to 700 ft. radius on main line, 
with a possibility of entering curves of 300 ft. radius 
occasionally and with care. Other features included 
are I-section guides, outside steam pipes, extension 
piston rods, Rushton air operated screw reversing gear, 

American Locomotive Company, 2-6-0 for Peter the Great Fortress, Reval, Russia 

damper cylinder. Ordinarily, the damper cylinder re- 
ceives, steam from the steam pipe and therefore operates 
a short time after the throttle is opened. The by-pass 
valve have to close immediately when the throttle is 
opened. This necessitated changing the steam con- 
nection for the damper cylinder and connecting it to 
the turret in the cab with an intervening control valve 

Zara throttle, pyrometer, radial buffer, Franklin fire- 
door, Le Chatelier water brakes on fifty engines, and 
Russian Westinghouse brakes. 

Fifteen 2-6-0 type locomotives were ordered for the 
Peter the Great Fortress Reval. This was an entirely 
new design but followed American practice. These 
engines have a gauge of track of 750 m. m. (29.53 ins.). 



April, 1916 

Having cylinders 11 ins. in diameter by 16 ins. in 
stroke, a boiler pressure of 165 lbs. and a driving wheel 
33 Vn ins. in diameter they have a tractive power of 8,100 
Jbs. The boiler is of the straight top type, is 36% 
ins. outside diameter at the front end and contains 85 
2-in. tubes, 10 ft. 6 ins. long. The firebox is A0y 2 ins. 
long and 33 ins. wide, and burns soft coal. The tender 
is of the four-wheel rigid pedestal type and has a capac- 
ity of 700 gals, of water and IV2 tons of coal. Dimen- 
sions of this and the other engines are here appended 
for reference. 

Russian Government Railways, 2-10-0 Type 

Track gauge, 5 ft. Fuel, soft coal. Cylinder, 
diam., 25 ins.; stroke, 28 ins. piston valves. Tractive 
power, simple, 51,500 lbs. Factor of adhesion, simple, 
3.4. Wheel base driving, 18 ft. 8 ins.; rigid, 18 ft. 8 
ins.; total, 27 ft. 10 ins.; total, engine and tender, 60 
ft. 1% ins. Weight in working order, 195,000 lbs.; on 
drivers, 174,000 lbs.; on engine truck, 21,000 lbs.; en- 
gine and tender, 330,332 lbs. Boiler, type, straight top 
radial stay; O. D. first ring, 70^ ins.; working press- 
ure, 180 lbs. Firebox, type, wide, length, 107% ins. first 
50 and 107% ins. last 50; width, 86 ins.; thickness of 
crown, % in. ; tube, 1 in. and % in. ; sides, % in. and % 
in.; back, % in. first 50 and % in. last 50; water space 
front, 4 ins.; sides, V-fz ins.; back, Z x h ins.; depth 
(top of grade to center of lowest tube), 21 ins. Crown 
staying, radial. Tubes, material, cold drawn seamless 
steel; number, 195; diam., 2 ins.; flues, material, cold 
drawn S. S. for 75 engines, hot rolled S. S. for 25 en- 
gines; number, 28; diam., 5% ins. Thickness tubes, 
No. 12 B. W. G.; flues, No. 9 B. W. G. Tube, length, 
" 17 ft.; spacing, % in. E.; 11/16 in. B. Heating surface, 
tubes and flues, 2,386 sq. ft.; firebox, 176 sq. ft.; arch 
tubes, 24 sq. ft.; total, 2,586 sq. ft. Superheater sur- 
face, 553 sq. ft. Grate area, 64.4 sq. ft. Wheels, driv- 
ing diam. outside tire, 52 ins.; center diam., 46 ins. 
Wheels, driving material, main, cast steel; others, cast 
steel. Wheels, engine truck, diam., 30 ins.; kind, C. S. 
spoke; tender truck diam., 36 ins.; kind, solid forged 
steel. Axles, driving journals main, 10y2 ins. by 12 
ins.; other, 8% ins. by 12 ins.; engine truck journals, 
0V2 ins. by 10 ins; tender truck journals, 5% ins. by 
10 ins. Boxes, driving, main, cast steel; others, cast 
steel. Brake, driver, Russian West.; tender, Russian 
West.; pump, Ry. Co.'s std. ; reservoir, 3OV2 ins. by 
96 ins. Engine truck, two-wheel radial. Exhaust pipe, 
single; nozzles, 5V2 ins., 5% ins., 5% ins. Grate, style, 
rocking. Piston rod diam., 4% ins.; piston packing, 
2 C. I. rings. Smoke stack, diam., 17% ins.; top above 
rail, 14 ft. 11 9/16 ins. Tender frame, A. L. Co.'s std. 
Tank, style, water bottom; capacity, 7,400 gals.; fuel, 
8 metric tons of coal. Valves, type, piston, 12 ins.; 
travel, 6% ins.; steam lap, 1% ins.; ex. lap, line and 
line; setting, % in. lead. 

Peter the Great Fortress Reval, 2-6-0 Type 

Track gauge, 750 m. m. Fuel, soft coal. Cylinder, 
diam., 11 ins.; stroke, 16 ins. slide valves. Tractive 
power, simple, 8,100. Factor of adhesion, simple, 4.1. 
Wheel base driving, 6 ft. 6 ins.; rigid, 6 ft. 6 ins.; 
total, 12 ft. 6 ins.; total, engine and tender, 26 ft. 9 
ins. Weight in working order, 37,265 lbs.; on drivers, 
33,376 lbs.; on engine truck, 3,889; engine and tender, 
54,705. Boiler type, straight top; O. D. first ring, 35% 
ins.; working pressure, 165 lbs. Firebox, type, narrow; 
length, 40 V2 ins.; width, 33 ins.; thickness of crown, 
5/16 in.; tube, % in.; sides, 5/16 in.; back, 5/16 in.; 
water space front, 2% ins.; sides, 2 1 / 4 ins.; back, 2^4 
ins.; depth (top of grade to center of lowest tube), 
15 27/32 ins. Crown staying, radial. Tubes, material, 

steel; number, 85; diam., 2 ins. Thickness tubes, No. 
12. Tube, length, 10 ft. 6in.; spacing, 9/16 in. Heat- 
ing surface, tubes and flues, 463 sq. ft; firebox, 41 sq. 
ft.; total, 504 sq. ft. Grate area, 9.3 sq. ft. Wheels, 
driving diam. outside tire, 33y2 ins.; center diam., 29 
ins. Wheels, driving material, main, C. I.; others, 
C. I.; Wheels, engine truck, diam., 20 ins.; kind, C. I. 
plate; tender truck diam., 24 ins.; kind, C. I. plate. 
Axles, driving journals main, 5 ins. by 6 ins.; others, 
5 ins. by 6 ins.; engine truck journals, 3V2 ins. by 6 
ins.; tender truck journals, Z 1 /^ ins. by 6 ins. Boxes, 
driving, main, C. I.; others, C. I. Brake, driver, A. L. 
Co. steam; tender, hand. Engine truck, radial. Ex- 
haust pipe, single; nozzles, 2% ins. and 2% ins. Grate, 
style, C. I. rockers. Piston, rod diam., 2 ins.; piston 
packing, C. I. ring. Tender frame, steel channel. Tank, 
style, "U" shaped level top; capacity, 700 gals.; fuel, 
1% tons. Valves, type, plain "D"; travel, 3% ins.; 
steam lap, 7/16 in.; setting 1/16 in. lead in full gear. 


American Master Mechanics' Association 

Report of the Proceedings of the Forty- 
eight Annual Convention, June, 1915 

The report of the meeting of the Master Mechanics' 
Association, held at Atlantic City last June, has re- 
cently been issued by the secretary, Joseph W. Taylor, 
Karpen Bldg., Chicago. The illustrations and folders 
are numerous and furnish many important details on 
improved construction. This book shows the earnest 
work of the various committees in securing valuable 
information on the various subjects, and the dis- 
cussions bear out the conclusions arrived at by the 
committees. The committee on locomotive counter- 
balancing sets forth very clearly that many of the 
reciprocating parts of the locomotive can be made 
much lighter than formerly, on account of the marked 
improvement in alloy steels; the recommended amount 
of saving in weight being almost one-third, so that the 
parts referred to might be reduced to 1/240 part of the 
total weight of the locomotive, instead of 1/160 part, 
as in present practice, with the result that more of the 
weight of the locomotive could be used in pulling the 
train. Copies of the report, which contains 736 pages, 
may be had from the secretary. 

Master Car Builders' Association 

Proceedings of the Forty-ninth 
Annual Convention, June, 1915 

The proceedings of the Master Car Builders' Asso- 
ciation have recently been issued in two bulky volumes 
comprising 1,072 pages, with numerous illustrations 
and folders. Many of the reports are remarkable for 
the fulness with which the subjects were treated. The 
discussions also appear in complete detail, and the re- 
sult unquestionably is that a considerable advance has 
been made toward standardization and improvement in 
designs of many of the details of car construction. 
Many recommendations of value appear, an instance 
being that wheels of the recommended size should be 
used, as the failure of car wheels, especially under re- 
frigerator cars, were out of all proportion to the serv- 
ice. The failures were chiefly under cars of a gross 
weight of 105,000 lbs. or more, considerably in excess 
of what is supposed to be carried by the ordinary 625- 
lb. type of car wheel, 63 per cent of such overloaded 
wheels were found among all the car wheels reported 
cracked. Applications for copies of the report should 
be made to the secretary, Joseph W. Taylor, Karpen 
Bldg., Chicago, 111. 

April, 1916 



The Life of a Steel Freight Car 

Effort to get Maximum Service out of Steel Cars. Estimate of Life in 
Years not Always Accurate. Steel of Better Quality Used in Recent Years 

"There is quite a diversity of opinion as to the life 
of a modern steel car," said Mr. Samuel Lynn, master 
car builder, P. & L. E. R. R., at a recent meeting of 
the Railway Club of Pittsburgh. "I will have to say 
that I was told by some, that a steel car will last any- 
where from eight to fifty years." These are some of 
the expressions received in answed to letters of in- 
quiry. Nearly all have formed opinions regarding the 
probable life of certain classes of steel cars, and these 
opinions are based on experience and conditions that 
have come directly under observation. "Therefore, 
instead of confining the subject strictly to 'The Life 
of a Steel Car,' I would suggest that the subject for 
discussion be 'What Maintenance is Necessary to Get 
the Maximum Service from a Steel Car.' " 

There are some car officials who apparently think 
that the steel car does not require much attention. 
This theory is not now given consideration, as any one 
responsible for steel car maintenance realizes that 
while the steel car, with its larger carrying capacity, 
increases the earnings of a road, yet after the car 
reaches a certain age its maintenance cost increases 
over that of the old wooden car. 

One thing of most importance is the design of the 
car. Care must be taken to get the required strength 
in the underframe in order that the car may with- 
stand the shocks incident to present-day handling. In 
addition to a good solid underframe, the draft sills and 
draw gear must be equally strong in order to do their 
work. There have been new cars turned out, and after 
the first or second loading the draw sills, or center sills 
from end sill to body bolster, were so badly buckled 
that they had to be removed and replaced and rein- 
forcement added to strengthen the weak members. 
These cars, although practically new, were useless 
until this repair work had been done to take care of 
oversight or poor design. 

The commodities with which a car is loaded and the 
climatic conditions in the territory through which it 
travels are important factors in the life of a steel car. 
The cars in this region carry coal, coke, and ore and 
are subject to very severe service, as they are usually 
hauled in heavy tonnage trains, and' the acids in the 
coal and coke eat through the floor sheets very rapidly. 
In addition to the injurious effects of the acids on the 
inside of the car, the varying weather conditions, 
rain, snow and heavy damp atmosphere, help in the 
deterioration of the car. 

In early days even car inspectors looked over a car 
primarily for safety appliance defects, hot boxes, etc., 
and took it for granted that because the car was made 
of steel it was all right, and for some reason, the steel 
car from the time it first appeared did not seem to 
have a friend. At the industrial plants where the cars 
were unloaded the men took frequent cracks at them 
with a sledge, and as a result the side and hopper sheets 
soon became bent out of shape. During the winter 
season when ore becomes frozen in the cars, some of 
the plants use dynamite to loosen up the ore, and in 
addition they frequently loosen up the floor and side 
sheets at the rivets. If the steel car was given rea- 
sonable treatment and repairs made when needed, and 
repainted when the steel became exposed, the renewing 

of some of the parts would not become necessary for a 
longer period than it is now. 

From observation it has been found that the original 
painting of the steel car is usually faulty. Owing to 
the hurry-up methods of the contracting builder the 
required quality of paint is liable to be 'dryer- 
sacrificed,' or made to fit the building time of the car, 
without having the required protective qualities of the 
paint. Paint will not cure all the ills of the steel car, 
but if a liberal quantity of good paint was used to pro- 
tect outside parts, the life of the car would be length- 
ened considerably. Occasionally we may hear of some 
railway official using the expression that 'a steel car 
will run and earn just as much money without paint.' 
This may be true, but the question arises, how long 
will the car run? Part of the expense of steel equip- 
ment maintenance is due to paint neglect. Painting 

Ravages of Rust on Sloping Floor of Hopper 

the inside parts of any steel car is unnecessary — the 
first loading cuts and mars the paint so that moisture 
can get under it and so do damage — but keeping the 
outside parts painted, the corrosion of the outside of 
the sheets would be counteracted to a considerable 

Some pictures shown on a screen made plain the 
effects of corrosion on the steel sheets on the sides of 
the cars, and also the effects of acids. Our illustration 
shows one of them. Along the floor seams near the 
hopper at each end of the car, the side sheets are 
entirely eaten through. A photograph was taken of 
a particular car when it came into the shop before 
the repairs were started on it, and after the car had 
been repaired and turned out, and loaded at one of the 
mines, another photograph was taken. The car is 
under load and appeared as if able to continue to earn 
money for some years to come. In order to keep this 
hopper type of car in service, it has been found that 
after the first 10 or 12 years, the floor and hopper 
sheets have deteriorated from % in. in thickness to a 
very light gauge. In fact, along the seams and sides 
of the cars where the floor sheets are riveted to the 
sides, in some cases the steel is completely rusted 
through, and in order to get any further service from 
the car it is necessary to renew the floors and hoppers. 



April, 1916 

This has been done on a large number of steel hopper 
cars at an approximate cost of $225 a car. 

After this class of repairs have been made and the 
cars have been in service for about 4 years, the car 
sides, which were in fairly good condition when the 
new floors were applied, have deteriorated to such an 
extent that it is necessary to renew the sides of the 
cars. This work can be done at an approximate cost 
of $130 a car, making a total approximate expense of 
$355 a car, on the car body, outside of various light 
repairs necessary at different times. 

While this class of repairs was being made, it was 
found in a few cases that the center sills had deterior- 
ated to some extent from corrosion. They had buckled 
due to shocks, making the application of new sills nec- 
essary. On such cars where new sills were applied 
an additional cost of $45 was necessary, making the 
total amount spent on the car body approximately 
$400. On a very large percentage of the cars on which 
this class of repairs is being made it is not necessary 
to renew the center sills. These sills, in most cases, 
have been reinforced between the body bolsters and 
the hopper sheets by a tie plate or channel section 
riveted to the sills, the cost of this application being 
included in the figures just given. 

From all this it would seem that the bodies of the 
majority of the first steel cars built, or cars that have 
been in service 16 or 17 years, will require repairs 
amounting practically to the rebuilding of the car body. 
This rebuilding process, however, occurs at different 
stated periods, whereas if all the parts of any unit of 
equipment deteriorated at the same rate, there would 
be no question but that the average depreciation could 
be fixed very closely, as every part of the unit would 
then become worn out at the same time and the whole 
body of the car would probably be scrapped or rebuilt 
as a new unit. The present policy of maintaing the 
steel car as different parts fail is practically the same 
method as was employed in the maintenance of the 
wooden car equipment. 

It has been the custom to estimate the life of the 
wooden car of either box or gondola at 20 years. The 
old wooden car, during the 20-year period, received at 
different times repairs such as two or more longitudi- 
nal sills, the renewal of the top side plank, new floors, 
and other repairs which amounted practically to the 
rebuilding of the car, yet for general purposes 20 years 
was considered the average life of the wooden car. 
Allowing the same treatment for a steel car, that is, 
giving it general repairs when necessary and properly 
maintaining the car so as to get maximum service from 
it, the steel car is still in serviceable condition after it 
has been running 16 or 17 years. 

There are some who think that it is more econom- 
ical to prolong the life of the car by repairs, while 
there are others who say that from an economical 
standpoint, it is better to run the car until it requires 
repairs such as have already been described as neces- 
sary, after it has been in service about 12 years, and 
then scrap the body and place a new body on the 
trucks. They believe that when the floors and hoppers 
are worn out, the rest of the car has deteriorated to 
such an extent that it is cheaper to scrap the body 
than to try to maintain it, and it would appear not to 
be good policy to scrap these cars. 

One P. & L. E. car, excepting short periods when it 
was in the shop for class repairs, has been in contin- 
uous service since June, 1897, and is therefore over 18 
years old. It is an 80,000 lbs. capacity car of the hop- 
per type; it has a cubical capacity of 1,286 cu. ft.; 
weight, new, 35,700 lbs. The last time it was weighed, 

in June of this year, it was 35,200 lbs. The car was 
built of wrought iron by the Youngstown Bridge Com- 
pany, and is in good condition today. The original sills, 
bolsters, end sills and draw members, as well as 
the sides, are still on the car. The car received heavy 
repairs in the years 1912 and 1915 at an approximate 
total cost of $450. The appearance of this car does not 
indicate that it should go to the scrap pile. 

The first steel car of the B. & L. E. is over 19 years 
old, having been built in 1896, and from the informa- 
tion received from Mr. Dickinson, M. C. B. of the Bes- 
semer & Lake Erie, this car has received at different 
times class repairs. Mr. Dickinson states that all the 
cars in this series are in almost as good condition as 
when first built. This will show that the Bessemer & 
Lake Erie Railroad is one of the pioneers in the use of 
steel cars. 

It has been stated that opinions have ranged from 
eight to fifty years as the average life of a steel car, 
but as long as this type of car meets the requirements 
as to carrying capacity and stands up while rendering 
the service for which it was intended, justice would 
not be done to the steel car if a limit is placed on 
its life. 

There is one other reason why no definite limit 
should be placed on the life of the steel car, and that 
is steel that is now being purchased and used for re- 
pair parts is inferior to the steel that went into the 
first cars built. Steel plates that are being purchased 
and used for repairs today are deteriorating faster 
than the original sheets of the cars. If this same grade 
of steel is being used by car builders today on new 
equipment, and an estimated average life was placed 
on cars based on the lasting qualities of the material 
used when steel cars were first built, the steel in the 
cars that are now being built and put in service might 
not last more than half the time of the cars first built, 
and we would be doing the steel car an injustice to say 
that at the end of any stated period it should be 
relegated to the scrap heap. The steel car can be 
maintained as long as the owner desires to run that 
particular type of car." 

Present Unsatisfactory Conditions 

Since the beginning of the year down to March 1st a 
larger number of locomotives and cars have been 
ordered than for a like period in the past nine years. 
It is safe to say that the railroads have just begun to 
replace equipment which has already been run to its 
limit; but in view of the overwhelming demand for all 
sorts of material and the high prices prevailing, these 
belated purchases are made at a great disadvantage. 

Twelve months or more ago prices for materials gen- 
erally were extremely low compared with present fig- 
ures. Unfortunately, as is often the case, the railroads 
were in such financial straits that the low cost of every- 
thing which goes into railroad maintenance and con- 
struction could not tempt them to buy. In addition to 
the high prices, at present, deliveries are slow and un- 
certain and needs are pressing. While it is more than 
gratifying to observe the marked increase in railroad 
traffic the conditions offer little hope for the railroads 
to secure all the benefits they are entitled to; the public 
suffers at the same time, and anxious security holders 
are obliged to see full returns on their investments 
denied. These matters will of course adjust themselves 
eventually, when substantial good times are actually in 

April, 1916 



Chattering Slip of Electric Driving Wheels 

Abstract of Paper Presented to the American 
Institute of Electrical Engineers by G. M. Eaton 

Sufficient steam pressure in the cylinders of a steam 
engine to start slipping of driving wheels produces a 
sustained load on the piston adequate to insure fairly 
uniform acceleration of the driving wheels. With elec- 
tric equipment the acceleration after slipping starts, 
is likely to be irregular in that aside from the method 
of transmitting the tractive effort of the rotors to the 
wheels, the acceleration is dependent upon the distri- 
bution of rotating masses and on the co-efficient of 
friction between the wheel and the rail. 

An analysis of the forces at work in the electric loco- 
motive in starting acceleration is necessary to appre- 
ciate the reasons for these conditions. When current 
is supplied to the motor the rotor or armature starts to 
turn. Clearance and lost motion in the transmission 
mechanism are at once eliminated. As the torque is in- 
creased the metal of the transmission is placed under 
strain and is bent, twisted or otherwise deflected by 

B , 


Scriber N 



Fig 1 

this strain. This stressed metal accumulates energy 
until finally the tractive effort becomes sufficient to 
overcome the existing adhesion of the wheel to the 
rail and the wheel starts to slip. The instant that rela- 
tive movement occurs between the wheel and the rail, 
the co-efficient of friction drops from that of repose to 
that of relative motion, and an opportunity is presented 
for the stressed metal to discharge its stored energy 
as soon as part of the resisting force has disappeared. 
This energy accelerates the wheels ahead of the an- 
gular position relative to the rotor at the instant slip- 

ergy stored in the stressed metal of the transmission 
system, and as soon as the effort tending to accelerate 
the wheels becomes less than the adhesion at the rail 
which tends to retard the wheels, the wheels will start 
to slow down. 

There is then first an effort of the rotors to turn 
the wheels in which the rotors are attempting to move 
faster than the wheels and as soon as this effort of the 
rotors overcomes the adhesion between the wheel and 
the rail, this tendency of the rotors to move more rap- 
idly than the wheels instantly expends itself, and the 



Fig. 3 

momentum gathered by the turning wheel tends to 
accelerate the rotor. The clearances in the transmis- 
sion which mechanically couple the rotating masses 
are first taken up in one direction and then the other 
and the shock and recoil resulting from their being 
taken up gives the setting for the chattering action 
which has been experienced in practically every type 
of electrically driven rolling stock where the motors 
are sufficiently powerful to slip the wheels at high 

The immediate harm traceable to this chattering 
lies in the breaking of parts of the transmission system 
which cannot withstand the instantaneous overloads 
produced. In one case quill spring arms struck the 
wheel spokes at a point near the tire and more or less 
breakage of these arms occurred. Inspection showed 
that the arms which broke had blow-holes in the in- 

Average Time 0.1 5 Sec 

^/ ,Variat ' on * rQm average probably due lo Human Equation 

Retardation Uniform Motion 

Kick Stop Acceleration 

Travel of Scribe 
relative to wheel 

Fig 2 

ping began. The fact that the wheels are being ac- 
celerated ahead of the rotors causes the rotors to lose 
their load and to tend to speed up. This reaction is 
true both of series motors and of induction motors 
when running below the speed of synchronism. The 
adhesion of the wheel to the rail decreases as the ve- 
locity of the wheel tread relative to the rail increases. 
The effort necessary to turn the wheel therefore de- 
creases very rapidly, due to the expenditure of the en- 

terior of the castings and after defective castings were 
eliminated the construction was strong enough to put 
an end to failures at this point. In later locomotives 
in the same service two motors were mounted on each 
axle, and the change in rotor inertia eliminated this 
striking. Chattering slip could not be eliminated, but 
the capacity of the quill springs were sufficient to limit 
the amplitude of spring to a distance less than the 
existing clearances. 



April, 1916 

Chattering slip can be occasionally observed in City 
and Interurban cars although less frequently than in 
heavy electric locomotives due to the greater tractive 
power in proportion to the weight of the latter, which 
increases the chances of the wheels slipping. 

In arriving at the approximate forces necessary to 
produce the acceleration and retardation which occur 
in chattering slip and the resultant stress in the rods 
and pins of the transmission mechanism, a rough os- 
cillograph can be constructed as shown in Fig. 1. The 
brakes are set on all trucks of the locomotives save 
one, and the oscillograph frame set up on the remain- 
ing truck. The wheel tread is chalked and the oscillo- 
graph frame turned on its supporting points A, the 
amplitude of oscillation being two inches and the time 
of completing oscillograph two seconds. The scribers 
are pressed against the wheel tread, and the wheel 
treads are then slipped. A characteristic diagram is 
shown in Fig. 2 and the analysis of the figure is self- 

To check the figures obtained in this manner ex- 
tensometers can be arranged as shown in Fig. 3, and 
the stresses resulting in the expansion and compres- 
sion of connecting rods can be recorded by means of 
the compression of blocks of lead. The two methods 
should check within a very few per cent, and from 
the figures obtainable rods, pins, etc., can be designed 
which will prove adequate to withstand the instantane- 
ous shocks caused by the chattering slip. 

In all heavy hauling electric motive power this prob- 
lem must be considered with every type of drive. The 
great number of variables are affecting the results, 
and the wide fluctuation to certain of these variables 
renders broad judgment necessary in securing a suc- 
cessful solution of any given problem. 

Welding by the Electric Arc 

Description of the Method of Applying the 
Process to Boiler and Other Kinds of Work 

A description of electric welding given by Lieutenant 
C. S. McDowell in the Journal of the American Society 
of Naval Engineers is full of interest. Among other 
things he says : Welding is the joining of two pieces of 
metal, like or unlike, by fusion, while they are in a plastic 
state. The former definition of welding was stated as 
the process of uniting two pieces of metal by hammering 
them together while hot. Modern methods of obtaining 
high temperatures by means of electricity has broadened 
the definition of welding and brought in use additional 
processes, to which the term "welding" has been applied. 
The process is applicable to reclaiming castings, repair- 
ing broken machinery of all kinds, building up of worn 
parts, welding seams in boilers, tanks, making high- 
speed tools, repairing boilers, etc. The essential charac- 
teristics of a successful weld are: That the metal in the 
welded joint shall be free from impurities, slag and de- 
fects of all sorts ; that it shall possess a sufficient amount 
of elongation, flexibility and tensile strength; and that 
the process of welding shall be such as to reduce to a 
minimum disturbances in the texture of the surrounding 

There are two methods of electric arc welding: One 
in which a carbon electrode is used, and the other in 
which a metallic electrode is used. As a result of the 
tests which have been conducted in electric arc welding, 
it is believed that the carbon electrode process is not 
suited for general work, some of the reasons being that 
much greater difficulty is experienced in maintaining the 

proper temperature, and there are more chances of get- 
ting an excess of carbon in the weld. In the other 
process, which is extensively used, it is necessary to have 
the metal electrodes of such material that the deposited 
metal in the weld shall have practically the same charac- 
teristics as the rest of the metal in the object worked on. 
It is necessary to have the electrode contain an excess 
of certain materials over what is desired in the finished 
weld. The amount of loss of metal electrode depends on 
the temperature, and it has been found necessary to have 
a constant temperature at the weld. 

A certain amount of skill and experience is required 
on the part of the operator, as some types of apparatus 
require much more skill and closer attention than others. 
A system which depends primarily on the skill of the 
operator cannot turn out work uniformly good, some 
persons believe that a flux is necessary, but in the tests 
conducted all sorts of material have been welded, and 
the best results have been obtained where no flux is used. 
The claims in favor of flux are: that it blankets the 
weld by forming a glass around the material which pre- 
vents oxygen reaching it and so prevents oxidation; this 
has been proved not to be necessary, by making similar 
welds where oxygen was entirely excluded, and then 
other welds in the air, and no difference in strength or 
structure of the weld was to be found in either case. It 
has therefore been considered that in a good electrical 
welding system a flux is not a necessity. 

While it is recognized that it is desirable to have as 
simple an equipment as possible, it is considered neces- 
sary to have an automatic control of the input energy to 
the weld, so that when the proper amount of energy has 
been determined for a particular job it will remain con- 
stant regardless of the varying of the arc length. It 
should be possible for the operator to set the current 
controller at the desired amount, as well as at the panel 
board; the controller should automatically keep the cur- 
rent approximately at the fixed value. A variation of 
less than 5 per cent can be obtained with a well-designed 
equipment. The electric arc has been found suitable for 
cutting, but a carbon electrode must be used; no auto- 
matic current-control is necessary, although a choke coil 
is advisable to prevent large inrushes of current. The 
amount of current varies with the size of the material 
to be cut. 

The material to be welded should be cleaned with a 
scraper or wire brush to remove oxides and prevent form- 
ing of slag, and it is also necessary to bevel the edge 
sufficiently so that the distance from the electrode to 
bottom of the weld is less than that of the electrode to 
any other part of the article, so that the arc will not 
stray. In thick plates, where possible, and especially in 
castings, it is usual to weld from both sides, and in this 
case the original material is pointed by beveling on both 

A large saving in cost on repair work has been made 
on boiler jobs, in addition to a saving in time. A specific 
application of arc welding is in the making of high- 
speed tools, a piece of the tool being made out of ordi- 
nary steel, and high-speed tool steel is welded on for the 
cutting edge only. Some other applications are: Build- 
ing up of worn wearing parts, pins, rollers, bearings, 
etc.; welding of plates instead of riveting, or where 
seams are leaking; building up of rivets, building up 
stripped gears, repair of cracked castings, making of 
high-speed tools, filling blow holes. In manufacturing 
work: Welding of heads on tanks, welding of tubes in 
tube sheets, welding of broken feet on castings. Brass, 
bronzes and aluminium, as well as steel, cast steel, 
wrought iron and cast iron, can be welded by this 

April, 1916 



The Chilled Iron Car Wheel 

The Origin of the Flat Spot and Seams in Wheel Treads, Both in Steel and Chilled 
Iron Wheels; Remedies That May Be Applied. Record of Performance in Winter 

Looking further into the paper on the "Chilled Iron 
Wheel" read before the Richmond Club by Mr. F. K. 
Vial, chief engineer of the Griffin Wheel Co., of Chi- 
cago, we find that in dealing with characteristics which 
develop in service, Mr. Vial spoke substantially as fol- 
lows. Without quoting his actual words, we may give 
our reads the results of his observations. 

Leaving out of consideration the laboratory tests and 
the composition of the metal, which have been already 
dealt with in these pages, we turn to the M. C. B. Code 
of interchange rules, and the first thing to be consid- 
ered is Rule 68, which deals with "Flat Sliding Cast 
Iron or Cast Steel Wheels," and which calls for the re- 

Fig. 1. Typical Flat Spot Chilled Iron Wheel 

moval of all wheels having a flat spot 2 1 /£ ins. or over 
in length. Fig 1 exhibits a typical flat spot in the 
chilled iron wheel. The length of the flat spot is defi- 
nite; its borders are clearly defined and are not 
pounded out, nor are they smoothed away in service. 
The noise caused by such a spot as the wheel rolls is 
characterisitc. The intensity of the blow on the rail 
for a flat spot up to 2% ins. is not great. The intensity 

of the blow increases as the spot becomes larger until a 
maximum is reached at a certain speed, after which 
the intensity of the blow diminishes. The longer the 
spot, the higher the speed at which the maximum blow 
is produced. 

The conditions affecting the steel wheel are different 
because its malleability allows the edges of the flat 

Fig. 2. Flat Spot on a Steel Wheel 

spot to be pounded out and lengthened until finally- 
there is practically an eccentric wheel produced. The 
long rounded spot in a steel wheel does not produce a 
distinctive noise, and often remains in service until a 
very considerable eccentricity has been developed. 
This constitutes a serious danger, especially in winter 
and in very cold weather, and when the track is covered 
with ice, as the constant pounding tends to loosen 
rivets, break truck parts, and to seriously damage and 
fracture rails. Fig. 2 shows the flat spot on a steel 
wheel, and how its development and action differs from 
that shown on the chilled wheel, Fig. 1. 

During the winter of 1912-13 there is record of 29 
flat steel wheels under a mail train of 6 cars. In this 
season 66,000 rails were broken upon the railways of 
the United States. No such record has ever been 
charged against the flat spot on the chilled iron wheel. 
The only occasion where a chilled iron wheel may de- 
velop eccentricity is when it has been worn through the 
chill. This is a condition which is not likely to happen 
if the M. C. B. rules for minimum chill are observed, 
and when it does occur it is easily recognized and the 
wheel removed before eccentricity is developed, be- 
cause this defect is of slow growth. A metal which 



April, 1916 




















12 o 

















/ ' 










N \ 





Five -("rs, 














































— -" 



' - 



Fig. 3. Weather Effects on Flat Wheels 

has any degree of malleability is in a condition where 
flat spots will grow rapidly, because at each revolution 
a blow is struck at the same spot on the wheel, whereas 
the rail receives a blow at intervals of about 8 ft. 
Yet it is possible that the causes for flat spots in the 
chilled iron wheel, though numerous, are capable of a 
material reduction in number. Fig. 3 shows the 
effect of weather upon a number of flat wheels. Statis- 
tics show that three times as many flat spots are de- 
veloped in winter as in summer, especially in the colder 

In dealing with what are called broken flanges, it is 
at once apparent that a very important item with refer- 

Fig. 4. Chilled Iron Wheels With Vertical Flange and With 
Shoulder Worn Close to Flange 

ence to safety in transportation, is the reliability of the 
flange. The object of the flange is to guide the truck, 
and one flange or the other is constantly in contact 
with the rail and subject to rubbing or grinding, always 
under pressure. When traversing a curve, the flange 
pressure amounts to from 10,000 to 20,000 lbs. under 
ordinary circumstances, and impacts may momentarily 
be much greater than these amounts, but the continuous 

grind, without lubricant, results in flange wear. This 
is more pronounced in the case of the steel wheel than 
in the chilled iron wheel for two reasons, because steel 
is softer than chilled iron, and because the material of 
the steel wheel and the rail are identical, being fibrous 
rather than crystalline. The surfaces of flange and 
rail are roughened and there is greater rapidity of 

Fig. 4 shows various conditions of wear on chilled 
iron wheels. In one case a shoulder is worn on the 

Fig. 5. Seam Below Surface 
— Blue Fracture 

Fig. 6. Seam, Pro- 
gressive Type. 

throat of the chilled iron wheel on account of its mate 
being sharp flanged, while it exhibits a typical vertical 
flange shown with the M. C. B. defect gauge applied, 
so as to indicate that the vertical flange has reached 
the limit and should be removed. A broken flange 
through solid metal is of rare occurrence on a chilled 
iron wheel, although there has never been any increase 
in the thickness of the flange, from the time when the 
10-ton car was standard on the railways of this country. 
In the matter of what are called seams, it is true that 
a seam in the throat is responsible for a certain number 
of broken flanges. Figs. 5 and 6 make. two classes of 
seams apparent, one of which develops below the sur- 
face of the metal and is known as a blue fracture, and 

April, 1916 



the other, occurring in wheels of low chill, is of what 
may be called the progressive type, as it starts in small 
cracks in the throat, which eventually unite and form 
one line, which gradually grows to be a crack through 
the chill. This may work through the grey iron and 
result in a broken flange. This type of seam can be 
eliminated by avoiding low chill. The blue fracture 
cannot be detected until the surface metal, usually 
about one-eighth of an inch thick, is broken through, 
so as to show the seam below. This blemish is a foun- 
dry defect and can be avoided by pouring iron at the 
proper temperature. It is true that seams in the throat 
of the chilled iron wheel are less prevalent than they 
were some years ago. Fig. 7 shows a seam in the 
throat after the surface metal has been broken through 
near the flange, and is marked B, and also a seam at 
the rim, marked A. As the cause for these seams is 
known, and is under the control of the foundry, they 
should eventually be eliminated. There is little or in 
fact no excuse for seams in the throat or in the rim 
under present foundry practice. Fig. 8 shows a section 
of a mold in which a wheel is cast. When the iron is 
poured into the mold first it fills the lower part of the 
hub and then passes through the bottom plate and the 
brackets, and fills up the flange. The section of the 
mold forming the flange is thin and the upper part is 
formed by the metal chill. From this it is evident that 
the metal in the flange would be partially cooled by 
passing over the cold sand of the mold before reaching 
the chill. This metal is also not stirred or mixed by 
the metal subsequently entering the mold, as it flows on 
top of that which forms the flange. 

It is evident that the metal in the flange has already 
set solid and has begun to contract while the metal 
above the throat is still in a soft and pasty condition, 

Fig. 7. Seam at Rim 


Seam at Throat 

with the exception of a thin layer of surface metal 
which has been cooled by the chill. 

The more rapid cooling and contraction of the metai 
forming the flange, as compared with that in the tread, 
tends to cause a separation of metal, which produces 
the seam, as shown in our illustrations. This is only 
true where the iron, when poured, was not at a suffi- 
ciently high temperature to set homogeneously through- 
out the tread and flange portion of the mold. Where 
seams of this kind occur, it is almost always found that 

the tread is chilled nearly through, and the iron, mot- 
tled in appearance, contains large flakes of graphite, 
which are widely separated. Chill having this appear- 
ance occurs most frequently in wheels poured from 
fresh ladles, also where the iron was at too low a tem- 
perature from any cause. Modern foundry practice re- 

Fig. 8. Section of Mould for Chilled Iron Wheel 

quires that ladles shall be heated before being poured, 
so that the molten metal will keep hot for longer time 
and arrangements are made to insure rapid pouring 
into the molds. Seams are not confined to chilled iron 
wheels, they are also to be found in steel wheels. 

A Busy Supply Department 

The Purchasing Department of the Pennsylvania 
Railroad handled on an average last year 737 requisi- 
tions daily; 287,206 orders for supplies and material 
were sent out, and 365,219 bills or invoices covering 
these purchases were passed upon. 

During the year this department's mail — incoming 
and outgoing — amounted to nearly 1,000,000 pieces, or 
a letter on the average for every $100.00 expended. The 
incoming mail amounted to 480,126 pieces, on the out- 
bound 466,405 pieces. 



April, 1916 

Lehigh Valley Round House at Sayre, Pa. 

Typical Well- Appointed Round House. Provision by which Case of Accidental 
Destruction of Wall Opposite a Track, Does Not Cause Extensive Damage 

The work of construction of a wheel and axle shop, 
a 46-stall reinforced concrete round house, the founda- 
tion for a 75-ft. transfer table, the center foundation 
and ring wall for a 100-ft. turn-table, oil house, locker 
room and tool room, together with a small office build- 
ing, was put through by the Lehigh Valley Railroad 
as an extension of their facilities at Sayre, Pa. 

The 46-stall reinforced concrete round house was 
designed and built with concrete foundations, struc- 
tural steel colmns for the front and interior columns, 
the structural steel being incased in concrete. The 



1 if' ^Mjll| '■■J JuH 


Interior of Sayre Round House, L. V. R. R. 

rear-wall columns are of reinforced concrete, built 
wide, in the form of pilasters. The building is 13 ft. 
6 ins. center to center of front-door posts, and 95 ft. 
deep. The overhead clearance for the front door is 
17 ft. The roof construction is composed of main re- 
inforced concrete girders which run over the tops of 
the columns from the front of the building to the back. 
These girders vary in size from 1 ft. 2 ins. wide by 1 ft. 
10 ins. deep to 1 ft. 2 ins. wide by 2 ft. 6 ins. deep, de- 
pending on the span. The construction between the 
girders is made by narrow reinforced' concrete beams 
with hollow tile between, with a concrete slab above. 
The depth of the beams and tile used varies from 8 ft. 
to 12 ins., depending on the span. This form of con- 
struction gives a smooth surface for the underside of 
the roof, allowing a better escape of smoke. 

Paul Dickinson & Co. cast-iron smoke stacks are in- 
stalled. They are long and narrow and allow some 
movement of an engine without carrying the smoke 
stack out from under the jack. The roof is water- 
proofed with the Standard Paint Company's 4-ply built- 
up roofing, flashed with 16-oz. copper flashing. The 
rear wall of the building is built with 8-in. brick, panel 
wall, with a wooden window above. This panel wall 
and window is independent of the re-inforced concrete 
pilasters. This prevents any damage to the framework 
of the building in case an engine accidently went 
through the back wall. The floor is 1%-in. mastic on 
6-in. concrete sub-base. The building is equipped with 
engine pits 74 ft. long, 2 ft. 6 ins. deep at one end and 
3 ft. at the other, thus allowing for drainage. A drain- 
age sump is arranged at one end, with a grating. The 
pits are all drained by being linked together with 8-in. 

tile pipe, and the same are brought outside the building 
to a manhole connecting with the general sewer sys- 
tem. We may say that the rain water leaders for the 
front of the building are taken into the same drainage 

The pit walls are made wide enough to allow for 
jacking. Two tracks are arranged with a pony drop 
pit and two tracks are arranged for a trailer drop pit. 
These pits are 5 ft. wide by 7 ft. 8 ins. deep, and 6 ft. 
wide by 7 ft. 8 ins. deep, respectively. The heating of 
the building is accomplished by two 190-in. engine- 
driven fans set in two seperate buildings, put up as a 
lean-to on the main round house, the hot air being led 
to the pits and into the building through concrete and 
tile ducts. The electric lighting is by means of over- 
head illumination, all wires being protected by being 
in a conduit laid in the concrete roof. The building is 
supplied with the usual steam, air and water piping. A 
Millers boiler-washing system is installed, twenty tracks 
being piped for this system. Our illustration shows in 
a general way the construction of the building. 

The construction of the building was carried out 
under considerable difficulties, owing to the fact that 
an old round house, which had to be kept in operation 
until the new round house was ready, occupied the 
space covered by stalls 41 to 46 and 1 to 5. Consider- 
able difficulty was also experienced in removing the 
foundations of this old round house, which were built 
of heavy masonry and required extensive blasting to 
get them out. We would say that the construction work 
on this job occupied about five months. In other words, 
in five months the first engine was housed. The entire 
superstructure above the foundation for 40 V2 bays was 
"poured" in 33 working days, making an average of 
1 23-100 bays per day. The method of "pouring" this 
building was by a comparatively low Insley tower and 
spouting, which was mounted on a track on the inner 
circle of the building. This tower was moved around 

L. V. R. R. Round House and Turn Table 

as the building was "poured." The material, such as 
sand, gravel and cement, was brought in on cars on a 
track just inside the building and moved along parallel 
with the tower. This made a very effective method of 
handling this material. 

The wheel and axle shop building is 50 ft. by 65 ft., 
with concrete foundation, brick walls, steel columns, 
and trusses covered with wood sheathing on wood pur- 
lins. The roof has been waterproofed with the Standard 
Paint Company's built-up waterproofing. Steel sash 
glazed with plain glass has been used in the building, 
and a mastic floor was put in. In connection with this 

April, 1916 



building, a depressed track was built for loading wheels 
in and out. 

The oil house is a combination building, used for an 
oil house, engineers' tool room, engineers' locker room, 
with over-all dimensions of 40 ft. by 100 ft. The oil 
house is provided with a basement 40 ft. by 40 ft., in 
which are stored two 5,350-gallon tanks, one 1,900-gallon 
tank, one 190 gallon tank, and seven tanks having a 
capacity of 10,000 gallons. The building is made of 
concrete from the basement floor of the oil room up to 
4 ft. above grade. Higher than this point it is of brick, 
with reinforced concrete beam-and-slab roof. The roof 
has been waterproofed with Standard Paint Company's 
waterproofing. The windows of the oil room are of 
steel sash glazed with wire glass. All oil room doors 

L. V. R. R. Round House at Sayre, Pa. 

are fireproofed. The remainder of the building has 
wooden window sash glazed with ordinary glass. Ordi- 
nary wooden doors are used. 

Four Wayne Oil Tank and Pump Company's long- 
distance self-measuring oil pumps are installed, togeth- 
er with a battery of seven Bowser tanks, with Bowser 
self-measuring pumps mounted on them. A separate 
room is provided with fireproof wall and doors fcr the 
storage of waste. The waste is handled by means of 
a monorail. In connection with the 75-ft. transfer table, 
the foundations of which were installed by the L. V. 
R. R., it was necessary to cut off an old flue shop and 
cab shop and demolish an old wheel and axle shop. 
The work was carried out by Westinghouse, Church, 
Kerr & Co., in co-operation with and under the direction 
of Mr. E. B. Ashby, chief engineer of the Lehigh Valley 


Dynamo-Electric Machinery for Railroads 


Generating and Transforming Units De- 
scribed and their Operation Explained 

The art of designing electric generating machinery 
has advanced so rapidly and so far that units of 30,000 
kilowatts, equivalent to 40,000 horse power, are becom- 
ing common in railway generating stations. The term 
"generating unit" is applied to any combination of 
steam engine, or steam turbine, or water wheel that 
drives a dynamo ; prime mover and generator commonly 
being set on the same base, or foundation. Generators 
in railway power houses are usually built to furnish 
alternating current, abbreviated to the letters A. C. 
Sometimes direct current, abbreviated, D. C, machines 
are used, but chiefly for shop motors and lights, or 
for street and interurban railways where the energy ia 
not transmitted more than a few miles. In railway sub- 
stations, a type of machine called a rotary converter is 

installed, which runs as a motor driven by A. C. power, 
and at the same time generates D. C. power which is 
fed into the third rail or trolley wire. 

Generally speaking, generators may be classed either 
as self-excited or separately-excited. The diagrams 
used here show this distinction for machines having 
only two poles in the field, but the principle can be 
extended to include any number of poles. Alternating 
current generators supplying power to railways are 
almost always separately excited. The exciting gen- 
erator or "exciter" as it is called, is sometimes belt- 
driven from a pulley on the shaft of the main generator, 
or mounted directly on that shaft. Its output is D. C. 
energy that goes through the coils of the field magnets 
of the large machine, and is regulated in amount ac- 
cording to the demand for power from the latter. All 
D. C. generators must have a commutator, or device for 
collecting'all the positive currents in the armature cir- 
cuits, and connecting them with the positive terminal; 
and collecting all the negative currents, and connecting 
them with the negative terminal of the machine, whence 
they are distributed by the leads or bus-bars to the 
switchboard. This commutator is made up of a large 
number of segments or narrow pieces of copper, each 
insulated from those next it by narrow strips of mica, 
bakelite or other approved insulation. This fact limits 
the voltage or electro-motive force that can be gen- 
erated in one D. C. dynamo; so, when power must be 
transmitted at high voltages, it is almost always done 
with alternating, and not with direct current. If D. C. 
power must be obtained for lomotives or for shop 
motors from a distant power plant, the A. C. current 
must be transformed to D. C, at points where it is to 
be used or locally distributed. 

For electric locomotives or motor cars either direct 
or alternating curent may be used. It has never yet 

Self-Excited Direct Current Generator 

been definitely settled by electrical engineers which is 
the better system for railway work under all conditions 
of distance, grades, speed, train load, density of traffic, 
etc. The two systems are being used about equally. 
The Pennsylvania Railroad has both, employing 600 volt 
D. C. locomotives for its New York terminal electric 
service, and 11,000-volt A. C. for the motor coaches 
used on the Philadelphia-Paoli electrification described 



April, 1916 

in the January, 1916, issue of Railway Engineering 
and Maintenance of Way. Both systems are alike in 
one respect. They both generate alternating current 
energy in the power houses and transmit it at high 
tension to various points on the electrified division. 
On the roads using D. C. this alternating current must 
be transformed to direct, and thence transmitted to the 
third rail or overhead conductor. On the other hand, 
roads equipped for A. C. operation with the energy 
transmitted from the power station may be fed directly 
into the conductor from which locomotives and cars 
draw their supply. 

Where power must be transmitted long distances, A. 
C. energy must be supplied, not only because the amount 

Separately-Excited Direct Current Generator 

of power that can be distributed through a wire circuit 
increases almost in proportion to the rise in voltage 
at the source, but also because, as before mentioned, 
it is not practicable to build D. C. generators so well 
insulated as to stand the strain of high tension between 
adjoining commutator bars and armature circuits. For 
these reasons the common practice is to install steam 
turbine-driven A. C. generators, transmit the 13,200- 






A-C G-enerAror 

any moving parts) is an electro-magnetic device for 
alternating current, consisting of an iron core, or f rame, 
on which is wound two circuits. One of these con- 
sists of a few turns of thick wire, and the other of a 
large number of turns of fine wire wound close to- 
gether, but insulated from each other; the thick wire 
being connected to the generator and the fine wire to 
the line. Every alternation of current through the 
winding connected to the generator induces a current 
in that connected to the line; but the voltage in the 
line coil, or secondary, is higher than that in the pri- 
mary, in proportion as the number of turns of the fine 
wire is greater than that of the thick wire. 

Thus a dynamo giving alternating current at 13,200 
volts is conected to a transformer that "steps up" the 
voltage to 44,000 volts, at which pressure it is trans- 
mitted along the railroad to a sub-station where an- 
other transformer is situated, by which the pressure 
is "stepped down" to 11,000 volts. At this voltage it 
is fed into the overhead conductor for use with A. G. 
locomotives and motor cars. If these, on the other hand, 
are designed for D. C. power, the transformer at the 
receiving station must be supplemented by a rotary 
converter, referred to in the first part of this article. 
Rotary converters usually have an armature, or rotor, 
having two entirely separate systems of circuits, one 
of which connects with collector rings on the A. C. 
side and the other with a commutator and brushes, 
from which direct current power is taken off for the 
third rail or overhead wire. 

According to local governing conditions, some roads 
use one system and some the other. Thus the New 
York Central and Pennsylvania distribute A. C. energy 
from the power stations at 13,200 volts and convert it 
at sub-stations to 650 volts D. C. The New Haven dis- 
tributes A. C. at 22,000 volts, and by the use of special 
transformers supplies it at 11,000 volts to the loco- 

The Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul receives A. C. 
energy at 100,000 volts at the sub-stations, which then 
distributes it as D. C. current at 3,000 volts to the over- 
head wire. It must be remembered that in every trans- 
former of energy, say from 13,000 volts to 44,000, or 
from 2,200 to 110, no energy is created or brought into 
being. It is simply changed in voltage, or transformed 
from one voltage to another, but the energy before or 
after the change remains the same. A current of 200 
amperes at 13,000 volts, if transformed up to 52,000 
volts, is correspondingly diminished in quantity to 50 

Hotaiy Corwertt. 



A.C eid 

D.C. end 

3j>tnile ft&nemission A)ie 

Diagram of Typical Power House, Transmission Line, and Sub-Station 

volt A. C. energy to sub-stations located 12 to 20 miles 
apart along the road, and at each sub-station convert 
A. C. power into low tension D. C. power at 650 volts. 

Where A. C. energy is to be transmitted at a voltage 
higher than that for which it is practicable to design 
a generator, the output of the latter is raised by a 
transformer to the desired value, and lowered at the 
sub-station in a similar manner. 

A transformer (called also a static transformer, be- 
cause it is stationary and does not move, nor has it 

amperes, or less. This latter quantity, however, can 
be distributed by a smaller wire than the former in the 
ratio of 1 to 4. This smaller wire is the secret of 
success of high-tension A. C. transmission. 


High art consists neither in altering nor in improv- 
ing nature; but in seeking throughout nature for "what- 
soever things are lovely, and whatsoever things are 
pure." — Modern Painters. 

April, 1916 



Factors Causing Variable Tractive Effort of Electric Motors 


Difference Between the Constant Tractive Effort of a Steam Loco- 
motive and the Variable Tractive Effort of an Electric Motor 

Electricity is being introduced here and there as a 
motive power on steam railroads, and since the electric 
locomotive is entirely different in principle from the 
steam locomotive, a few remarks as to the calculation 
of tractive effort developed by electric locomotives, and 
a few words comparing the electric locomotive and the 
steam locomotive, should be of interest. 

The tractive effort of the electric locomotives, as for 
the steam locomotives, is the power developed at the 
rim of the drivers. The tractive effort of the steam 
locomotive is obtained from the following formula: 

d 2 X s X 85% P 

Where T 






= Tractive Effort 

= diameter of cylinder in inches 

= stroke in inches 

= boiler pressure in pounds 

= diameter of drivers in inches 

From this formula it is noted that the only variable 
part is the boiler pressure, and since the boiler has its 
limits in size, due to the design and railroad condi^ 
tions, there is a maximum tractive effort which can be 
obtained from the steam locomotive, and this maximum 
tractive effort is at the point when the boiler is deliver- 
ing its maximum pressure and maximum output of 

In the case of the electric locomotives, there are cer- 
tain fixed conditions, namely, the diameter of the driv- 
ers and also the mechanical connection between the 
electric motors and the drivers. This connection may 
be a one to one ratio as in the case of the Pennsylvania 
Railroad electric locomotive, which is driven by a jack- 
shaft and side rod, the drivers revolving one revolu- 
tion for each revolution of the motor, or the motors 
may actuate the drivers through gearing where the 
motor revolves usually about four to six times for each 
revolution of the driver. 

The tractive effort at the rims of the drivers, there- 
fore, bears a fixed relation to the power given out by 
the electric motor. However, the power given out by 
the motor is not a maximum fixed value, as in the case 
of the steam locomotive, which depends on the boiler 
pressure admitted to the cylinder, but covers a wide 
range, and is only limited by the amount of electric 
current which it is safe to put through the motor. The 
power developed by the motor, or as known to electrical 
engineers as torque, is directly, and approximately, as 
the value of current fed to the motor, i. e., the torque 
from the motor with 500 amperes, will be only one-half 
of the torque if 1,000 amperes were fed through the 
motor. Since the electric locomotive receives power 
for the motors from an outside source, such as a third 
rail or overhead wire, this source of supply being prac- 
tically unlimited, compared with the capacity of the 
locomotive, a tractive effort of any amount can be ob- 
tained from the electric locomotive, and is not limited 
to a maximum value as in the case of the steam loco- 
motive where the boiler pressure is fixed. 

Therefore, in calculating the tractive effort for elec- 
tric locomotives, it is necessary to know the character- 

istics of the motor. For this purpose, characteristic 
curves are always drawn up for the motor under con- 
sideration, these characteristic curves showing the re- 
lation between the revolutions, torque and the electric 
current taken by the motor. When this motor is ap- 
plied to an electric locomotive, with certain fixed me- 
chanical relations between the motor and the drivers, 
i. e., either by side rods, gearing or a combination of 
each, a set of curves, known as the characteristic curve 
of the electric locomotive, would be drawn up with the 
torque of the motor shown in terms of tractive effort 
at the drivers. A set of these curves is shown by 
Fig. 1, which is the curve for one motor. 

On the locomotive in operation on one of the large 
steam railroads, there are four of these motors per loco- 
motive, so that the tractive effort for these locomotives 
under any particular consideration will be four times 
that as shown on the curves. 

The characteristic curves illustrated in Fig. 1 are 
used in two ways. For instance, it is easily calculated, 
or rather the result is easily obtained, as to the amount 


Amficrcs /ier Motor 
Fig. 1. Diagram of Speed and Tractive Effort 

of current taken by the electric locomotives when de- 
veloping a certain tractive effort. As an illustration: 
the locomotive may be called upon to move a certain 
weight of train up a certain grade. We know from 
tests the resistance required to pull the locomotive it- 
self and also the trailing load up this known per cent 
grade, and thus we can obtain the tractive effort re- 
quired of the electric locomotive. This will then be so 
much tractice effort per motor, and, for instance, under 
particular conditions this amounts to 6,500 lbs. Re- 
ferring to the curve, the tractive effort scale is shown 
at the left. Projecting this value to the tractive effort, 
curve "B," it is noted that 650 amperes are taken per 
motor and the locomotive will run at a speed of 20 
miles an hour. 

Working in the other direction, a certain current can 
be selected and the tractive effort and speed for this 
current can be obtained from these curves. As men- 
tioned above, the electric locomotive has no fixed maxi- 



April, 1916 

mum tractive effort, it all depends on the amount of 
current being put through the motor. Of course, there 
is a maximum current which each motor can stand, 
but this amount of current depends wholly on the time 
in which it is fed to the motor, and the larger amount 
of current, the shorter time it can safely be kept on 
the motor. 

With these characteristics, the electric locomotive 
has, therefore, a great advantage in being able to exert 
a large maximum tractive effort, but it is not able to 
maintain this tractive effort continuously on account 
of the damage which would result to the motors. This 
then brings out the point that the motor has, or the 
locomotive in this case has, a continuous and an hourly 
rating which does not enter into the calculation with 
the steam locomotive, as the latter is able to maintain 
its maximum tractive effort at slow speed as long as 

As we have seen, the amount of current passing 
through the motor gives the amount of torque and in 
turn the tractive effort available. The coils and wind- 
ings of the electric motor are made up of copper wires 
or bars covered with special tape or other insulation, 
and have a certain resistance to the flow of the electric 
current. This resistance causes heat to be generated 
which is conducted away by the radiation and by the 
iron which makes up the motor, and thus a certain con- 
stant temperature will be reached when a certain con- 
stant current is flowing through the motor continue 
ously. The tractive effort, determined as in above ex- 
planation, for this amount of current determines the 
continuous tractive effort of the electric locomotive. A 
much larger current can be used providing that the 
same is not kept on the motor more than one hour, and 
this, calculated in terms of tractive effort of the loco- 
motive, would be the hourly tractive effort rating of 
the electric locomotive. 

From the above, it can be clearly seen why in specify- 
ing an electric locomotive, the work this locomotive 
will have to do must be studied very carefully so that 
it will be equipped with motors of such size that the 
locomotive will handle the work required without over- 


Maintenance of Foundation Brakes 

Things Seemingly Unimportant, are Found to be 
Essential when Intelligently Examined by the Expert 

The most vital parts of a brake are the rods, levers, 
brake-beams and attachments, through which the power, 
no matter how perfect, passes. No matter how perfect 
the brake shaft and its connections, and the triple 
valve brake cylinders may be, the best work of the brake 
is not realized unless the parts which transmit the 
power to the wheels are all in good condition and are 
in their proper positions. 

This idea thus expressed forms the opening words of 
the address given by Mr. Charles Page, Air Brake In- 
spector on the N. Y. C, at a recent meeting of the 
Niagara Frontier Car Men's Association. He con- 
tinued by pointing out there are no rules prescribed 
governing the lengths of brake rods, neither is there 
any information given out generally outlining the proper 
proportion of brake levers and it appears to be a mat- 
ter that inspectors and repairmen are not generally 
familiar with. Cars are placed on repair tracks and re- 
ceive brake repairs, and when completed there is a 
possibility under present conditions of having a dif- 
ferent brake pressure on each pair of wheels. 

It is the practice to remove the triple valve for test 

where sliding occurs and if found all right it is replaced, 
but there are times when the leverage governing the 
braking power is not checked to see that the power is 
evenly distributed. It is acknowledged that the great- 
est defect on hand brakes today, is the uneven amount 
of slack in brake chains and until the brake rigging is 
properly applied and adjusted, it will continue to give 

There is another thing, which is often wrongly done, 
and that is the use the dead lever guide is put to. Its 
purpose is to take up the slack caused by brake shoe 
wear, but most repairmen utilize it to take up the slack 
existing on the levers, instead of adjusting the brakes 
at the bottom connection, and this leaves no room to 
take up the brake shoe wear. When applying a top rod, 
care should be taken to see that the push rod is forced 
back into the cylinder as far as it will go, and the 
cylinder lever should be at right angles. The push 
rod should be up against the piston head; if not, it is 
too short. If the cylinder lever cannot be placed at the 
proper angle, on account of the push rod striking piston 
head, the push rod is too long. 

Regarding the matter of levers to determine the di- 
mensions of levers to be used on a freight car, we 
should take 60 per cent of the light weight, assumed 
32,000 lbs. This gives a total braking power of 19,200 
lbs., and divided by 4, which is the number of brake 
beams, it shows a strain of 4,800 lbs. on each beam. 
The truck lever dimensions usually employed are 8 x 24 
ins. Next multiply 4,800 by 8, which is the weight of 
arm of truck lever, and divide by the total length, 
which is 32 ins., which is power arm of truck lever, 
this gives a pull of 1,200 lbs. on the top rod; and this, 
multiplied by the total length of cylinder lever, which 
we assume to be 25 ins., and divide by 3,700 lbs., which 
includes 1,200 lbs., the pull on top rod, and 2.500 lbs., 
the force exerted on piston, gives 8, 4/37 ins., or the 
length of the power arm of cylinder lever. Substract- 
ing 8, 4/37 ins., the length of power arm, from the total 
length, or 25 ins., leaves 16, 33/37 ins., which is the 
length of the weight arm. 

This may seem to be a big problem, but no car can be 
poperly tested and adjusted if it is equipped with im- 
proper rods and levers, and when once a carman is ac- 
quainted with these requirements, the matter of proper 
foundation brake gear will be realized; it will be in- 
teresting 1 to carmen, to figure out or compute this lever- 
age, as everyone wishes to learn the finer points of his 
vocation and to become thoroughly efficient in his work. 

What I have dealt with thus far might be termed the 
scientific feature of the brake arrangement, but we 
should not lose sight of the fact that careful attention 
should be given to the brake lever key bolts to see 
if they are worn, and also to brake levers, to determine 
if holes in them are elongated, in which event, they 
should be replaced. There are other things that cause 
too much slack in the brake rigging, such as worn 
brake heads, long body rods, short truck brake con- 
nections, loose cylinder and reservoir brackets. Care- 
ful attention should be given to detect these condi- 
tions and, of course, the matter of brake adjustment 
should be followed up at all times. 

It may interest some of our readers to know that the 
National railways of Chile have asked for bids covering 
the construction of central workshops in San Bernardo. 
The plans and specifications may be obtained on appli- 
cation at the office of the railway company at Santiago. 
The bids will be opened on May 4 next. 

April, 1916 



Electric Lighting of Railway Passenger Cars 

The Various Systems in Use Today. What They Aim to 
Accomplish, how They do it. How the Systems are Cared for 

In presenting a paper on the methods employed at the 
present day for lighting railway passenger cars, Mr. 
E. S. M. Macnab, engineer of electric car lighting on 
the C. P. R., to the Canadian Railway Club at a recent 
meeting said, among other things, that he did not de- 
sire to go into technicalities too deeply. The demand 
for electric lighting had increased for several reasons; 
among them was safety, the possibility of fire from a 
wreck was practically nil where electricity was used. 

Comfort was represented by the possibility of -berth 
lights, and fans could be used in hot weather. The 
electric light was cool and clean and used up no air, 
and these lights could be placed where required and 
could be lighted or turned off as desired. A table show- 
ing the equipment as it stood in 1911 and 1914 is here 
given : 

Table Showing Electrically Lighted Cars, 1911 to 1914 

Railway No. of cars No. of cars Increase in 

Company equipped 1911 equipped 19H cars equip'd 

Pullman Co 2,400 5,800 3,400 

Pennsylvania R. R., E 902 1,924 1,022 

Pennsylvania R. R., W 516 714 198 

N. Y. C. & H. R 202 1,007 805 

N. Y., N. H. &H 350 410 60 

Lehigh Valley 81 384 303 

Great Northern and others 480 650 170 

Total in United States. .10,825 18,572 7,647 

Canadian Pacific Ry 68 359 291 

Grand Trunk 34 164 130 

Grand Trunk Pacific 72 72 

Canadian Northern 14 226 212 

Total in Canada 116 821 705 

Note — Figures of other roads in U. S. A. not included. 

In 1911 the Canadian Pacific Railway had only 68 
electric lighted cars, now they have 380, which includes 
100 per cent of the compartment sleepers and observa- 
tion cars, 85 per cent of the modern sleepers and 60 
per cent of the total number of diners. The large in- 
creases on the Pennsylvania, New York Central Rail- 
road and on the N. Y., N. H. & H. railway are probably 
•due to the tunnels by which they enter New York City, 
gas or oil lighted cars not being permitted to enter 
either of these terminals. From the foregoing figures 
it is apparent that there is a demand for electric light- 
ing in passenger cars, and also that the railway com- 
panies are meeting it in a liberal spirit. 

The systems employed may be divided into three main 
systems, the Straight Storage, Head End and Axle sys- 
tems, and a brief description of each may not be out of 
place. First, the Straight Storage System. This con- 
sists of a set of storage batteries contained in battery 
boxes under each car, the batteries being connected to 
the lamps by wires and controlled by a switch. This is 
certainly the simplest method of lighting, but we find 
the batteries have to be charged at each terminal, or 
after every eighteen or twenty-four hours, which neces- 
sitates the car being held in the terminal yard from 6 
to 10 hours. It is apparent that this system is out of 
the question for transcontinental service. The chief 
user of this system is the Pennsylvania Railway, which 

operates almost sixteen hundred cars on its local trains, 
also baggage and day coaches on most of its through 
services, the dining, sleeping and parlor cars, which 
have a heavy lamp load, being all lighted with the Axle 
System. Another disadvantage which this system en- 
tails is the heavy capital cost of installing the necessary 
battery-charging facilities at all terminals. 

It is interesting to note that at one of the New York 
yards three hundred and fifty outlets have been in- 
stalled, each outlet having a separate pair of wires 
back to a switchboard in the power house. Power is 
obtained from three 250-k.w. motor-generator sets, 
giving 110 and 220 volts. 

The Head End System is a steam-driven generator in 
the baggage car, as close to the locomotive as possible, 
from which it draws steam. The equipment consists of 
a 20 to 25 k.w. turbc-generator, controlled from a 
switchboard from which three main cables run overhead 
throughout the train. As the turbine must stop when 
changing engines or when standing in a terminal before 
the engine is coupled up, storage batteries have to be 
used. The Northern Pacific practice is to install 200- 
amp.-hour batteries on postal car, dynamo car, standard 
sleepers and the observation car of each train. The 
baggageman is instructed so that he can operate the 
electrical equipment. 

A disadvantage here exists, however, that when trains 
are switched off at junctions and others put on, this 
necessitates the installation of electrical apparatus on 
a larger proportion of cars than would otherwise be 
necessary, thus increasing capital and maintenance 
costs. The steam consumption in the turbine is high, 
especially in the winter. On the N. P. axle devices have 
been used, consisting of a large axle-generator driven by 
a Morse silent chain, a generator and a lamp regulator. 
Thirteen trains have been so fitted. 

The next system, and one largely adopted, is the Axle 
System. A generator is driven by a belt from the axle 
and a set of storage batteries go with the outfit. The 
design of the axle device involves overcoming five prob- 
lems. These are (1) Universal polarity, due to the 
change in direction of rotation of the armature, when 
the car reverses the direction in which it runs; (2) The 
maintenance of a constant output in horsepower, irre- 
spective of the speed of the train, after the generator 
reaches its maximum, which is 22 to 25 m.p.h.; (3) The 
lamp voltage must be held constant at the normal volt- 
age, which is 30 in the United States and generally 24 in 
Canada, whilst the generator is running at a voltage of 
40 in the United States and 30 in Canada; (4) The bat- 
teries must receive a sufficient charge to replenish the 
loss of current consumed at terminal stops, but at the 
same time must not overcharge them; (5) An automatic 
arrangement must connect the generator to the batteries 
when the speed of the train is such that the generator 
voltage is equal to that of the battery, and disconnect 
them when the speed falls below that point. To meet 
the foreging conditions there are about a dozen patent 
systems in use in Europe, none of these have ever been 
adopted in this country, with the exception of the Stone 
System, which is extensively used in Canada. In the 
United States there are five principal systems, namely, 
the Gould, Safety, Consolidated, United States and the 
E. S. B. 



April, 1916 

In the Stone System the change of polarity is effected 
by means of a rocking arm which is turned through an 
angle of about 30 degs. by a friction gear attached to 
the end of the armature shaft. Constant output is main- 
tained by means of suspending the generator out of cen- 
ter and by means of a tension screw in the suspension, 
so that it is possible to vary the tension of the belt to 
give the desired watt output. This method of regula- 
tion appears at first sight to be rather crude, but it is 
surprising how well it acts in actual practice. Lamp 
Voltage Control is obtained by the use of two batteries, 
one being charged while the other "floats" across the 
lamps. The floating battery and lamps are supplied 
with current from the generator through fixed resis- 
tances in multiple, which are connected so that when 
certain circuits are switched on, a resistance is also 
switched in multiple with the others; by this means it 
is possible to obtain close regulation with a varying 
lamp load. 

By means of specific gravity tests of the batteries, it 
is possible to regulate the tension of the belt so that 
the total output on the trip will take care of the lamp 
consumption and at the same time keep the batteries 
fully charged. A battery change-over switch is also 
used to reverse the charging and regulating battery at 
each stop. This is operated by a governor attached to 
the end of the armature shaft, in conjunction with the 
friction gear and rocking arm, operating a switch, which 
closes when the generator voltage equals that of the 
battery. The later design of Stone generator involves 
the use of an electrically operated automatic switch 
and pole changer which eliminates the mechanically 
operated switch gear on the generators now in use. 

The Safety and Gould equipments have many points 
in common. The change of polarity is effected in the 
Safety system by means of rocking the brush holder 
through an angle of 90 degs. by means of the friction 
between the brushes and the commutator. In the Gould 
system a double-throw switch is operated by means of a 
"dog" attached to the end of the armature shaft 
engaging a cam when the direction of the rotation is 
changed. In both systems the voltage of the generator 
is held constant by voltage coil connected across the 
brushes, this coil operates a solenoid which, by a lever, 
reduces the pressure in a carbon pile in series with the 
"field." Lamp voltage control is obtained by inserting 
a carbon pile in the lamp circuit, the pressure of the 
discs being regulated by means of a solenoid connected 
across the lamp mains. As the voltage increases, the 
solenoid operates to reduce the pressure on the pile, 
thus increasing the resistance in the circuit. In the 
Gould system a pilot or small carbon pile is introduced 
to operate the large carbon pile with the object of 
giving finer adjustment in the system, the main pile is 
short-circuited when the car is at rest, and allows the 
battery to feed the lamps direct. 

In both systems the voltage of the generator is main- 
tained constant. As the battery becomes charged its 
voltage rises until it equals the generator, when the 
charge is reduced to about 3 amps. A series coil, in 
conjunction with the voltage coil of the generator reg- 
ulator, operates the carbon pile in the field, preventing 
the output exceeding a predetermined amperage. An 
automatic switch, which governs the change from gen- 
erator to battery, is electrically operated, a voltage coil 
being connected across the brushes, which lifts a switch 
when the generator voltage reaches the battery. 

The United States lighting system provides for the 
change in polarity of the generator, by rocking the 
brush holders through an angle of 90 degs. The gen- 
erator regulation is governed by a carbon pile in series 

with the field, which is operated by a solenoid. The 
lamp regulation is also taken care of by a carbon pile 
in series with the lamp circuit, which is operated by a 
shunt coil connected across the lamp mains. A feature 
in this system is the control of the battery charge by the 
ampere hour meter. The later Consolidated equipment 
use a similar arrangement. 

The E. S. B. system presents several features of in- 
terest, using the Rosenberg generator on which the main 
brushes are short-circuited, the armature current being 
collected from two main brushes at 90 degs. to the 
auxiliary short-circuited ones, the polarity of this gen- 
erator always remains the same. The generator voltage 
is constant, irrespective of speed, by a wheatstone 
bridge connected across the field, and as this voltage is 
set to thirty-six, charging 16 cells in series, it is said to 
be impossible to overcharge the batteries. Owing to 
this low charging voltage, the lamp regulator is dis- 
pensed with. It is necessary, however, to use 34-volt 
lamps, which are not a standard. The principal claim 
of this system is that there are no moving parts on the 
generator regulator except the automatic switch, and 
that it is not hard on the battery. The system has been 
applied to a number of cars on the Santa Fe Railway. 

If a number of electricians who operate electric- 
lighting equipments were asked to name the details 
which cause the most trouble, certainly 90 per cent 
would reply, The batteries. The battery is not a source 
of power, but simply retains electrical energy when 
charged from the axle generator or yard plant. It is 
composed of a number of positive and negative lead 
plates which are insulated from each other by means of 
hard rubber or wood separators, these plates being 
immersed in a solution of sulphuric acid, and the whole 
contained in a lead-lined holder. Each set of plates are 
burned on to a bridge to which lead lugs are attached 
for connecting to the next cell. The method of deter- 
mining the state of charge is usually by means of the 
hydrometer. The voltage test is also used, a fully 
charged cell reading 2.2 volts on discharge and grad- 
ually dropping to 1.8 volts per cell on full discharge. 
The capacity depends on the area of these plates, and as 
a rule in car-lighting service, varies from 250 to 350 
amp.-hours at the eight-hour rate. 

To maintain a storage battery in good working con- 
dition it should receive 25 per cent more charge than 
discharge, but continuous overcharging causes the 
plates to buckle and creates an excessive deposit. 
Either of these causes a short circuit. Overcharge 
increases the evaporation of the electrolyte, which, if 
not replaced, causes damage. Undercharge also oper- 
ates adversely, as the action of acid on the plates in a 
discharged condition forms sulphate of lead, which 
reduces the capacity of the cell. A charge in a set of 
batteries gradually leaks out when left standing for a 
long time, and cars should not be stored where there 
are no charging facilities existing if it is possible to 
avoid it. Current may leak to the earth through the 
lead-lined tanks. At the point of leakage a hole is 
eventually formed through electrolytic action. This 
happening in one cell will probably start the rest in 
that battery box. To prevent this, the outside of the 
cells and floor of the battery boxes as dry as possible 
and also insulated from the metal work of the cars. 

The question of organization is the chief factor to 
be determined if efficient results are to be obtained, in 
fact it is difficult to convince some managements that 
such is even required. To illustrate the capital ex- 
penditure and maintenance costs, take, for example, a 
road having 400 electric-lighted cars. As each installa- 
tion will cost, say $1,500, we have a total expenditure 

April, 1916 



of $600,000, of which $800 per car or a total of $320,000 
is liable to be permanently destroyed through want of 
attention. Again let us consider the maintenance cost 
per car per month. Assuming a total of 400 cars at a 
cost of $12 per car per month, we have a cost of $4,800 
per month, or $57,600 per annum. To show how these 
costs may be increased or reduced, a few figures may 
serve to illustrate the effects of closely watching the 
performance of the equipments. Suppose that by bet- 
ter handling we save one lamp per car per month, we 
effect a saving of $180 per month, or $2,160 a year. As 
to the battery, a conservative estimate will place the 
life of a set at five years. Assuming we have twenty- 
four batteries per equipment and we increase their life 
by one year, taking the cost of the batteries as $630, we 
have : 

Depreciation at 5 years $126 per annum 

Depreciation at 6 years 105 " 

Saving per car $21 " 

Multiply by 400 cars and we have $8,400 a year saved. 
As to belt life, a saving of one belt per car per annum 
will approximate $5 for each car in a year, or $2,000 
on 400 cars. 

Summarizing we have: 
Saving of one lamp per car per month. $2,160 per year 
Extending life of batteries by one year 8,400 
Saving one belt per car per annum. . . . 2,000 

$12,560 per year 

The above reasoning may be applied to various de- 
tails of the equipments which would increase the 
amounts saved, but the figures in themselves show what 
may be saved or lost through properly handling or 
neglecting the equipments, setting aside the discom- 
fort caused to passengers due to light failures. 

The work which has been accomplished by the Asso- 
ciation of Railway Electrical Engineers, in conjunction 
with the train-lighting committee of the Master Car 
Builders' Association and the various manufacturers, 
has resulted in the working out of various standards 
and specifications which have assisted in raising the 
art of electric lighting of passenger cars to its present 
satisfactory state. 

* ■ 

Prompt Rise of Brake Cylinder Pressure 

How the Rapid Filling of the Brake Cylinder is 
Accomplished for Various Kinds of Applications 

In the course of a paper on "Recent Developments in 
Brake Engineering Principles," Mr. W. S. Dudley, chief 
engineer of the Westinghouse Air Brake Co., said some 
things on the caption at the head of this article. The 
time elapsing from the instant the valve mechanism on 
a car responds, until the beginning of pressure develop- 
ment in the brake cylinder, delays the effective braking 
on each car. It also lengthens the time of full braking 
force on the train as a whole. 

When a triple valve (PM equipment) acts so as to 
apply the brakes, the compressed air passing from the 
auxiliary reservoir through the triple valve to the brake 
cylinder finds the brake cylinder piston back against the 
pressure head. The piston must be moved, and to do 
that the volume so displaced must be filled from abso- 
lute zero to the pressure of the atmosphere and above, 
before effective pressure can be transmitted to the brake 

For an 8-in. brake cylinder having 8-in. piston travel 
this requires 402 cu. ins. of free air, while two 16-in. 
cylinders, which are used on some heavy cars, with 

8-in. piston travel require 3,216 cu. ins. or exactly eight 
times as much. The time lost in the filling of the cylin- 
ders would be correspondingly greater if the same size 
ports were used for all cylinders. The valves for the 
larger cylinders are made with proportionately larger 
ports. The ports in the triple valves must be large 
enough to permit the pressure in the auxiliary reservoir 
of the largest equipments to drop at the same rate as 
for the smallest, since both have to conform to the rate 
of drop in brake pipe pressure. 

With the LN equipment the quick service venting of 
some air from the brake pipe to the cylinders, supple- 
menting that coming from the auxiliary reservoir, tends 
to compensate for the piston displacement effect, but 
does not eliminate it. 

Considering the requirements of ordinary steam rail- 
road passenger service, the possible delay of from 1 to 
1% seconds in filling the cylinder is negligible when 
making service stops, in which the time required to 
make a full service application may vary from 7 or 8 
seconds up to 10 or 20 seconds, according to the length 
of the train. 

In emergency applications, where time is important, 
the quick venting of a considerable amount of brake 
pipe air to the brake cylinders and the use of large sup- 
plementary reservoirs and large ports reduces the ef- 
fect of the piston displacement to a negligible amount. 

Another source of delay in starting the service brak- 
ing action on each car lies in the time required to cause 
the various parts of the apparatus to move. In the PM 
and LN equipments this is not great, as they move by a 
drop of 1% to 3 lbs. in the brake pipe, and this takes 
place within the first second. Trouble often results 
from this very sensitiveness. If brakes apply on a 2 
or 3-lb. drop of pressure on account of a slight over- 
charge, unavoidable brake pipe pressure fluctuations 
may be caused by a sluggish feed valve, or it may come 
from too light an application, and such brakes are likely 
to stick. 

For this reason a stability feature has been incor- 
porated in the later PC and UC brake equipments so 
that from 4 to 7-lb. brake pipe reduction must be made 
before effective brake pressure is obtained. The elim- 
ination of the chance of stuck brake trouble is an ad- 
vantage which is worth some sacrifice. As a matter of 
fact the cylinder pressure obtained with equipments 
not having this feature, these slight reductions are 
not enough to push the shoes against the wheels, even 
though there is pressure admitted to the brake cylin- 
ders. Beyond this point the building up of pressure is 
the same with or without the stability device, so that 
nothing is lost in the rate of pressure building when a 
bona fide service reduction of more than the predeter- 
mined minimum is made, and at the same time protec- 
tion is afforded against stuck brakes or slow release, 
which may follow very light brake pipe reductions with 
equipments not having the stability feature. 

As to the rate of rise of brake cylinder pressure it 
may be said that air flowing out of the auxiliary to the 
brake cylinder, is automatically governed by the triple 
valve so that the reduction in auxiliary reservoir' press- 
ure is made to take place uniformly with that of the 
brake pipe. Consequently the time required to obtain 
full cylinder pressure is substantially the same as that 
occupied in making a full service brake pipe reduction. 
This is limited by the design of the brake valve and 
equalizing reservoir, and it becomes a minimum time 
of from 5% to 6% seconds from 110 lbs. initial brake 
pipe pressure, 7 seconds to 9 seconds from 70 lbs., the 
time becoming longer than this for all pneumatically 
controlled brakes as the length of the train is greater. 



April, 1916 

This limiting rate has been determined by years of 
experience and study of the requirements for proper 
service braking. A pneumatically controlled brake 
which permits the retarding force to be built up more 
rapidly than this in service applications, gives the en- 
gineman no chance to use his judgment and skill. The 
bad effects of slack and of the time elapsing between 
the action of the brakes on successive cars are magni- 
fied, and this tends to increase shocks, especially with 
the long trains of heavy cars. 

One important factor is often overlooked : the effect 
of the brake rigging in causing the piston travel to be 
short when the pressure in the brake cylinder is low 
and permitting it to lengthen as the cylinder pressure 
increases. The size of the auxiliary reservoir (and 
magnetic valve-choke for electro pneumatic operations) 
must necessarily be suitable for proper results with 
some particular piston travel. Variations from the 
proper and intended results are therefore certain to 
follow when the piston travel differs from that for 
which the equipment was designed, viz. : Eight inches 
running travel with a full service brake cylinder pres- 

There is always some stretching taking place as pres- 
sure is built up with even the best brake rigging. On 
a large proportion of the cars there is a considerable 
additional travel of the piston after the shoes are first 
brought against the wheels. 

The result is that (proportionally) considerably 
higher pressures are obtained for light than for heavy 
brake pipe reductions, the light applications not pro- 
ducing pressure enough in the brake cylinder to push 
the piston out of the standard travel used in establish- 
ing the volume of the auxiliary reservoir. While it is 
possible that this shorter than standard travel is an in- 
dication of efficiency in the brake rigging, tending to 
neutralize the excess of pressure over that intended for 
the light reductions, it is not always true, nor is the in- 
efficiency necessarily any less after the piston reaches 
the intended travel under heavier pressures. 

It is of great importance to keep the relation between 
cylinder pressure and piston travel clearly in mind 
when comparing theoretical with actual results, as well 
as when designing and installing brake rigging from 
which highly efficient performance is desired. 

The simultaneous action of electrically controlled air 
brakes permits of a more rapid rate of service applica- 
tion than with the pneumatic brakes and there is less 
danger of rough handling, and less skill and judgment 
are required to produce a given result. Another im- 
portant advantage secured by the electric control is the 
possibility of making the brakes apply uniformly on all 
cars in the train. This is impossible with the ordi- 
nary brake, which causes the brake on the head end of 
the train to apply before those on the rear. With elec- 
tric control the same service rate of brake application 
is produced on trains of all lengths, and a given han- 
dling of the brake valve will produce the same braking 
results, whether the train is short or long. 

For emergency applications the maximum cylinder 
pressure is imperatively required in the least possible 
time. The high speeds, heavy cars requiring large brake 
cylinders, and long trains of today have imposed severe 
handicaps upon this feature of the brake and have ne- 
cessitated the adoption of apparatus, reservoirs and con- 
nections of ample size such that large volumes of com- 
pressed air can be admitted very quickly to the brake 
cylinders. The increased capacity of modern brake 
equipments in this direction can best be realized by 
comparing the time required by the High Speed (PM) 
brake equipment on a 60-ton car, using a 16-in. brake 

cylinder, to reach its maximum of about 80 lbs. pressure 
(110 per cent braking ratio) which is about 6 seconds, 
with that of the Universal valve (UC) equipment which 
reaches its maximum of 100 lbs. cylinder pressure (150 
per cent braking ratio) in about 2 seconds. The possi- 
bility of filling the same cylinder volume with 20 per 
cent more air in one-third the time required by the best 
brake equipment of ten years ago is what is now done. 
During the P. R. R. brake tests of 1913, this was dem- 
onstrated to be one of the most important of the several 
directions in which the maximum attainable effective- 
ness had to be utilized if the heaviest modern trains are 
to be stopped by emergency applications in the same 
distances which were possible with the trains of ten to 
fifteen years ago. 

* — 

Electricity for the Railway Mechanic 


First Aid Suggestions for Workmen as 
to How to Handle Troubles in Shop 

Of recent years the installation of electric motors, 
head-lights and other electrical apparatus and equip- 
ment in the railroad shops has surpassed all other 
methods or modes of applying motive power for driving 
machine tools, line shafts, wood working machinery and 
furnishing light; and while this equipment has been 
in use for some time it is not as fully understood as it 






Fig. 1. Balancing an Armature 

might be. The correct method of operation and main- 
tenance, to obtain the maximum efficiency at the lowest 
operating cost, has not yet been completely reached. 

In many shops where no electrician is kept on con- 
stant duty, the mechanical force oftain maintain the 
electrical equipment to the extent of their ability, and 
from this point of view it will be our endeavor to show, 
in plain language, how the shop mechanic with com- 
mon intelligence can still go farther in helping to re- 
duce operating expenses by the proper maintenance of 
?uch electrical equipment as may come under his care. 
There is no more mysterious element in connection with 
the handling of electricity than there is with work in 
any other calling, each must be learned. Knowing how 
to locate trouble quickly on a motor has no more mys- 
tery than knowing how much counter balance should 
be placed on the driving wheels of a locomotive or 
knowing how to find out how much will be required. 
One of the cases of trouble that often occurs with a 

April. 7916 



motor is when the rotating element becomes unbal- 
anced from minor repairs and causes vibration of the 
timbers or machine on which it rests. Such a case as 
this should be treated in practically the same manner 
as balancing the driving wheels, only on a smaller 
scale. To do this the rotating element should be re- 
moved and rested on its bearings, on two perfectly lev- 
eled surfaces so that the heavy part will seek its posi- 
tion, which will be the bottom side, on account of grav- 
ity. There are two ways in common use for balancing 
an armature or rotor, one is by the cut-and-try method 
and the other is my weighing. To use the first method 
a weight should be fastened to the top part exactly 
opposite the heavy side; this weight should be a little 
too heavy so that it will be necessary to keep cutting 
off parts until the rotor will rest in any position it is 
placed in, on its two leveled supports. This method is 
the one used most often. The second method would be 
to attach a piece of very light wood to the rotor, par- 
allel to the axis on the heavy side as at point A, Fig. 1, 
and then turn the armature or rotor 90 degs. or to the 
position shown by the dotted line B in the figure, the 
reading from the scale S would be made, and then sub- 
tract one-half the weight of the wood used as an arm, 
the result should be the amount of counterweight to 
apply at the opposite side marked light side, in the 
figure shown. 

The removing of an armature or rotor from a motor, 
no doubt, causes quite a large percentage of the 
troubles with the windings due to carelessness on the 
part of those handling the rotor. A good rule to follow 
in removing these rotors is, that both ends of the shaft 
should have support at all times and that the rotor 
should be withdrawn or pulled out exactly in a straight 
line, parallel to the bearings of the motor. Should the 
end-housing of a large motor be removed and no means 
of support be provided for that end of the shaft, there 
is a chance of bending the other end of the rotor-shaft 
or breaking of a bearing-lining. Where very large ar- 
matures are to be removed, as in the case of those such 
as are in use on gas-electric cars, a sling may be fas- 
tened around the pinion end of the armature, supported 
by chain hoist so as to carry the weight of that end 
of the armature until the housing is unbolted, and then 
the sling and armature can be slid along, parallel to the 
motor bearings, until the shaft is nearly out of the 
opposite bearing. By this time there will be room be- 
tween the motor end-housing and the frame to allow 
either a sling or some kind of support to be placed un- 
der the body of the armature, then it can be removed 
entirely from the frame; the workman must remember 
all the time not to rub the rotor against the frame part 
of the motor, which is a source of producing winding 
troubles. A very practical method in use is to have a 
long extension arm to fasten on the pinion after the 
sling has been placed on the body of the rotor; this 
extension arm is then used as a lever, and the sling, 
the fulcrum and the rotor would be the weight. By 
using these methods a very heavy armature can be re- 
moved by two men after the first time or so within one 
hour. This is no doubt much less than half of the 
time usually consumed in doing this work. Where the 
rotor or armature is light and can be lifted by one 
man, or even by two, it is not necessary to use any 
sling, but the same precautions should be taken 
whether the motor is one-half or 200 horse power. 

There is probably no other class of electrical machin- 
ery in use where the bearings play such ah essential 
part as they do with the motor or generator. Mostly all 
classes of machines will run and operate fully as well 
with a bearing that is considerably worn, but this is 

not true with a motor, because as soon as the bearing 
commences to wear the rotor is thrown out of the ex- 
act center, and this will cause an uneven distribution 
of magnetic flux and cause an undue heating in that 
part of the windings that are the nearest to the rotor. 
There are many cases on record where trouble has oc- 
curred to the windings in this part of the machine 
when the rotor was allowed to get too near them. An- 
other reason for not allowing much wear on motor bear- 
ings is that there is but very little clearance between 
the rotor and the stator or frame part. No matter for 
what reason a motor is taken apart, whether to repair 
the armature or the stator, the bearings should be 
checked before it is taken apart to see if the clearances 
are evenly distributed, and if they are not repairs 
should be made to the bearings at the same time. The 
babbiting or re-lining of a motor box should not be 
thought of as just a common piece of machine work 
because it differs from this in more than one respect. 

Common babbit should not be used. Accuracy to the 
one-thousandth of an inch is required. No air holes 
should be allowed in the running surfaces. 

There are several different ways to re-babbit a motor 
bearing that have proved successful; however, only two 
of the most commonly use methods can be mentioned 
here. One method is to take off the end-housing where 
it is in two parts and place pieces of sheet tin in the 
air-gap, just enough to place the rotor in a central posi- 
tion as shown in diagram Fig. 2. These supports should 
extend the entire length of the rotor so as to keep and 

' Stt MoYf% 

Fig. 2. Babbitting, by Keeping Rotor Central 

hold it level, and after it has been supported and the 
old babbit melted out of the boxing the lower half of 
the housing should be replaced on the motor frame to 
support the boxing of that half, and poured, using the 
motor shaft as a mandrel. The shaft should be wiped 
perfectly clean with waste dampened in light oil before 
pouring and heated a little with a torch. In most all 
cases if a good hard babbit or white bronze is used, 
the shrinkage will be enough to allow for clearance. 
After the first half is poured the same process is gone 
through with the top boxing, as the two parts of the 
end-housings are always interchangeable to allow mo- 
tors to be supported bottom side up. The oil grooves 
should then be cut and the clay or putty filling should 
all be cleaned out and the motor re-assembled. 

The other method is to have a mandrel turned up on 
a lathe, to the exact diameter of the shaft, and then 
pour around this, or one may have a tapering mandrel 
of smaller diameter than the shaft and then turn out 
the babbit to the correct shaft diameter. The latter 
method is recommended, as accurate work can be done 
along the entire length of the bearing, but for places 
out in yards and away from machine shops the first 
method has given good results. 



April, 1916 

The following are mechanical defects that would 
cause trouble with motor bearings, and particular at- 
tention should be given all motor bearings when first 
starting the machine. Excessive belt tension is the 
most common. A motor does not need a belt any tighter 
than is necessary to allow it to pull its load without the 
belt slipping, and the load should be pulled from the 
bottom side of the pulley if the motor can be so placed. 
Poor or insufficient lubrication is often the cause of 
many motor failures. Common black oil such as is 
used to oil car journals, is not good enough for motor 
bearings. It has been the writer's experience fre- 
quently to find this kind of oil being used around mo- 
tors on turntables, air-compressor motors and others 
that are maintained by shop mechanics. Motor bear- 
ings require a good grade of light oil, such as is usu- 
ally kept at railroad shops, and therefore there is no 
good excuse for using inferior oils. Lubricants which 
give satisfactory results are Dynamo Oil, to be used as 
it comes; Gas Engine oil, add about one-fifth part of 
good valve oil; Robinson's engine oil, to be used as it 
comes. Any of the three mentioned oils are adaptable 
for use on any type of electric motor or dynamo, but an 
inferior oil will always endanger the safety of motor 
bearings, and as a rule will in the end be more expen- 
sive than any good lubricant, because inferior oil tends 
to produce hot bearings, which means a stopping of 

There are very few cases where insufficient lubrica- 
tion has been the cause of trouble, as in most cases it 
has been over-sufficient lubrication, that is, finding the 
bearings to the extent of getting the oil in the wind- 
ings, which in time causes trouble in them. There is 
one thing that should be impressed on the minds of all 
members of the shop force, and that is, whenever a 
motor is to be placed on a wall or bottom side up, the 
end-housings should be turned 180 degs. around so that 
the oil wells will be in the correct position. Poor level- 
ing or aligning of a motor will often cause the bearings 
to run hot. The rotor in any motor if properly leveled 
should have a little end play. A bent shaft caused by 
poor management in removing the rotor, or caused by 
reversing the motor while in motion, will also cause 
considerable trouble. These four mentioned causes of 
trouble are in nearly all cases avoidable if any precau- 
tion is taken by the shop force to intelligently handle 
this kind of work. 

A motor bearing will probably operate hotter than 
any other kind and still cause little trouble. This is 
on account of the better quality of metal used in mak- 
ing the bearing; however, a limit is reached about 200 
degs. Fahr., and prompt attention should be given at 
that time, if not before. 

One other point worthy of mention before leaving 
the question of motor bearings and heating of the same, 
and that is, after once a motor has been put in opera- 
tion by the electrical department and the motor is car- 
rying its load with satisfaction it should not be the 
practice of any one to put more load on the motor, un- 
less a test is run to make sure that it will stand the 
excess load. It is not like other machines in this re- 
spect that are used in railroad shops. Additional load 
means additional heating to all electrical equipment, 
and all this kind of equipment is rated on the number 
of degrees raised in temperature. Additional heating 
caused by overloading will within a very short time 
bake the windings to such an extent that the insula- 
tion will char and burn, thereby stopping the motor. 
Almost any motor will pull two or three times its rated 
horse power for a very short time without damage, but 
no motor will do this continually without the insulation 
eventually breaking down. 

Safety First on the N. C. & St. L. 

The president of the Nashville, Chattanooga & St. 
Louis Railway, Mr. John Howe Peyton, writing to the 
Railway Master Mechanic, says in effect that the cam- 
paign for safety will be conducted along practically the 
same lines as has been followed by various other rail- 
road companies, i. e., by the organization of local safety 
committees on our several divisions, and of a central 
safety committee, to be composed of general officers of 
the company. The local committees will hold monthly 
meetings, at which will be discussed and decided ques- 
tions relating to matters of personal safety. Questions 
arising at these local meetings that cannot be disposed 
of by that body are to be referred to the central safety 
committee for final action. It is our purpose that the 
local committees shall be composed largely of men of 
the rank and file, and through this medium we hope to 
educate the men to the point where preventable acci- 
dents will be very materially reduced. The office of 
the department of safety will keep in close touch with 
the accident situation and endeavor to analyze each 
case and place before our employes the cause of, and 
the remedy for, avoidable accidents. This will be done 
in such a way as, if possible, to prevent a recurrence. 
We will have bulletin boards at various points along 
the line, where they will do the most good, for the pur- 
pose of keeping constantly before employes striking 
examples of thoughtless and careless practices as may 
be indulged in by the average railroad employe. This 
office will also furnish to the heads of various depart- 
ments, with statements at regular intervals, indicating 
the manner in which accidents are occurring. In the 
event that accidents on our line increase at any par- 
ticular point, special investigation will be made with a 
view of determining what action, if any, should be 
taken for the elimination thereof. 

We have not yet definitely decided what course we 
will pursue in an effort to suppress trespassing on our 
line. However, this is a very important matter and will 
be given careful consideration just as soon as we have 
the movement perfected among our own employes. 

Some Good Sized Figures 

There are at present 23,707 employes on the Panama 
Canal and the Panama Railroad, made up of 3,595 white 
Americans and 20,112 laborers. With the exception of 
185, all the laborers are West Indian negroes. In a 
recent month material to the value of $943,280.23 came 
forward in 36 steamships, the total weight of which, 
outside of piling and lumber, was 26,255 tons. 

There were more than 5,000,000 feet, board meas- 
ure, of lumber in these consignments, 22,876 linear feet 
of creosoted piling, 172,023 bags of cement, 4,800 cases 
of dynamite and 60,929 barrels of fuel oil. It requires 
a vast army of men and enormous quantities of material 
to build and maintain this gigantic piece of govern- 
ment work. 


Preparedness for Promotion 

The man who achieves success and secures advance- 
ment always does more than he is paid to do; that is 
the kind of man any firm wants. No employer will hire 
a man unless he can make money out of him, and the 
more money he can make, the better pleased the em- 
ployer is with the man and the more desirous he is to 
advance him. This is one of the paths to success — do 
more than you are paid to do, and — do it cheerfully. — 

April, 1916 



Comparison of Railway Electric Locomotives 


Historical Review of their Adoption, Character- 
istics of Types, and theV arious Types Compared 

At the beginning of the year 1916 there were 372 
miles of steam railroad line in the United States being 
operated by 267 electric locomotives. More than 300 
additional miles were about to be equipped for electric 
power. This enumeration comprises eleven different 
railroads, and in the following article an attempt has 
been made to review the situation and point out in what 
features the electric systems installed on the various 
roads differ from one another, and to show the charac- 
teristics of each, without favor or discrimination. 

The first road to use electric power was the Baltimore 
& Ohio, which in 1895 introduced direct current loco- 
motives of 1,440 horse-power to haul trains through the 
Baltimore tunnel. In 1902, elevated, and in 1904 sub- 

ried out. In that year the New York Central and the 
New York, New Haven & Hartford began running 
electric locomotives out of New York City — the former 
to High Bridge, 7 miles, and Wakefield, I^ 1 /^ miles; and 
the latter to Stamford, Conn., 33 miles away. Both 
these roads use the same tracks for 12 miles out of 
New York, and as each adopted a different system of 
electric power the locomotives of one of the roads had 
to be designed for use on both systems. The New 
York Central electric engines installed direct current 
locomotives taking 600-volt energy from a third rail. 
The New Haven locomotives were designed for 11,000- 
volt A. C. energy supplied from an overhead conductor. 
Ordinarily A. C. motors will not run properly on direct 

P. R. R. Electric Locomotive, Without Cab, Showing Arrangement of Countershafts for Direct Drive. 

way lines and portions of the Long Island Railroad 
were equipped. This group of lines, however, did not 
employ electric locomotives, but motor cars. It is in- 
teresting to note that the improvement of motors and 
the development of control apparatus by that time had 
made possible the operation of trains of motor cars 
controlled by one motorman on any car in a train. This 
is called the "multiple-unit system." It was not until 
1906 that further electrification of steam roads was car- 

current; but by a modification of the motor windings 
the New Haven engines were adapted to direct current 
and equipped with shoes for collecting that kind of 
energy from the third rail when running over the New 
York Central tracks. As soon as they reach the New 
Haven rails, 12 miles out from the Grand Central 
Terminal, the trolley is raised so as to take A. C. power 
from the overhead wire, and the motors run as A. C. 
motors. There is some loss of efficiency in such ma- 



April, 1916 

Side View of Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Electric Locon otive. 

chines owing to their adaptation to both kinds of cur- 
rent; but they do the work required of them and handle 
the traffic in a highly satisfactory manner. During the 
ten years that have elapsed since the New York Central 
and the New Haven installations, while larger and more 
powerful engines have been introduced for both roads, 
there has been an interesting demonstration of the suc- 

spot on the road and increasing the capacity of the tun- 
nel. The Butte, Anaconda & Pacific was the first road 
to use higher direct current voltages. This ore road 
put in a 2,400-volt D. C. system with overhead wire in 
1913, and has been followed by the Chicago, Milwaukee 
& St. Paul, which is the first of the great steam roads 
to use 3,000 volts direct current. The St. Paul installa- 
tion and locomotives were described in the December, 
1915, issue of "Railway Master Mechanic." In contrast 
to this, the Norfolk & Western, with its 11,000-volt 
A. C. system and locomotives with polyphase induction 

P. R. R. Electric Locomotive Used at New York 

cessful operation of two kinds of electric locomotives 
on the same tracks; and the elimination of smoke and 
cinders has made travel on these lines pleasanter and 
more comfortable. 

In 1906 the Grand Trunk adopted 3,300-volt A. C. 
power for operating locomotives through the St. Clair 
tunnel between Port Huron and Sarnia. In 1909 the 
Great Northern had four locomotives built for use 
through the Cascade Mountains tunnel. The following 
year the Pennsylvania opened its New York City Ter- 
minal and began hauling all its trains there by 4,000 
horse-power D. C. locomotives. That same year the 
Michigan Central put in 600-volt D. C. power through 
its tunnel between Detroit and Windsor. The Boston 
■& Maine electrified the Hoosac tunnel in 1911, using 
ihe same system as the New Haven, removing a danger 

M. C. R. R. Locomotive Used in Detroit Tunnel 

motors, forms an interesting comparison — see Railway 
Master Mechanic, October, 1915." 

The question of the adoption of A. C. or D. C. power, 
and of the voltage at which the locomotives must work, 
has to be settled for each individual case. Thus, in the 
original New York Central-New Haven installations the 
General Electric engineers designed their New York 
Central motors for third rail current collection; while 
the Westinghouse engineers, owing to the high voltage 
they were using (11,000), were obliged to employ an 
overhead conductor to collect it. The Pennsylvania 
adopted a system similar to that of the New York Cen- 

C, M. & St. P. Electric Locomotive, Showing Wheel Arranjement 

April, 1916 



Articulated New York Central Railroad Electric Locomotive 

tral, although the locomotives, as shown in our illus- 
trations, are totally different. A few years later, how- 
ever, the Pennsylvania decided to electrify its 
suburban zone to Paoli, 20 miles from Philadelphia, 
and adopted motor cars propelled by 11,000-volt A. C. 
power and an overhead conductor through which it was 
supplied — see "Railway Engineering," January, 1916. 

So many factors must be taken into consideration 
when comparing different electric power systems that 
it is difficult to do full justice to any one in contrast to 
others. Much depends upon the local conditions pre- 
vailing on any particular railroad. Distribution of 
power by high tension alternating current direct to 
overhead conductors costs less than to accomplish the 
same result through substations that are necessary 

when direct current locomotives are employed. The 
comparative costs of third rail and overhead wire sys- 
tems must be considered, and the length of line and 
trackage are often determining factors where direct 
current is to be used. Then again, D. C. locomotives 
cost less per horse-power developed, and in addition 
are more powerful per ton of weight than A. C. locomo- 
tives. Yet, in certain instances these considerations 
are outweighed by others more important and that have 
a more direct bearing on the usefulness of an electric 
locomotive for moving traffic. The accompanying table 
and illustrations are intended to show some of the loco- 
motives in successful use and some particulars as to 
their motor arrangement, power, etc., as well as the 
mileage electrified for each road mentioned. 

Table of American Railroads Using Electric Locomotives, Showing Power System, Tractive Effort and Weight 

Miles of 
Road line 

B. & 0. 
(Tunnel) 3 

Power System 

D. C. GOO volts 
Third rail 


4 geared, 275 h. p. each, 
1 hour rating 

Tractive effort 

Maximum 50,000 lbs. 
1 hour rating 26,000 lbs 


200,000 lbs. 
All on drivers 

N. Y. Central 


D. C. GOO volts 
Third rail 

4 gearless, 
550 h. p. each 

Maximum 32,000 lbs. 
1 hour rating 20,400 lbs 

230,000 lbs. 
140,000 on drivers 

N. Y. Central 


D. C. GOO volts 
Third rail 

8 gearless, 325 h. p. 
each, on 1 hour rating 

20,000 lbs. on 
1 hour rating 

220,000 lbs. 
All on drivers 

N. Y. N. II. & H 


A. C. 11.000 volts 
Overhead wire 

4 gearless 
240 h. p. each 
On 1 hour rating 

Maximum 20,000 lbs. 
9,700 lbs. on 
1 hour rating 

'204,000 lbs. 
154,000 on drivers 

N. Y. N. H. & H 


A. C. 11.000 volts 
Overhead wire 

8 geared twin motors 
210 h. p. each 

Maximum 40,000 lbs. 

232,000 lbs. 

Great Northern 

3-phase A. C. 

6,600 volts 

2 overhead wires 

4 geared 

475 h. p. each 

1 hour rating 
47,600 lbs. 

230,000 lbs. 
All on drivers 

Grand Trunk 


A. C. 3,300 volts 
Overhead wire 

3 geared 

240 h. p. each 

22,300 lbs. 

132,000 lbs. 
All on drivers 

Michigan Central 
(Tunnel) 4 

D. C. 600 volts 
Third rail 

4 geared, 275 h. p. each, 
1 hour rating 

35,000 lbs. 

200,000 lbs. 
All on drivers 

B. & M. 



A. C. 11,000 volts 
Overhead wire 

4 geared, 

325 h. p. each 

26,000 lbs. 

260,000 lbs. 
204,000 on drivers 

B. A. & P. 


D. C. 2,400 volts 
Overhead wire 

4 geared 

325 h. p. each 

Maximum 48,000 lbs. 
25,000 lbs. continuous 

160,000 lbs. 
All on drivers 

J/3 in Tunnels 


D. C. GOO volts 
Third rail 

2 2,000 h. p. each con- 
necting rods and coun- 

Maximum 79,000 lbs. 

314,000 lbs. 
200,000 on drivers 

Norfolk & 


A. C. 11,000 volts 
Overhead wire 

8 induction motors, 430 
h. p. each, hourly rat- 
ing. Geared to counter 
shaft in pairs 

Maximum 133,000 lbs. 
85,000 lbs. on 
1 hour rating 

540,000 lbs. 

C, M. & 
St. Paul 


D. C. 3,000 volts 
Overhead wire 

8 geared, 

375 h. p. each 

Maximum 135.000 lbs. 
85,000 lbs. on 
1 hour rating 

564,000 lbs. 



April, 1916 

Meeting of Executive Committee 

Chief Interchange Car Inspectors' and Car Foremen's 
Assn., Hotel La Salle, Chicago, 111., February 22, 1916 

At the meeting of the executive committee of the 
Chief Interchange Car Inspectors' and Car Foremen's 
Association, held in Chicago, February 22nd, a number 
of changes in the Constitution and By-Laws were rec- 
ommended for presentation at the next convention for 

Among the more important changes is that admitting 
to membership car inspectors, master car builders' bill 
clerks and other employes in the motive power or car 
departments of steam railways or private car lines en- 
gaged in the interchange, maintenance or building of 
cars. It is felt that by such change the membership 
will be greatly increased, the organization as a whole 
strengthened and the scope of its activities broadened. 

The Chief Interchange Car Inspectors' and Car Fore- 
men's Association has always felt that the railways 
throughout the country have not offered sufficient in- 
ducements to young men about to engage in railroad 
work to become identified with the car department. 
Special apprentice courses are provided in the electrical, 
engineering, locomotive and other departments, but for 
some unexplained reason, due recognition has appar- 
ently not been given to the car department. 

In order, therefore, that the matter may be favorably 
brought to the attention of railway officials, the asso- 
ciation has donated a cash prize of $50 to be awarded, 
$25, $15 and $10, respectively, for the three best papers 
presented on "Car Department Apprenticeship Course." 

The association feels that in offering these prizes 
friendly rivalry will be stimulated and at the same time 
increase the number of contestants. It should be under- 
stood that it is not necessary to be a member of the 
association in order to compete for the prizes. All pa- 
pers bearing on the subject should be forwarded, not 
later than August 1st, to the chairman of the appren- 
ticeship course committee, W. T. Westall, general fore- 
man, New York Central Railroad, Collinwood, Ohio. All 
papers which are deemed of sufficient merit will be read 
at the next annual convention to be held at Indianap- 
olis, Ind., October 3rd, 4th and 5th, 1916, and prizes will 
be awarded by the executive committee. It is earnestly 
hoped that there will be a ready response to contestants 
for the prizes. 

The following committees were appointed to present 
papers on subjects assigned, at the next convention : 




R. Schrader 

D. G. F. 

N. Y. C. R. R. 

Mottl Hav'n, N.Y. 



M. Combs 

G. C. F. 

C. & A. R. R. 

Blooming'ton, 111. 


B. Friar 

G. C. F. 

N. Y. 0. & W. 

Middlet'n, N.Y. 


W. Marsh 

G. F. 

C. & N. W. 

Chicago, 111. 



P. F. 

Penna. Co. 

Cincinnati, 0. 



B. Elliott 

F. C. D. 

T. R. R. Assn. 

E. St. L., 111. 



C. Keene 

T. C. I. 

Wab. R. R. 

Decatur, 111. 


. W. Halbert 

C. I. I. 

All Lines 

St. Louis, Mo. 




. T. Westall 

G. F. 

N. Y. C. R. R. 



. K. Carr 

G. C. I. 

N. & W. R. R. 

Roanoke, Va. 


N. Swanson 

s. c. s. 

A. T. & S. F. 

Torieka, Kan. 


H. Douglas 

P. C. R. 

W. & L. E. 

Toledo. 0. 


F. Patram 

F. C. R. 

Sou. Ry 

Richmond, Va. 




C. I. I. 

All Lines 

Cincinati, 0. 


T. Rice 

C. I. I. 

All Lines 

Ft. Worth, Tex. 


R. Denne 

C. I. I. 

All Lines 

Binghamt'n. N.Y. 


R. Campbell 

G. C. F. 

M. T. Co. 

St. Paul, Minn. 


W Demint 

C. I. I. 

All Lines 

Shreveport, La. 


J. Wymer 

G. C. F. 

Belt Ry. 

Chicago, 111. 



G. C. F. 

C. & S. 

Denver. Colo. 


G. Eubanks 

G. C. I. 

A. C. L. 

Montg'm'ry, Ala. 


R. Dobson 

G. C. F. 

C. R. I. & P. 

Cedar Rapids. la 



G. F. 

C. C. C. & St. L. 

Cincinnati, 0. 


V. Berg 

M.C.B. Clerk 

N. Y. C. R. R. 

Cleveland, 0. 


H. Reran 

M.C.B. Clerk 

A. A. R. R. 

Owosso, Mich. 


A. Eyman 


E. J. & E. 

Joliet, III. 


, G. Babcock 

Mgr. Cl'ngH. 

D. & H. Co. 

Watervliet, N.Y. 


A. Rowley 

M.C.B. Clerk 

D. & R. G. 

Denver, Colo. 



C. Schultz 

C. I. I. 

All Lines 

Chicago, 111. 


J. O'Donnell 

C. I. I. 

All Lines 

E. Buffalo, N.Y. 


D. Mitten 


Armour Car Lines 

E. St. L., 111. 


T. Markham 

F. C. R. 

Sou. Ry. 

Atlanta, Ga. 


, A. Colling 

A. G. C. F. 

U. P. Ry. 

Denver, Colo. 




A. C. I. I. 

All Lines 

Excelsior, 111. 


B. Zachrist 

G. C. I. 

Soo Line 

Chicago, 111. 


J. Tenbroeck 


D. & H. Co. 

Sidney, N. Y. 


A. Sweely 

M. C. B. 

A. C. L. 

Portsmouth. Va. 

Wmi. Cunningham 

C. J. I. 

Detroit, Mich. 



J. Justus 

G. C. I. 

N. Y. C. R. R. 

New York, N. Y. 


H. Harvey 

G. C. I. 

C. B. & Q. 

Chicago, 111. 


J. Gainey 

G. F. C. D. 

C. N. 0. & T. P. 

Ludlow, Ky. 


H. Gimpel 

G. C. F. 

D. & R. G. 

Denver, Colo. 


S. Barstow 

G. C. F. 

W. & S. R. R. 

Vanc'uv'r, Wash 

The Coming "Safety First" Exhibit 

During the week of April 17 this year, at the Grand 
Central Palace, New York, the Baltimore & Ohio will 
install an exhibit far superior to its diplay at the last 
congress. Claiming its right to the title of America's 
first railroad, it will furnish historical proof that it was 
the first railroad in the country to put in vogue many 
of the refinements in transportation service; the first 
to put in effect a department of safety, enlisting its 
employes in a regular campaign of protection, and to 
do this the Baltimore & Ohio will occupy double the 
space of its previous grand prize installation. 

Object lessons relating to the principles of safety 
first with suitable photographs and records showing 
the decrease in accidents will be one of its special 

President Willard holds the honor of inaugurating 
the statement, "Safety first above everything else," and 
the company's exhibit will bear out his statement to 
this effect and prove that this well-chosen remark has 
been a permanent motto on the Baltimore & Ohio. 


Pure Iron and Iron-Carbon Alloys 

A report on the preparation of pure iron and iron- 
carbon alloys has been prepared by the United States 
Bureaus of Standards and is given in Scientific Paper 
No. 266 of the publications of that bureau. Previous 
work has been unsatisfactory because of the great un- 
certainty of chemical composition of the materials used. 
It has been thought necessary to produce a series of 
alloys of great purity to form the basis of a redetermi- 
nation of the diagram at this Bureau. 

The general method pursued consisted in melting 
electrolytic iron with sugar carbon in magnesia cruci- 
bles. The electrolytic iron was prepared from ingot 
iron anodes in a chloride bath, with or without the use 
of porous 'cups. The operation of melting the iron with 
carbon gave great trouble at first, because the ingots 
obtained were full of blowholes and contained con- 
siderable quantities of impurities. The difficulties were 
overcome by melting in a vacuum furnace and forming 
crucibles of especially pure magnesia made and cal- 
cined with great care. A satisfactory procedure was 
finally worked out and a series of alloys prepared, of 
which the composition is Fe-i-C=99.96 per cent. 

April, 1916 



The Mount Washington Railway 

By HUGH G. BOUTELL, Washington, D. C. 

The use of rack railways for the ascent of steep 
gradients, which locomotives would be unable to climb 
by adhesion alone, is an expedient familiar to most of 
your readers who are familiar with railroads, but ow- 
ing to the fact that there are comparatively few of these 
so-called "cog roads" in use at the present time, a 
short description of the line, the rolling stock and mode 
of operation of the oldest rack railway in the United 
States, and I think in the world, may be of interest. 

The White Mountains have been for years a favorite 
resort of tourists from all parts of the world, and even 

Fig. 1. Train Ascending Mt. Washington 

when the means of communication with the surround- 
ing country were slow and unsatisfactory, many people 
willingly submitted to the inconvenience and spent 
their summers in this beautiful section of New Eng- 
land. It was but natural, therefore, that the idea of a 
railway to the summit of Mount Washington, the high- 
est peak in the eastern portion of the United States, 
should have claimed the attention of engineers very 
early in the history of railroading, but it remained for 
Mr. Sylvester Marsh, a native of New Hampshire, to 
carry the scheme to a successful completion. 

Great difficulty was experienced in securing the orig- 
inal charter, and the opposition of the members of the 
state legislature is not to be wondered at when we 
remember that the project was absolutely without pre- 
cedent at that time. Nevertheless, the road was corn- 

Fig. 2. Am. Loco. Co. Engine for Mt. Washington Ry. 

menced in 1866 and completed in 1869, from a point 
known as the Base Station to the summit, a distance 
of a little over three miles. Probably no other three 
miles of railroad in the world were ever covered with 
greater difficulty, yet the first cost of the road was 
comparatively low, amounting to about $150,000, in- 
cluding all equipment. 

The track rises about 4,000 ft. in its length of three 

miles, the elevation at the summit of the mountain being 
6,290 ft. The greater part of the road is constructed 
on wooden trestle work, at some points the rails being 
30 ft. from the ground. As originally built, the road 
was laid with strap iron rails, secured to wooden string- 
ers, but these gave a great deal of trouble and were 
soon replaced by light rails of the ordinary form. The 
gauge of the road is 4 ft. 7 x /2 ins. owing to a fancy of 
Mr. Marsh that he needed a "close gauge." The rack 
rail consists of two angle irons, placed back to back, 
with round iron pins between them, the ends of the 
latter being riveted over, thus forming an iron ladder, 
up which the locomotive climbs. 

This comparatively light looking rack rail enables 
the train to ascend a grade of 1,980 ft. to the mile, or 
37.5 per cent, the heaviest grade on any "cog road" in 
the world, with the exception of the railway up Mount 
Pilatus in Switzerland, which, however, is of an en- 

Fig. 3. First Type of Locomotive Used on the Mt. W. Ry. 

tirely different type and can not properly be classed 
with the Mount Washington line. The steepest grade 
occurs on the long trestle known as "Jacob's Ladder," 
and when viewed from below, presents rather a terri- 
fying appearance, but no accident has occurred on the 
road in its 46 years of operation. The average rise of 
the track is at the rate of 1,300 ft. per mile, which is 
"some grade" in itself, to use the well understood slang 
of this era. 

The first locomotives, shown in Fig. 3, were provided 
with vertical boilers and a single cogwheel for engag- 
ing the rack rail, which was turned, through gearing, by 
the motion of pistons in a pair of cylinders, 10 ins. in 
diameter and 16-in. stroke. These locomotives were not 
wholly satisfactory and were replaced by the type of 
engine still in use on the road. These engines are 
most peculiar in construction and appearance, differing 
in many ways from those used on an ordinary railroad. 
The engine is carried on four wheels of small diameter, 
the two axles also having mounted on them the gearing 
and gear wheels for connection with the rack rail. The 



April, 1916 

wheels are turned, by means of this gearing, and a pair 
of cylinders for each set of wheels. 

The boilers are short and of comparatively large 
diameter and are of the ordinary locomotive type. They 
are set to be level on the average grade, and therefore, 
when standing on level track the engine presents a very 
odd appearance, being all down in the front like a 
"hog." The speed of the locomotive, while ascending, is 
controlled by a fly-ball governor, similar to the kind 
used on stationary engines, and when running down 
hill speed is checked by the water brake. This is a 
device once used quite extensively on our western 
mountain roads, and depends for its operation on the 
fact that the engine is in the reverse motion, the cyl- 
inders acting as air compressors. By means of a suit- 
able valve in the cab leading from below the water 
line, it provides the amount of back pressure, against 
which the pistons work, and consequently the speed of 
the train may be regulated. The name, "water brake," 
comes from the fact that the small amount of water 
admitted to the cylinders to keep them cool, is turned 
to steam and finally escapes in that form. Other fric- 
tion brakes on the engine and cars are also provided 
for use in emergency. Until a couple of years ago, the 
engines burned wood for fuel, and they are still 
equipped with the old style "sunflower" stacks, which 
add to the oddity of their appearance. 

The road owns eight locomotives, numbered from one 
to nine, No. 7 being missing. No. 9, the latest engine, 
was built by the Manchester Works of the American 
Locomotive Company in 1908, and we are able to give 
a good representation of her in Fig. 2. The details 
show up clearly, and the peculiar little tender, with 
wheels like a hand-car, may be noticed. The boiler of 
this engine is 48 ins. in diameter; the cylinders are 8 
by 12 ins. The drivers are 24 ins. in diameter, and the 
tank has a capacity of 500 gallons. The steam pressure 
carried is 120 lbs. An interesting comparison may be 
made between these figures and the dimensions of an 
ordinary modern locomotive. 

The rolling stock consists of quite a number of four- 
wheel passenger cars and a few small flat cars. In 
practice, one passenger car and one flat car constitutes 
a load, and the engine always pushes the passenger 
car, Fig. 1, so that no coupler is necessary. The cars 
are lightly constructed, but the seats, which are set on 
a slant, so as to be nearly level on the grade, are very 
comfortable. Each car holds about 50 people. The 
up trip of three miles takes about one and one-half 
hours, including three stops for water. Not very fast 
running to be sure, but if you close your eyes, the sound 
of the exhaust of the geared engine gives an impres- 
sion of much greater speed. 

For some time there was no railroad connection with 
the Base Station, but at last a branch was built from 
the main line of the Boston, Concord & Montreal, now 
the Boston & Maine, at Fabyans, about seven miles 
away. A train of open cars is run over this branch to 
connect with the "cog trains." This branch is quite an 
interesting piece of engineering, in itself, and has some 
very heavy grades. As on the mountain road, the en- 
gine pushes the cars, so there is no inconvenience from 
dust, dirt or cinders. 

The view from the summit of Mount Washington is 
one of the finest in the world, and in the opinion of 
many, it is not surpassed by anything in this country. 
The panorama lacks some of the grandeur of the Rock- 
ies, but the tints on the distant mountains and in the 
valley, far below, are soft and most beautiful. On clear 

days the cities of Portland and Portsmouth, with the 
ocean beyond, may be seen, and the whole forms a pic- 
ture never to be forgotten. The ruins of the old Tip- 
Top House, recently destroyed by fire, add picturesque - 
ness to the scene, and a short distance below the be- 
holder, and near the track, is the quaint wooden monu- 
ment to Lizzie G. Bourne, of Kennebunk, Me., who lost 
her life at that point during a storm, September 14th, 

The New Summit House is a well-appointed hotel,, 
completed this year, and the good lunch that may be 
obtained there, adds greatly to the comfort of those 
making the trip. The writer desires to state that he i:* 
indebted to the American Locomotive Company for th* 
photograph and particulars of engine No. 9, and also to 
his wife, who helped in the preparation of the article,, 
and to who he believes, it owes what amount of literary 
merit it may possess. 

Pennsylvania R. R. Fire Department 

There were 1,029 fires on Pennsylvania Railroad prop- 
erty in 1915. Spontaneous combustion was the cause 
of fifteen; thirty-six broke out on adjoining property; 
twelve were of incendiary origin; lightning started 
two; small boys set two; tramps eleven, and 130 were 
due to unknown causes. Tobacco and matches originated 
a dozen more and caused damage of more than $10,- 
000. This is extremely interesting information. Had 
it not been for the very efficient fire department on. 
this great system results would have been more dis- 
astrous. The total fire losses for the year, as shown 
by the annual report of the company's insurance de- 
partment, amounted to $278,730. The property which 
was exposed to the fire risks is valued at $350,000,000, 
and the damages were assumed by the insurance fund 
established by the company. The efforts of the em- 
ployes saved $14,000,000 worth of property from the 
ravages of fire by using apparatus provided by the 
company, this representing as many as 441 distinct 
blazes. Besides these, more than $6,000,000 worth of 
property was threatened; but slight damage occurred 
by reason of especial efficiency on the part of the em- 
ployes' fire brigades. Forty fires were extinguished 
by apparatus used on locomotives ; fifty were put out 
by chemical appliances, while twenty-six were checked 
by fire pails and casks. In the case of six more, high- 
pressure fire lines, constructed by the company, were 
employed. The example set by this well managed in- 
stitution is worthy of the attention of all the large 
railway systems in the country. 

"Dining Car" Title to Be Abandoned.— The Pennsyl- 
vania Railroad Co., by special order to take effect April 
1, have discontinued the use of the name "Dining Car." 
Hereafter these cars will be known as "Restaurant 
Cars." Inasmuch as "dining" refers to dinners only, 
and from the fact that the three meals of the day are 
furnished in what is known as a "dining car," the sub- 
stitution of "restaurant" is deemed more appropriate. 

The "Dining Car," which has been in vogue for more 
than a generation on all the first-class railroads in the 
country, has had its day, so to speak. The present times 
call for more appropriate terms. The Pennsylvania is. 
generally in the lead, not only in such matters, but in 
many others of much more consequence. 


It's opinion, not truth, that traveleth the world with- 
out passport. — Sir Walter Raleigh. 

April, 1916 



Practical Suggestions from Railway Shop Men 

Waste Receptacle for Round House 

By C. W. SCHANE, Huntington, Ind. 

The sketch sent with this shows a new type of waste 
storage can or receptacle for clean and soiled waste. 
This receptacle is fire-proof and is always closed and 
cannot be left open. It is of use in engine houses, paint 
shops, tool rooms, machine shops, etc., and is quite 
handy outside a railroad shop around an automobile 

Round House Receptacle for Waste 

garage where gasoline is kept. Fire risks from oily 

waste in and out of railroad shops are lessened. 

The lid is opened by foot power applied to a series of 

levers and rods. This can or receptacle may be built 

of scrap engine jacket iron or car roofing, or indeed 

any light plate, and it does all that is expected of it. 

I send this because you say that new devices and ideas 

will be acceptable. 

— -* 

Grinding Up Old Boiler Lagging 


Asst. Mast. Mech. Central of Georgia Ry., Macon, Ga. 

Here is a sketch of a machine for grinding or break- 
ing up old boiler lagging. I do not want full credit for 
this machine, as I was not the originator. I am unable 
to say who first designed a machine of this kind. The 
machine I have in service is different in many respects 
from the original drawing, as I found it necessary to 
make changes to get better results. 

If you care to publish this kink, I will be glad if you 
will make mention of the fact that credit for original 
machine is due some one unknown to me. 

The sketch, as I said, shows a machine for grinding 
old boiler lagging. It is simple in design and inex- 
pensive to make. Prior to installation of this ma- 
chine one laborer was regularly assigned to beating up 
old boiler lagging. Since the machine was put in 
service, one day each week grinding lagging will more 
than supply the demand. 

Machine for Grinding Up Old Lagging 

Where sectional lagging is used there are a num- 
ber of more or less small pieces that cannot very well 
be re-applied, but can be ground up and used for plas 
tering. Where a boiler has been plastered and lagging 
removed, this must be re-ground before it can be re- 
applied. The machine is portable and is run by porta- 
ble motor. 

Plan of Lagging Grinder 



April, 1916 

Structural Steel Material Bins 


Toledo. Ohio 

In most warehouses wooden bins are in use, but these 
soon become ragged and broken, through much usage. 
Steel bins cost more, but a comparison of wood and 
steel shows that steel is the best, neatest and most 
convenient, and they do not take up much floor space. 
Small castings and fittings can easily be shoveled, and 
the shovel will not catch on the floor of the bin as in 
wooden bins. Other material can be easily handled. 

In the illustration B, a section of steel bin is shown 
which can be made any height, width or length. All 
second-hand material can be used, if desired. The 
framework of the bin is made of 4 ins. 7Vz lbs. I-beams, 
which are riveted together as shown. Three-sixteenths 
inch steel plates are used for the floor and sides, which 
are supported by the casting, as shown at G. Half-inch 
steel rods are made to tie the framework together, and 
this keeps it rigid. 

<"-' T T 




The castings F in illustration are slipped on the bot- 
tom of the 4-in. I-beams so as to have a good footing. 
Of course the footing can be made to suit conditions. 






Cast Iron 

CasT Iron D 

Details of Bin Posts and Feet 

y-r z ' stot/s 

& ~/fot/s -v 

Side View of Bin 

Plan and Elevation of Bin 

Casting for Foot of Posts 

April, 1916 



Angle Plate 


Toledo, Ohio 

Various angle plates have been designed and are in 
use, but most of them answer few purposes only. In 
the illustration is shown a cast-iron angle plate which 
was designed to take a large variety of work, from small 
castings and forgings to large castings. 






&> > 




^=> <=> I 



i>/-/// Hoi&s in Base 
/to juit kla&hine 

Cast Iron Angle Plate 

The angle plate was designed mostly for use on 
radial drill presses, but it can also be used on large 
planers. All drilling and tapping jigs can readily be 
clamped to. it, and it saves backache for the workman in 
taking work out of the jig and putting it in. 


Book Reviews 

English Railways; Their Development and Their Re- 
lation to the State. By Edward Cleveland-Stevens, 
M. A. Published by George Routledge & Sons, 
Limited, London. E. P. Dutton & Co., New York. 
Price, $2.25 net. 
If any one cares to read a most interesting book on 
the history of English railways from the earliest days 
down to the present time he will find it in this work. 
It relates especially to the organization and later to 
the consolidation of the railways of England. Some 
railroad questions of moment are also treated of now 
and then ; but the matter of consolidation is paramount. 
The entire subject is well snugged up and is therefore 
readable, although the material at hand upon which 
the book is written is most voluminous. There are ex- 
planatory maps and in the eleven chapters of the book 
there are interesting statements made relating to the 
important general subject of English railway consoli- 
dation or, as is frequently mentioned, railway amalga- 

Annual Report of the Department of Railways and 
Canals. Dominion of Canada. April 1, 1914, to 
March 31, 1915. 
This is a most interesting document, very complete 
in details and illustrations, besides furnishing a col- 
lection of maps. Prepared by the deputy minister, it 
contains statements of the accountant, agreements, 
contracts, water powers, reports of the general manager 
of the government railways, the chief engineer, the 
board of engineers, superintendents of canals, and mat- 
ters relating to the various government railways and 
canals; acts relating to railway subsidies, together 
with excellent photographs and various plans. A pocket 
in which are to be found eleven maps for reference ac- 
companies this voluminous report. Anyone who de- 
sires to become thoroughly familiar with the railways 
and canals of the Canadian government will find this 
report most interesting reading. The preparation of 
it has been attended by great care, precision and neat- 
ness. As a reference, it should find its place on the 

shelves of every railway library, and will doubtless be 
consulted often by financiers and others interested in 
the railways of our progressive neighbor — the Do- 
minion of Canada. 



Robert Lawrie Stewart, mechanical superintendent 
of the Second District of the Chicago, Rock Island & 
Pacific, with headquarters at El Reno, Okla, died sud- 
denly at Kansas City, Mo., on Friday morning, March 
24. He entered the service of the Denver & Rio Grande 
in 1885 as machinist's apprentice. After completing 
his course he was appointed roundhouse foreman, leav- 
ing that road in 1905. He later served the Atchison, 
Topeka & Santa Fe; the Kansas City Southern, and the 
Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific as general foreman and 
master mechanic. In 1914 he was promoted mechanical 
superintendent of the Third District of the Chicago, 
Rock Island & Pacific, with headquarters at El Reno, 
Okla, and on January 1, 1916, his jurisdiction was ex- 
tended to cover a portion of the old Second District 
when it was consolidated with the First and Third dis- 
tricts. At the time of his death Mr. Stewart was in the 
performance of his duties. 

Theodore Voorhees, president of the Philadelphia & 
Reading Railway Co., died on March 12 last. The rail- 
road world has lost an able executive. Mr. Voorhees was 
born in New York on June 4, 1847, and had therefore 
nearly reached man's alloted span of life. After grad- 
uating in 1869 from the Renssaeler Polytechnic Institute 
he joined the engineering staff of the Delaware, Lacka- 
wanna & Western and remained in that service for four 

Theodore Voorhees 

years, when he was appointed superintendent of the 
Syracuse, Binghamton and New York Railway. Follow- 
ing this service he was made superintendent of the 
Champlain division of the Delaware and Hudson system, 
which position he held until he was appointed assistant 
general superintendent of the New York Central, later 
becoming general superintendent. He was selected in 
1893 as vice-president of the Philadelphia and Reading, 
in charge of operation. He filled this office until 1914, 
when he was elected president of that road to succeed 
Mr. Baer. Mr. Voorhees was a man of rare qualities and 
experience and was a member of many societies. His life 
was both busy and successful. . 



April, 1916 

New Methods and Appliances 

Flat-Link Chain 

The Cleveland Galvanizing Works Co., Cleveland, 0., 
have reecntly placed on the market the Hodell flat- 
link chain, which consists of weldless links made 
of flattened wire. The designs of the links is novel, 
and is such that double wearing surface is presented 
at each end of the link. The edges are perfectly round- 

Hodell Flat Link Chain 

ed and symmetrical in design. The link is reinforced 
against elongation, is smooth on all surfaces and mar- 
gins, is free from flaws, will take a fine polish, and can 
be made endless by the introduction of a special link. 
The chain is made in eleven sizes, and is available for 
sash suspension, lamp suspension and a variety of 
other purposes. 


Water Joint for Injector Connection 

The Franklin Railway Supply Co., New York City, 
have recently placed on the market the Franklin single 
water joint for injector connection. This joint is made 
large enough to accommodate a supply of water for 
two injectors and is so constructed that it provides for 
connections to two tank wells, unless otherwise desired. 

The use of this all-metal conduit will eliminate the 
expense for injector hose and its capacity will insure 
furnishing a full supply of water to the injectors. It 
will insure against kinked hose and the hose lining 
working into the injectors. The probability of freezing 
is also reduced to a minimum, owing to the fact that 
either heater will keep it open while both heaters are 
required with the usual type of double connections. 

The single connection is made so that it can be located 

Franklin Water Joint Connection 

directly under the draw-bar on the center line of the 
locomotive, at which point the movement of the joint 
will be reduced to a minimum. 

The joint is connected up with extra-heavy wrought- 
iron pipe, having a union at the center, to be used when 
engine and tender are uncoupled. At either end of the 
joints tee heads are provided, the branches of each 
leading to the two tank wells on the tender and to the 
injector pipes on the engine. The flexible joint includes 

two ball joints and one slip joint, a combination of 
which takes any motion occuring between the engine 
and tender. The inside sleeve of the slip joint is 
threaded into an elbow connection, which turns down- 
ward and forms the outer casing for one of the ball 
joints. An extension is cast on this elbow, which is 
supported in a slide bearing, which is part of the slip- 
joint supporting bracket. This arrangement serves as 
a guide for the slip joint and relieves it from laterial 

Adams & Westlake Co., Chicago, 111., have recently 
issued a two-page illustrated bulletin, B 42, describing 
their No. 80 reading lamp for locomotives, which con- 
forms to the specifications of the Interstate Commerce 
Commission requiring a lamp in the cab, for reading 
train orders and time tables, which can be readily dark- 
ened or extinguished. 

The Cleveland Galvanizing Works Co., Cleveland, 0., 
have recently issued a 12-page illustrated bulletin, C-21, 
discribing the construction and sizes of Hodell flat-link 
chain, the links of which are made to resemble some- 
what stamped sheet metal links, but are made of flat- 
tened wire. Chains are described in a number of sizes 
and for a variety of purposes. 

G. A. Nelson, 30 Church St., New York City, has re- 
cently issued a 10-page folder describing the complete 
line of Hauck Kerosene Torches and Forges for brazing;,, 
rivet heating, soldering, engine heating, melting fur- 
naces, blacksmith forges and other purposes requiring 
the use of powerful burners. 

The Union Switch & Signal Co., Swissvale, Pa., have 
recently issued an 8-page illustrated bulletin describing 
the equipment of their forging shop foundry and ma- 
chine shops, which are equipped for the manufacture 
of forgings, gray iron and mild steel castings. In con- 
nection with their machine shop they are in a particu- 
larly advantageous position to manufacture a wide 
variety of such material. 

A. S. Cameron Steam Pump Works, 11 Broadway, New 
York City, have recently issued Bulletin 110. Bulletin 
110 covers the Cameron line of Duplex Pumps, includ- 
ing both piston and plunger types, with single and com- 
pound steam cylinders for general service, boiler feed- 
ing, tank service, water works, hydraulic elevators, 
automatic pumps and receivers, brewery, quarry and 
mining work. The catalogue is well illustrated and 
also contains tables of sizes and capacities. 

Air Brake Association Convention 

Atlanta, Ga., May 2 to 5, 1916 

Preparations for the annual convention of the Air 
Brake Association, at Atlanta, Ga., May 2 to 5, 1916, 
are being completed, and the indications are that there 
will be a very well-attended meeting, with a number 
of unusual features. The convention will be held at the 
Hotel Ansley, and any further information can be 
secured from L. H. Schneider, chairman of the commit-- 
tee, Jersey City, N. J. 

April, 1916 



Supply Trade News 

Samuel G. Allen has been elected president of the 
Franklin Railway Supply Co. and Mr. Joel S. Coffin, 
formerly president, is now chairman of the board. Mr. 
Allen has served as vice-president since the incorpora- 
tion of the company. He was born in 1870 at Warren, 
Pa., and was educated there and at Pennsylvania State 
College. Early in life he assumed business responsi- 
bilities immediately after leaving college and found 

partment. In 1909 he served for a time as locomotive 
fireman on the Duluth & Iron Range, returning to the 
Chicago Northwestern, where he filled various capaci- 
ties in the engineering and purchasing departments. 

Samuel G. Allen 

time to study law in a period of great business activity. 
He was admitted to the bar in Warren County, Pa., and 
practiced law for nine years. In 1901 the Franklin 
Railway Supply Co. was formed, with Mr. Joel S. Coffin 
as president and Mr. Allen as vice-president. The 
ability of Mr. Allen as a lawyer and as a business man 
is reflected in the success of the large number of con- 
cerns with which he is connected as an officer and a 
director. He is secretary-treasurer of the newly formed 
Locomotive Feed Water Heater Co. 

Beaudry & Co., Inc., Boston, Mass., have recently an- 
nounced the appointment of Sherritt & Stoer Co., Inc., 
603 Finance building, Philadelphia, Pa., as exclusive 
sales agents in the Philadelphia district for the Beau- 
dry Champion and Peerless power hammers. 

J. W. Brewer has recently been appointed general 
foreman of the Lima Locomitive Corporation, at Lima, 
O. Mr. Brewer's experience includes nineteen years 
of railroad service, and he has served as master me- 
chanic and superintendent of shops on the Baltimore 
& Ohio R. R., leaving that road in 1914. From that 
time until he entered the service of the Lima Locomo- 
tive Corporation he was with the Chicago & Alton R. R. 
on special work. 

Walter H. Bentley has recently been appointed assist- 
ant to Burton W. Mudge, president of Mudge & Co., Chi- 
cago, 111. Mr. Bentley entered the service of the Chi- 
cago Northwestern Ry. in 1903, in the storekeeping de- 

Walter H. Bentley 

In 1912 he joined the Chicago sales forces of the Bald- 
win Locomotive Works and the Standard Steel Works,, 
and in 1914 was appointed western representative of 
the Curtain Supply Co., of Chicago, where he remained 
until the recent announcement of his connection with 
Mudge & Co. 

Cambria Steel Co., Pittsburgh, Pa., have recently an- 
nounced the appointment of John C. Neale, general 
manager of sales, succeeding C. B. McElhany. 

The Curtain Supply Co., Chicago, 111., have secured 
the services of T. B. O'Brien, who has been connected 
with the O. M. Edwards Co. of Syracuse, N. Y., for some 
time, to be their Southeastern sales representative. 
George E. Fox, formerly Southeastern representative,, 
has been appointed Western sales agent with headquar- 
ters in Chicago. 

The Franklin Railway Supply Co., 30 Church street, 
New York City, due to the remarkable results secured 
by the use of the Stone-Franklin lighting equipment, 
has appointed Ralph G. Coburn sales manager of their 
electrical department. Mr. Coburn has been associated 
with the Franklin company for the past seven years, 
being formerly in charge of their Chicago office and for 
the last few years Eastern sales manager, with head- 
quarters in New York, where he will continue in his 
new capacity. 

The Locomotive Feed Water Co., 30 Church Street, 
New York, is a new railway supply company, organized 
last month. George M. Basford, formerly chief engi- 
neer, railway department, for Joseph T. Ryerson & Son,, 
has been made president of the new company. 



April, 1916 

Associated with him, as vice-president, is Earl A. 
Averill, formerly with the Standard Stoker Co. The 
Locomotive Feed Water Heater Co. has been organized 
to handle an application to locomotive use, of the Luf- 
kin Film Heater, which was invented by L. D. Lufkin, 
chief engineer of the New York Shipbuilding Co. This 
heater is one that has had a very successful develop- 
ment in marine and stationary practice and has already 
been successfully applied to locomotives. 

The company includes Samuel G. Allen, as secretary- 
treasurer; Joel S. Coffin, chairman of the board, and 
H. F. Ball, L. D. Lufkin, J. E. Muhlfeld, G. L. Bourne, 
V. Z. Caracristi and Le Grand Parish, directors. 

Mr. Basford, the new president, finished his educa- 
tion at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 
1889. His first work was done when he entered the 
Charlestown shops of the Boston & Maine, later going 
to the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy as draftsman at 
Aurora, 111. Later he went to Omaha, Nab., and joined 
the motive power department of the Union Pacific, and 
was connected with the test department of that road. 
Leaving the mechincal department he took the position 
of signal engineer of the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. 
Paul, after which he became superintendent of con- 
struction of the Johnson Railway Signal Co., and was 
for some time with the Union Switch & Signal Co., and 
was signal engineer of the Hall Signal Co. In 1895 he 
became mechanical department editor of the Railway 
& Engineering Review, and in 1897 was offered the 
position of editor of the American Engineer & Railroad 
Journal. It was while holding this position that he be- 
came widely known, and wrote his name large on the 
page of American technical journalism. Mr. Basford's 
conceptions of the position and work of a railroad man's 

George M. Basford 

paper are the highest and he has lived up to his use- 
ful, dignified and helpful conception of the part. The 
American Engineer in his hands was often affectionately 
referred to as "Basford's paper" by his many friends. 
In September, 1905, he accepted a position with the 
American Locomotive Co. as assistant to the president, 
and later became chief engineer in the railway depart- 
ment of Joseph T. Ryerson & Son. 

Mr. Basford has also to his credit the formation of 
the Railway Signal Association, which grew out of the 
Railway Signaling Club, which later developed into 
the national association. For the first two years, 1895 

and 1896, he was secretary-treasurer of the organiza- 

Earl A. Averill, vice-president of the Locomotive 
Feed Water Heater Co., was until recently with the 
Standard Stoker Co. as engineer of operation. He was 
born at Richland, N. Y., on August 13, 1878, and after 
a preparatory education in public and private schools, 
entered Cornell University in 1896. He graduated in 
1900 with the degree of mechanical engineer, having 

Earl A. Averill 

specialized during his senior year in railway mechani- 
cal engineering. He began practical railroad work 
the summer of 1899 in the shops of the Philadelphia & 
Reading, at Reading, Pa., and later went with the Chi- 
cago, Burlington & Quincy, at West Burlington, la. 
After four years' service with the Burlington, most of 
which was spent in the shop, roundhouse and on the 
road, Mr. Averill joined the staff of the Railway & Engi- 
neering Review of Chicago, where he remained for over 
two years. He left that publication to go to New York 
as associate editor of American Engineer & Railroad 
Journal, of which he was later made managing editor. 
He remained in that position until February 1, 1914. 
The Feed Water Heater Co. has, in thus securing the 
services of these two gentlemen of the technical periodic 
press, possessed itself of executive ability of a high 
order, and starting as it does, officered as it is, a large 
measure of success should attend its endeavors. 

Westinghouse Annual Banquet 

At the sixth annual banquet of the Westinghouse In- 
terests in the Pittsburgh district, held under the aus- 
pices of the Westinghouse Club last month, the principal 
speaker was Mr. Wm. L. Saunders, vice-chairman of 
the Naval Consulting Board and chairman of the board 
of directors of the Ingersoll Rand Co. of New York. 

Mr. Saunders had chosen for his subject "Industrial 
Preparedness for Peace and War," and in the course of 
his remarks said that if the industrial strength of the 
United States became known no foreign country would 
attack us. The consumption of coal in the United States 
is five tons per capita, while the per capita coal consump- 
tion of the great industrial nations — England and Ger- 
many — is 4 tons, while that of France is 1.6 tons, and 
Russia is only V\ of a ton. It is obvious that this indus- 
trial wealth cannot be utilized in full measure unless it 

April, 1916 



is organized, and it is obvious that it takes a long time 
to organize a country, hence the importance of begin- 
ning now to place our industries in a position where they 
will respond quickly to the needs of the government in 

case of trouble. 


The Railway Supply Manufacturers' Assn. 

The progress being made on the 1916 exhibition at 
Atlantic City by the Railway Supply Manufacturers' 
Association would indicate that this year's exhibtion 
will exceed in size and interest last year's convention 
by a very comfortable margin. 

At the present time there has been sold an amount 
of floor space equivalent to the entire amount occupied 
at the 1915 convention. A great many new concerns 
are planning to exhibit this year, and a number of new 
devices will in this way be available for study. A num- 
ber of regular exhibitors have produced new designs, 
which will add materially to the interest of the con- 
vention. The unsettled labor conditions in many lines 
of railroad work have stimulated the production of 
labor-saving equipment, and these products will be 
consiedred with more than usual interest. 

The association reports that the booth structure will 
be entirely new and that additional power will be fur- 
nished. The buildings on the pier are being improved; 
a new floor is being laid in Machinery Hall extension 
and the floor of the building is being leveled up. The 
Annex will be practically enclosed with glass sash. 
The entertainment features have not been definitely 
decided, but it is expected to have balls and carnivals 
similar to last year, also a golf tournament, and pos- 
sibly a ball game and card parties. Rolling chairs will 
be provided for the use of the guests of the conven- 
tion, as usual. 

Some very choice space remains unassigned, and 
prospective exhibitors would do well to file their ap- 
plications at once, in order to have as wide a selection 
as remains at this time. J. D. Conway, secretary and 
treasurer of the association, 2136 Oliver building, Pitts- 
burgh, Pa., will be glad to place at the disposal of any 
prospective exhibitor complete information as to what 
space remains unoccupied and as to the advantages 
and conditions covering the exhibition. 

The list of exhibitors who have applied for space to 
date is as follows: 

Exhibiting Members 

Acme Supply Co., Chicago, 111. 

American Abrasive Metals Co., New York City. 

American Arch Co., New York City. 

American Balance Valve Co., Jersey Shore, Pa. 

American Brake Shoe & Foundry Co., Mahwah, N. J. 

American Car & Foundry Co., New York City. 

American Electric Ry. Association, New York City. 

American Flexible Bolt Co., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

American Locomotive Co., New York City. 

American Mason Safety Tread Co., Boston, Mass. 

American Steel Foundries, Chicago, 111. 

Anchor Packing Co., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Armstrong Cork Co., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Ashton Valve Co., Boston, Mass. 

Associated Malleable Iron Mfrs., Cleveland, O. 

Automatic Ventilator Co., New York City. 

Barco Brass & Joint Co., Chicago, 111. 

Besly, Charles H., & Co., Chicago, 111. 

Bettendorf Co., Bettendorf, Iowa. 

Bird-Archer Co., New York City. 

Bowser, S. F., & Co., Inc., Fort Wayne, Ind. 

Boyce Fuel Economizer Co., New York City. 

Breakless Staybolt Co., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Buckeye Steel Castings Co., Columbus, 0. 

Buffalo Brake Beam Co., New York City. 
Byers, A. M., Co., Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Cambria Steel Co., Philadelphia, Pa. 
Camel Co., Chicago, 111. 
Carborundum Co., Niagara Falls, N. Y. 
Carnegie Steel Co., Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Chase, L. C, & Co., Boston, Mass. 
Chicago Car Heating Co., Chicago, 111. 
Chicago-Cleveland Car Roofing Co., Chicago, 111. 
Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co., Chicago, 111. 
Chicago Railway Equipment Co., Chicago, 111. 
Chicago Steel Car Co., Chicago, 111. 
Chicago Varnish Co., Chicago, 111. 
Commonwealth Steel Co., St. Louis, Mo. 
Consolidated Car Heating Co., Albany, N. Y. 
Consolidated Elec. Light & Equipt. Co., New York. 
Crane Co., Chicago, 111. 

Crosby Steam Gage & Valve Co., Boston, Mass. 
Curtain Supply Co., Chicago, 111. 
Damascus Brake Beam Co., Cleveland, O. 
Davis Machine Tool Co., Inc., Rochester, N. Y. 
Dearborn Chemical Co., Chicago, 111. 
Detroit Lubricator Co., Detroit, Mich. 
Dixon, Joseph, Crucible Co., Jersey City, N. J. 
Dodge Metal Hose Co., Inc., Wellsville, N. Y. 
Draper Mfg. Co., Port Huron, Mich. 
Duff Mfg. Co., Pittsburgh, Pa. 
DuPont Fabrikoid Co., Inc., Wilmington, Del. 
Economy Device Corp., New York City. 
Edison Storage Battery Co., Orange, N. J. 
Edwards, 0. M., Co., Inc., Syracuse, N. Y. 
Electric Storage Battery Co., Philadelphia, Pa. 
Elwell-Parker Electric Co., New York City. 
Enterprise Railway Equipment Co., Chicago, 111. 
Equipment Improvement Co., New York City. 
Ewald Iron Co., Louisville, Ky. 

Flannery Bolt Co., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Flint & Chester, Inc., New York City. 

Franklin Railway Supply Co., New York City. 

Frost Railway Supply Co., Detroit, Mich. 

Galena Signal Oil Co., New York City. 

Garlock Packing Co., Palmyra, N. Y. 

General Electric Co., Schenectady, N. Y. 

Gold Car Heating & Lighting Co., New York City. 

Goldschmidt Thermit Co., New York City. 

Gould Coupler Co., New York City. 

Greene, Tweed & Co., New York City. 

Greenfield Tap & Die Corp., Greenfield, Mass. 

Greenlaw Mfg. Co., Boston, Mass. 

Griffin Wheel Co., Chicago, 111. 

Grip Nut Co., Chicago, 111. 

Hale & Kilburn Co., New York City. 

Hanna Loco. Stoker Co., West New Brighton, N. Y. 

Harrington, Edwin, Son & Co., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Hauck Mfg. Co., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Hewitt Rubber Co., Buffalo, N. Y. 

Hewitt Steel Corp., New York City. 

Heywood Bros. & Wakefield Co., Wakefield, Mass. 

Hunt-Spiller Mfg. Corp., South Boston, Mass. 

Illinois Steel Co., Chicago, 111. 

Imperial Car Cleaner Co., Newark, N. J. 

Independent Pneumatic Tool Co., Chicago, 111. 

Ingersoll-Rand Co., New York City. 

Jacobs-Shupert U. S. Firebox Co., Coatesville, Pa. 

Jefferson Union Co., Lexington, Mass. 

Jenkins Bros., New York City. 

Johns-Manville, H. W., Co., New York City. 

Jones & Laughlin Steel Co., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Jones, B. M., & Co., Inc., Boston, Mass. 

Julian-Beggs Signal Co., Terre Haute, Ind. 

Kerite Insulated Wire & Cable Co., Inc., New York 

Keystone Equipment Co., Philadelphia, Pa. 



April, 1916 

Lehon Co., Chicago, 111. 

Locomotive Stoker Co., Schenectady, N. Y. 

Locomotive Superheater Co., New York City. 

Long, Chas. M., Jr., Co., Louisville, Ky. 

Lubricating Metal Co., New York City. 

Lukens Iron & Steel Co., Coatesville, Pa. 

Lunkenheimer Co., Cincinnati, O. 

MacRae's Blue Book Co., New York City. 

Magnus Metal Co., New York City. 

Magnussen, John A., Tacoma, Wash. 

Mahr Mfg. Co., Minneapolis, Minn. 

Manning, Maxwell & Moore, Inc., New York City. 

Massachusetts Mohair Plush Co., Boston, Mass. 

Metals Production Equipment Co., New York City. 

Miner, W. H., Chicago, 111. 

Midvale Steel Co., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Mudge & Co., Chicago, 111. 

McConway & Torley Co., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

McCord & Co., Chicago, 111. 

McGraw Publishing Co., New York City. 

McKinnon Chain Co., Buffalo, N. Y. 

McQuay-Norris Mfg. Co., St. Louis, Mo. 

Nathan Mfg. Co., New York City. 

National Car Wheel Co., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

National Lock Washer Co., Newark, N. J. 

National Malleable Castings Co., Cleveland, O. 

National Railway Devices, Co., Chicago. 

National Tube Co., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Newton Machine Tool Works, Inc., Philadelphia, Pa. 

New York Air Brake Co., New York City. 

Norton, A. 0., Inc., Boston, Mass. 

Nuttall, R. D., Co., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Nutter & Barnes Co., Hinsdale, N. H. 

Okonite Co., New York City. 

O'Malley-Beare Valve Co., Chicago, 111. 

Pantasote Co., New York City. 

Parkersburg Iron Co., Parkersburg, Pa. 

Paxton-Mitchell Co., Omaha, Neb. 

Pilliod Co., Swanton, 0. 

Pocket List of R. R. Officials, New York City. 

Pratt & Lambert, Inc., Buffalo, N. Y. 

Pressed Steel Car Co., New York City. 

Pyle Nat. Elec. Headlight Co., Chicago, 111. 

Pyrene Mfg. Co., New York City. 

Q. & C. Co., New York City. 

Railway Materials Co., Chicago, 111. 

Railway Periodicals Co., Inc., New York City. 

Railway Review, Chicago, 111. 

Railway Supply & Equipment Co., Atlanta, Ga. 

Railway Utility Co., Chicago, 111. 

Ralston Steel Car Co., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Reading Specialties Co., Reading, Pa. 

Refrigerator, Heater & Vent. Car Co., St. Paul, Minn. 

Reliance Elec. & Engineering Co., Cleveland, 0. 

Robinson Co., Boston, Mass. 

Robinson Connector Co., Branford, Conn. 

Rome Merchant Iron Mill, New York City. 

Ryerson, Jos. T., & Son, New York City. 

Safety Car Heating & Lighting Co., New York City. 

Safety First Mfg. Co., Chicago, 111. 

Schaefer Equipment Co., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Schroeder Headlight Co., Evansville, Ind. 

Sellers, Wm., & Co., Inc., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Sherwin-Williams Co., Cleveland, 0. 

Simmons-Boardman Publishing Co., New York City. 

Sips, James H., & Co., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Southern Locomotive Valve Gear Co., Knoxville, Tenn. 

Southern Pine Association, New Orleans, La. 

Standard Asphalt & Rubber Co., Chicago, 111. 

Standard Car Truck Co., Chicago, 111. 

Standard Coupler Co., New York City. 

Standard Heat & Ventilation Co., New York City. 

Standard Stoker Co., Inc., New York City. 

Summers Steel Car Co., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Symington, T. H., Co., Rochester, N. Y. 

Transportation Utilities Co., New York City. 

Union Carbide Sales Co., New York City. 

Union Draft Gear Co., Chicago, 111. 

Union Railway Equipment Co., Chicago, 111. 

Union Spring & Mfg. Co., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

United Engineering & Foundry Co., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

U. S. Light & Heat Corp., Niagara Falls, N. Y. 

U. S. Metal & Mfg. Co., New York City. 

U. S. Metallic Packing Co., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Universal Car Seal & App. Co., Albany, N. Y. 

Universal Draft Gear Att. Co., Chicago, 111. 

Valentine & Co., New York City. 

Vissering, Harry, & Co., Chicago, 111. 

Warner & Swasey Co., Cleveland, 0. 

Watson-Stillman Co., New York City. 

Waugh Draft Gear Co., Chicago, 111. 

Wayne Oil Tank & Pump Co., Ft. Wayne, Ind. 

West Disinfecting Co., New York City. 

Western Railway Equipment Co., St. Louis, Mo. 

Western Steel Car & Foundry Co., New York City. 

Westinghouse Air Brake Co., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Westinghouse Elec. & Mfg. Co., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Wheel Truing Brake Shoe Co., Detroit, Mich. 

White Enamel Refrigerator Co., New York City. 

Wilson Remover Co., Newark, N. J. 

Wilson Welder & Metals Co., New York City. 

Wood, Alan, Iron & Steel Co., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Woods, Edwin S., & Co., Chicago, 111. 

Yale & Towns Mfg. Co., New York City. 

Track Exhibit 

Refrigerator Heater & Vent. Car Co., St. Paul, Minn. 

The list of companies who have applied for non- 
exhibiting membership is as follows: 

Non-Exhibiting Members 

Amer. Brass Co. (Coe Brass Branch), Ansonia, Conn. 
Assoc, of Mfrs. of Chilled Car Wheels, Chicago. 
Baldwin Locomoitive Works, Philadelphia. 
Belmont Packing & Rubber Co., Philadelphia. 
Brooks, Clarence Co., Newark, N. J. 
Eagle Glass Mfg. Co., Wellsburg, W. Va. 
Edison, Thos. A., Inc., Bloomfield, N. J. 
Ehret Magnesia Mfg. Co., Philadelphia. 
Gutta Percha & Rubber, Ltd., Toronto, Ont. 
Justice, Philip S., & Co., Philadelphia. 
Keystone Drop Forge Works, Chester, Pa. 
Kirby Lumber Co., Houston, Texas. 
Lockhart Iron & Steel Co., Pittsburgh. 
Maloney Oil & Mfg. Co., New York City. 
McCord Mfg. Co., Detroit. 
National Waste Co., Chicago. 

New York Belting & Packing Co., New York City. 
Niles-Bement-Pond Co., New York City. 
Rogers, H. A., Co., New York City. 
Standard Steel Works Co., Philadelphia. 
Star Headlight Co., Rochester. 
Union Steel Casting Co., Pittsburgh. 
United & Globe Rubber Mfg. Cos., Trenton, N. J. 
Warren City Tank & Boiler Co., Warren, Ohio. 
Westinghouse, Church, Kerr & Co., New York City. 

There must have been some few occurrences in the 
past year to which we can look back with a smile of 
cheerful recollection, if not with a feeling of heartfelt 
thankfulness. — The New Year. 

April, 1916 



Elmer A. Borell, recently appointed engineer of mo- 
tive power of the Philadelphia & Reading Railway, at 
Reading, Pa., has been serving that road in the capacity 
of general air brake inspector, which poistion is now 

A. Brown, recently appointed district master me- 
chanic for the Canadian Pacific at Winnipeg, Man., suc- 
ceeding A. Peers, transferred to Moose Jaw, Sask., was 
before his promotion locomotive foreman at Fort Wil- 
liam, Ont. 

G. A. Budge, recently appointed traveling engineer 
on the northern division of the Chicago, St. Paul, Min- 
neapolis & Omaha Ry. at Spooner, Wis., entered the 
service of that road in 1901 as fireman and was pro- 
moted to engineer in 1904. He has been serving in 
that capacity until the announcement of his recent 

William A. Callison, recently appointed master me- 
chanic for the Lehigh Valley Railroad at East Buffalo, 
N. Y., entered the service of the Chesapeake & Ohio 
at Huntington, W. Va., in 1895 and completed his ap- 
prenticeship in 1899. He was then appointed machin- 
ist in the shops at Richmond, Va., and in 1900 was 
transferred to Hinton, W. Va. In 1903 he was made 
roundhouse foreman and in 1905 general foreman of 
the motive power department, Kanawha coal district, at 
Handley, W. Va. In 1909 he accepted a position as 
division foreman with the Missouri Pacific at Wichita. 
Kan., and in 1910 returned to the Chesapeake & Ohio 
at Hinton, W. Va., as general foreman, being later 
transferred to Peru, Ind. In 1911 he was appointed 
master mechanic of terminals on the Chicago, Indian- 
apolis & Louisville and later division master me- 
chanic at Lafayette, Ind. In his new work with the 
Lehigh Valley, Mr. Callison succeeds D. D. Robertson, 
transferred to South Easton, Pa. 

T. W. Coe has recently been appointed master me- 
chanic of the Indiana Harbor Belt R. R. at Gibson, Ind., 
where he will have charge of the machinery and car 

John Dougherty, recently appointed road foreman of 
engines on the Michigan Central at Michigan City, Ind., 
entered the service of the New York Central at Batavia, 
N. Y., in 1891 on a road and wrecking train; was made 
brakeman on that train in 1892, and in 1893 entered the 
service of the Michigan Central as fireman. In 1900 he 
was made engineman, where he remained until in his 
present appointment he succeeds R. E. Dougherty, re- 

Agnew Thomas Dice, the newly elected president of 
the Philadelphia & Reading, was born November 2, 
1862, at Scotland, Pa. He entered railway service 1881, 
since which he has been consecutively: to 1882, Hag- 
man with engineering corps, Pennsylvania Railroad; 
1882 to 1887, rodman and assistant engineer, same road ; 
1887 to 1888, engaged on special work on signals at 
Altoona, Pa.; 1888 to 1890, assistant supervisor, and 
1890 to January 1, 1892, supervisor, same road; Janu- 

ary 1, 1892, to January 1, 1893, superintendent of sig- 
nals, New York Central & Hudson River Railroad; Jan- 
uary 1, 1893, to April 1, 1894, assistant superintendent 
Hudson Division, same road; April 1, 1894, to January 
1, 1897, superintendent Atlantic City Railroad; January 

Agnew T. Dice 

1 to February 1, 1897, assistant superintendent Read- 
ing Division, Philadelphia & Reading Railway, in charge 
freight terminals at Philadelphia, Pa.; February 1, 
1897, to May 1, 1903, superintendent Shamokin Division, 
same road; May 1, 1903, to January 1, 1910, general 
superintendent, same road; January 1, 1910, to Janu- 
ary 1, 1913, general manager, and thereafter vice-presi- 
dent and general manager, until March 15, 1916. when 
elected president of same road. 

Clyde C. Elmes, recently appointed assistant superin- 
tendent of motive power and rolling equipment, of the 
Philadelphia & Reading, was in 1914 promoted from 
road foreman of engines to assistant mechanical engi- 
neer, and he has been serving in that capacity until the 
announcement of his recent appointment. 

J. E. Gallagher, recently appointed road foreman of 
engines of the Philadelphia & Reading Ry. at Tamaqua, 
Pa., entered the service of that road in 1894. In 1897 
he became a fireman and in 1899 an engineman, which 
position he held until his recent appointment, succeed- 
ing Clyde Elmes, promoted. 

J. R. Greiner, recently appointed master mechanic of 
the Missouri, Oklahoma & Gulf Railway at Denison, 
Tex., served his apprenticeship on the Big Four Rail- 
way at Delaware, O., after which he worked for three 
years as machinist for the Cincinnati, Hamilton & 
Dayton Railway at Indianapolis, and for other roads. 
In 1908 he was appointed roundhouse foreman for the 
Cincinnati, Hamilton & Dayton Railway at Toledo, O., 



April, 1916 

and in 1911 was made master mechanic of that road at 
Lima, 0. In 1913 he was appointed master mechanic of 
the San Pedro, Los Angeles & Salt Lake Railway. In 
1914 he was made master mechanic of the Missouri, 
Kansas & Texas, where he remained until his recent 
appointment, in which he succeeds James Carr, re- 

W. K. Lynn, recently appointed master mechanic of 
the Gulf & Ship Island R. R., at Gulfport, Miss., entered 
the service of that road in 1901 as machinist, was 
later appointed general foreman of the Gulfport shops 
and then transferred to the Hattiesburg shops, where 
he remained until his appointment as master mechanic. 

M. F. McCarra has recently been appointed master 
mechanic of the Illinois Southern Railway at Sparta, 
111., succeeding G. A. Gallagher, deceased. 

J. Mcintosh, recently appointed master mechanic of 
the Central New England Railway at Poughkeepsie, 
N. Y., entered the service of the New Haven in 1905 as 
car repairer at Falls Village. In 1897 he was trans- 
ferred to the blacksmith shop and later to the boiler 
shop, where in 1900 he was appointed boilermaker, in 
1904 boiler inspector and in 1909 foreman boilermaker 
at the East Hartford shops. In 1912 he was appointed 
assistant general foreman, acting as foreman boiler- 
maker, as well as assistant general foreman. Mr. Mc- 
intosh in his new work succeeds F. B. Fisher, assigned 
to other duties. 

R. N. Millice has recently been appointed assistant 
locomotive superintendent on the United Railways of 
Havana at Cienaga, Cuba, succeeding D. T. Roberts, 

P. C. Moshisky, recently appointed master mechanic 
of the Denver and Rio Grande at Ridgway, Colo., suc- 
ceeding J. A. Edwards, resigned, has been serving as 
general foreman for that road at Durango, Colo. 

C. D. Powell, recently appointed general master me- 
chanic of the Midland Valley Railroad at Muskogee, 
Okla., served his apprenticeship as boilermaker in the 
Baltimore & Ohio Railroad shops at Grafton, W. Va., 
and served in that shop later as boiler inspector and 
assistant boiler foreman. In 1910 he was appointed 
general boiler inspector of the Baltimore & Ohio 
Southwestern, with headquarters at Cincinnati. In 
1911 his jurisdiction as general boilermaker was ex- 
tended to include the Cincinnati, Hamilton & Dayton 
Railway. In 1913 he was promoted to general boiler in- 
spector for the entire Baltimore & Ohio main line, 
with headquarters at Baltimore, Md. In 1914 he was 
appointed general inspector of machinery and boilers 
for the Texas and Pacific, with headquarters at Fort 
Worth, Tex., and he has recently accepted the position 
of general master mechanic of the Midland Valley Rail- 

C. J. Quantic, recently appointed master mechanic of 
the Pacific division of the Canadian Northern at Port 
Mann, B. C, entered the service of that road as appren- 
tice machinist at Dauphin, Man., in 1900. In 1904 he 
was appointed locomotive engineer, in 1911 he was ap- 
pointed master mechanic of the construction depart- 
ment of the Pacific division and held that position until 
that division was open for traffic and the office of mas- 
ter mechanic created. 

H. H. Ray, recently appointed master mechanic of the 
Galveston Wharf Co., began his apprenticeship in the 
Galveston shops of the Santa Fe in 1891 and after com- 
pleting his apprenticeship served as machinist both at 

Galveston and at Topeka, Kan. In 1897 he was ap- 
pointed head machinist in the Santa Fe San Marcial 
shops. In 1898 he was appointed gang boss at Raton, 
N. Mex., and in 1899 was appointed machine foreman 
at Houston, Tex. In 1908 he was appointed roundhouse 
foreman for the Galveston Wharf Co., where he re- 
mained until the announcement of his recent appoint- 
ment. During his years as machinist Mr. Ray has 
served on a number of the prominent Southern and 
Western roads and the variety of his service in that re- 
spect has especially fitted him for the newly created 
position to which he has recently been appointed. 

John P. Risque has recently been appointed mechan- 
ical engineer of the United Railways of Havana at 
Havana, Cuba. 

D. B. Sebastian, recently appointed assistant manager 
of fuel on the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific, having 
jurisdiction over the purchase inspection, distribution, 
handling and economy of fuel, entered the fuel depart- 
ment of that road in 1907 and has filled many positions, 
including those of fuel supervisor and assistant to 
general fuel agent. In 1910 he was placed in charge of 
that department. Recently the fuel and mining depart- 
ments of the road were combined and the purchase of 
fuel included in their jurisdiction, and in this combina- 
tion Mr. Sebastian was appointed to the newly created 
office of assistant manager of fuel. 


Safety-first Pictures on the B. & O. 

Moving pictures will be used by the Baltimore & Ohio 
Railroad as an adjunct to their safety-first campaign. 
These pictures are intended to impress upon employes 
the importance of being careful in the interest of the 
personal safety of patrons and of themselves. The 
railroad has purchased a machine for exhibiting mo- 
tion pictures of railroad operation as performed cor- 
rectly and incorrectly. The machine will be added to 
the equipment of the general safety committee. "The 
House that Jack Built," a scenario written by Mr. Mar- 
cus A. Dow, general safety agent of the New York Cen- 
tral Lines, and produced by one of the larger concerns 
employing well-known stars, will be exhibited as a part 
of the program of the various safety committee meet- 
ings which are held each month by officials and em- 

Pensylvania Railroad Statistics 

The Pennsylvania railroad system serves the District 
of Columbia, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Maryland, 
Michigan, Missouri, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, 
Pennsylvania, Virginia and West Virginia. Half the 
population of the United States, or 50,000,000 of people, 
live within the boundaries of this section. 

The length of the lines in the Pennsylvania system — 
in other words, the route mileage — is 11,823 miles. Three 
thousand seven hundred and sixty-one miles of these 
lines have two or more tracks, 828 miles are provided 
with three tracks, and 635 miles with four tracks. Be- 
sides, there are 9,656 miles of sidings owned by the 
company, not including thousands of industrial and 
other sidings. If this vast number of tracks was put 
into a single line there would be a railroad long enough 
to circle the globe and enough rails left over to double 
track it between New York and Kansas City. The 
Pennsylvania system gridirons the 12 States mentioned 
above as well as the District of Columbia. 

May, 1916 



Master Mechanic 


Published on the second Thursday of every month by the 


Edward A. Simmons, President 

Lucius B. Sherman, Vice-Pres. Henry Lee, Vice-Pres. and Treas. 

M. H. Wium, Secretary 

Woolworth Building, New York. 

Chicago: Transportation Bldg. Cleveland: Citizens Bldg. 

London: Queen Anne's Chambers, Westminster. 

George S. Hodgins, Editor 

A railway magazine devoted to the interests of railway motive power, 
cars, equipment, appliances, shops, machinery and supplies. 

Communications are solicited on any topic suitable to our columns. 

Subscription price: Domestic, $1.00 a year; Foreign countries, $1.50, free 
of postage. Single copies, 20 cents. Advertising rates given on appli- 
cation to the office, by mail or in person. 

Entered as Second-Class Matter at the Post Officte, New York, N. Y., under 

Act of March 3, 1879 

Vol. XL 

New York, May, 1916 

No. 5 

Table of Contents 

Editorial — Page 

The Horsepower of a Boiler 153 

High Capacity Freight Cars 154 

Selecting Men 154 

Railway Supplies for South America 155 

Examples of Two New 2-10-2 Type of Locomotives 156 

Comparison of these engines with Mikado type. Lateral motion 
axle box as applied to 2-10-2 engines. Many new appliances. 

The Traveling Engineers' Association 159 

Boiler Makers to Meet in May 159 

What a Locomotive Brick Arch Does in the Firebox 160 

Origin of fire clay; its general composition. Burning of coal 
and the effect of a brick arch in securing desirable results. 

The Railroad Mechanical Conventions 163 

The Railway Supply Manufacturers' Association 163 

American Locomotives in New Zealand 163 

Heat Characteristics and Braking Effects on Chilled and Rolled 

Steel Wheels 164 

Effect of unequal heat on various parts of a wheel. Origin of 
various defects. Scientific explanation of the shelled-out spot. 

Expediting Preferred Freight Cars 167 

Steel-Frame Passenger Equipment on the G. T. R... 168 

Looking Toward South America 169 

Annual Meeting of the Southwestern Car Men's Club 170 

Synopsis of some of the papers read on that occasion. Review 
of the year. Promoting acquaintances. Necessary things for 
club success. Efficiency — What is it? 

Letters to the Editor 171 

Curious Wear of Journal — C. E. Slayton. 

The Cause of Slid Flat Wheels — Brake-Shoe Friction Exceeding 

Rail Friction 172 

Bessemer & Lake Erie Blacksmith Shop 173 

Construction and dimensions. Ventilating system to secure a 
clear atmosphere. Tools and machines used. Class of work. 

Safety Arch Inculcating Safety Always 175 

Standardization of Chilled Crane Wheels 176 

Altering Locomotive Front Ends 176 

High-Speed Points on Soft Steel Shanks 177 

By Hector Harris, Rock Island Lines, Horton, Kan. Methods 
of forming tools with cutting portion renewed from time to 
time. Roughing, finishing, side tools and parting tool methods 
explained and illustrated. 

Evolution of the Wedge Type Piston-Rod Packing 178 

Discussion of effective and non-effective areas in packing. The 
importance of closing components. The utility of the wedge. 

Specializing Engine-House Work 179 

New Trade Literature and Appliances 180 

Practical Suggestions from Railway Men 181 

Taking Weight Off Springs— M. J. McCabe, Machine Fore- 
man, Mo. Pac. Ry., Sedalia, Mo. 

Oil Press— V. T. Kropidlowski— C. & N. W. Shops, Winona, 

Device for Holding Distributing Valves — E. H. Wolf, air- 
brake machinist, A. C. L., Waycross, Ga. 
Segment Valve — C. W. Shane, Erie R. R., Huntington, Ind. 

Personal Items for Railroad Men 183 

Book Review 184 

The Horsepower of a Boiler 

The use of the term horsepower in connection with a 
boiler is a misapplication of the expression. It is 
unscientific and, as a matter of fact, is fast disappearing 
from the vocabulary of the engineer when he is speak- 
ing of the steam-generating qualities of a boiler. Horse- 
power is in itself, when properly used, a scientific term 
of very great value. 

Horsepower is the measure of the rate at which work 
is done, and work in the mathematical or engineering 
sense is pressure acting through distance. This is the 
definition, and work is expressed in foot-pounds. The 
rate at which work is performed is measured by the 
unit — horsepower. The origin of the expression is 
credited to Watt, who took what he considered as the 
average daily performance of a London dray horse and 
made that the basis of his hitherto unknown unit. As 
a matter of fact, the average was found to be too high 
for the sustained endurance of even these heavy and 
strong horses; but the unit having been established, 
was retained, and has now become one of the primary 
conceptions in engineering science. 

Work in this case is 33,000 foot-pounds, and when a 
weight of 33,000 lbs, is lifted one foot high in one min- 
ute of time it constitutes one horsepower. When asked 
to define a horsepower, we say 33,000 lbs. lifted a foot 
in a minute. It is therefore easily evident that the pro- 
duction of steam in a boiler has nothing to do with the 
performance of foot-pound work in a given time. 

Notwithstanding all this, the expression boiler horse- 
power still survives, and arbitrary as Watt's horsepower 
unit may have been, the unit of boiler horsepower seems 
to be quite as arbitrary. A boiler horsepower has been 
defined as the evaporation of 34 ] /2 pounds of water from 
and at 212 degs. Fahr. per hour. The turning of 34.5 
lbs. of water into steam from and at 212 degs. Fahr. is 
a unit adopted in 1876, the year of the Centennial Ex- 
position in Philadelphia, as it was then believed to rep- 
resent what was required per indicated horsepower for 
the average stationary engine. 

Some time ago the American Society of Mechanical 
Engineers recommended that in standard trials boiler 
horsepower should be 30 lbs. of water per hour evapo- 
rated from water at 100 degs. Fahr. to steam at 70 lbs. 
gauge pressure. This is practically equal to 34.5 lbs. 
evaporated from a feed water temperature of 212 degs. 
Fahr. into steam at the same temperature. This is equal 
to 33,305 B.t.u. per hour. One pound of water evapor- 
ated from and at 212 degs. Fahr. equals 965.7 B.t.u. 

There is, of course, no connection between Watts' 
33,000 foot-pounds and 33,305 British thermal units. 
Each of these things has a separate scientific value, 
although heat and mechanical energy are interchange- 
able and have a definite ratio existing between them. 
The general method of estimating the performance of a 
locomotive boiler is to consider the relative rapidity of 
steaming as the number of pounds of water evaporated 
per hour from one square foot of heating surface. The 
measure of the relative rapidity of combustion of coal 



May, 1916 

in boiler furnaces is the number of pounds of coal 
burned per hour on a square foot of grate area. The 
question of the evaporative value of heating surface in 
a locomotive boiler is an indeterminate quantity, as it 
is generally considered that the heating surface of the 
boiler nearest the firebox is superior to that which is 
further away. 

A rule recently proposed is that, in the absence of 
actual test intended to secure only an approximate re- 
sult, when estimating boiler horsepower, is to take the 
heating surface (in feet), multiplied by 3, and divide 
the result by 34.5. The figure 3 used here is supposed 
to represent the average pounds of water evaporated 
from and at 212 degs. Fahr. per square foot of heating 

Locomotive boilers — and for that matter, marine boil- 
ers — are designed with direct reference to the engines 
they are to supply with steam, and in locomotive and ma- 
rine work the expression boiler horsepower is not used. It 
is applied now-a-days more often to boilers which are 
purchased by themselves and are then connected to an 
engine for which they are thought to be most suitable. 
In such cases, the relationship of boiler to engine is 
not always determined beforehand, as it always is in 
the case of the locomotive, and the term boiler horse 
power, as applied outside of locomotive construction, is 
in any case only an approximation. 


High Capacity Freight Cars 

While there have been built from time to time in re- 
cent years freight cars of high capacities, generally 
speaking, the 50-ton capacity car has maintained its su- 
premacy among hopper and gondola cars. Cars of 70 
tons capacity are used to some extent and one road, 
the Norfolk & Western. This road began the use of 
90-ton gondola cars a few years ago and now has in 
service such a large number of them that figures com- 
paring them with other coal-carrying cars may be in- 

These cars are mounted on six-wheel trucks and have 
a light weight of 59,300 lbs., with a carrying capacity, 
allowing 10 per cent for over load, of 198,900 lbs. This 
makes the total weight of car and lading 258,200 lbs., 
the revenue load being 77 per cent of the total load. Re- 
designing of the car with a view to reducing the weight 
without impairing its strength will probably result in 
bringing the weight down to 53,000 lbs.; this reduction 
will raise the ratio of revenue load to total load to 79 
per cent. Comparing this car with the 57 1 /2-ton steel 
hoppers in use on the N. & W., it will be found that 
with the latter, which have four-wheel trucks, a light 
weight of 42,000 lbs., a gross capacity of 126,000 lbs. 
and a total weight of 168,000 lbs., the ratio of revenue to 
total load is 75 per cent. The ordinary coal-train load 
on the Norfolk & Western is 5,000 tons, cars and lading 
included, and with the two extra pairs of wheels on 
each of the 90-ton cars, although there are fewer cars 
in the train than in a train of 57y2-ton cars, the train 
resistance per ton should be about the same. Consid- 

ering, then, the lighter design of the 90-ton car, there 
is an increase of 227 tons in the amount of coal in a 
train of the heavier cars as compared with a similar 
train composed of the 57y2-ton hopper cars. 

If we examine the figures for the average 50-ton 
hopper car used in similar trains we find that the ratio 
of revenue load to total load is 72 per cent, the differ- 
ence in the amount of coal in the train in this case be- 
ing 439 tons in favor of the 90-ton gondola train. The 
50-ton car considered has a light weight of 43,000 lbs. 
and a total weight of 153,000 lbs., allowing for 10 per 
cent overload. Again, as compared with a 70-ton hop- 
per car mounted on four-wheel trucks and having a 
light weight of 46,000 lbs. and a total weight of 200,000 
lbs., the ratio of revenue to total load is 77 per cent, 
which is very close to that of the 90-ton car, and the 
amount of coal in the train is the same as in the case 
of the heavier 90-ton car train, and about 120 tons less 
than that for the lighter 90-ton car train. As compared 
with the lighter cars there is a saving in the length of 
a solid train of the 90-ton cars, this being, in the case 
of a solid train of the 50-ton cars, about 300 ft.; but 
as stated above, the two extra axles on the 90-ton car 
bring the train resistance to a figure approximately the 
same as that for some of the lighter cars. The axle 
load necessary with the 90-ton cars equipped with four- 
wheel instead of six-wheel trucks would be so high as 
to be prohibitive for general use, but the six-wheel 
trucks give a better distribution of weight as affecting 
the wheel loads, the weight per axle being 42,000 lbs. 
as compared with 50,000 lbs. in the case of the 70-ton 
hopper. While no great advantage is indicated by the 
figures of the 90-ton hopper over the 70-ton car, condi- 
tions on the Norfolk & Western are more favorable to 
the employment of such high-capacity cars than they 
would be on many roads and the attainment of such 
low weight in a car of the dimensions necessary in ob- 
taining this capacity and mounted on six-wheel trucks, 
is certainly a triumph for the designer. 


Selecting Men 

If the average man was asked to write down the qual- 
ifications of a good foreman, it is probable that most' of 
the Christian virtues would be on the list of requisites. 
There would in all likelihood be two converging lines of 
thought which would indicate a general realization of 
the fact that the foreman, especially if a railroad me- 
chanical department foreman, should possess the qual- 
ification of resourcefulness, which means that he 
should be able to overcome difficulties quickly and ef- 
fectively and be able to do a great deal with very little. 

The other line of thought on which there would be 
entire agreement, is that the foreman should have, and 
use, good judgment in the selection of men. What is 
this faculty of good judgment of men? On what is it 
based, and on what does it work? The requirement so 
often stated in broad generalities, is hardly ever de- 
fined. The faculty or the quality of using good judg- 
ment in selecting men practically amounts to getting 

May, 1916 



hold of the right man by simply looking at him. This 
is easy to say, but hard to do, and in fact it is probably 
not done at all. Nevertheless fair or passable results 
are being attained in this line every day on a railway. 
The fact that roughly workable results are constantly 
being had in railway repair shops, does not throw much 
light on how even this class of results can be secured, 
for it tells nothing of what good judgment is based on 
or on what characteristics of the prospective employe, 
it seizes, so as to become effecti\<e. 

A foreman sits in his office, trying to mentally esti- 
mate the merits and demerits of, say, three or four ap- 
plicants. He knows the kind of work for which he re- 
quires a man. He has a general idea of the "atmos- 
phere" of his shop, but nothing very definite, yet noth- 
ing serious against it, perhaps his thoughts are favor- 
able. The foreman can select a machinist, if he wants 
one, without much danger of hiring an unskilled la- 
borer, and that differentiation is almost automatic. He 
must, however, use "good judgment" in discriminating 
between the traits of men whose ability, qualifications, 
and skill have been stated by each with the palpable 
desire to secure the place. 

Of this group of men, the applicants and the "boss," 
the only man the foreman really knows is himself. 
The others may, and probably do, tell their stories by 
face and form, action and build, but the foreman has 
not the subtle powers of observation necessary to dis- 
cover them. The knowledge of himself, whether he be- 
lieves it or not, is very largely that upon which his 
opinion of the others will probably be based. In the 
first place the old proverb "like master like man" ap- 
plies with full force. When this is examined it will be 
found that the past actions and methods of the fore- 
man will stand forth against him in judgment or will 
arise and call him blessed. If his shop is a bright and 
cheerful place to work in, he made it so. If his men 
are busy and happy, he is the cause. If they take a 
living interest in their work, he is responsible for that 
interest. If he is a man who not only has given his 
orders but has told his men what he is trying to ac- 
complish by those instructions, he will get the finest 
kind of loyal support, and the thing required will be 
done fully and effectively. If he has encouraged en- 
thusiasm of a wholesome and sane variety, he will 
never have to "give orders" and need only ask once. 
If the foreman has found out that he can only get out 
of his shop the same kind of material that he has pre- 
viously put into it, and knowing this has chosen wisely, 
the quantity of his brand, will never be out of stock 
day or night. 

In dealing with the men before him he is really 
making a selection of a man to become "one of us" and 
be a cog in his wheel, and here again the choice is 
partly, though not wholly, automatic. It is automatic 
in so far as the exercise of the qualities by which he 
gave his "wholesome atmosphere" to his shop or round 
house had become themselves part of his own person- 
ality. He unknowingly tends to attract his like, and 
with common-sense judgment based on the things he 

can see and take in, about the applicant's demeanor 
and style, he makes a choice in which his own ideals 
are unconscientiously reflected. 

This brief survey of the subject is not flawless, and 
it does not attempt to deal with the thousand and one 
modifying circumstances which, as Tennyson says, 
forms that "wilderness of single instances," which we 
all know. It is rather an attempt to direct attention 
to a more or less obscured factor which has a distinct, 
though changing value. It may at one time be like the 
"constant" in an equation, and at another time be a 
"variable" of considerable magnitude. In the choice 
or selection of another, a man may only partly reveal 
himself, or he may draw a picture of his mental make-up 
that all who know him shall recognize the portrait. The 
value of the factor may vary within limits, but it is 
never completely eliminated. "Show me a man's friends 
and I will tell you what he is." 


Railway Supplies for South America 

The full measure of railroad development in South 
America may truly be said to be still in the future. As 
far as the manufacturers of railroad supplies are con- 
cerned, South America has not been as fully consid- 
ered as it might have been or as it will be. 

One of the greatest obstacles to commercial inter- 
course is want of knowledge of each other by buyer and 
seller. This want of understanding is fortunately be- 
ing removed by the systematic campaigns of instruc- 
tion which have been carried on by the technical and 
periodic press of the country. The establishment of 
New York branch banks in some of the principal cities 
of South America have provided facilities for the 
transference of credits, which formerly had to be done 
through the banking houses of London. 

With the intention of gathering further information 
on the subject of South American trade as it affects 
railway supply houses in this country, the U. S. Depart- 
ment of Commerce, through its bureau of foreign and 
domestic commerce is preparing to send a special agent 
to investigate the markets of South America, for rail- 
way supplies. 

As a preliminary the Department of Commerce plans 
to hold an examination on May 19 so as to obtain the 
most suitable man for the post. The salary of an ap- 
pointee to this position will not exceed ten dollars a 
day for each day in the year; and actual transportation 

There are many of our well-known railway supply 
firms anxious for the cultivation of the fruitful field 
which has too long lain fallow. It seems advisable 
that in an investigation so closely connected with the 
business life of railroad supply firms that the matter 
should be looked into, and reported upon by some one 
who has devoted many years of his life to the subject 
of the equipment of railway enterprises, or a man 
whose natural tendencies and peculiar abilities have 
led him to devote his activity to the railroad supply 



May, 1916 

Examples of Two New 2-10-2 Type of Locomotives 

Comparison of These Engines With The Mikado Type; Lateral Motion 
Axle Boxes Applied to The 2-10-2 Engines. Many New Appliances Used 

Twelve 2-10-2 type locomotives for the New York, 
Ontario & Western Railway and five for the Erie 
Railroad have recently been delivered by the American 
Locomotive Company. This type of locomotive has at- 
tracted the attention of many railroad officials. 

As train loads outgrow the capacity of the Mikado or 
2-8-2 type, the 2-10-2, sometimes called the Santa Fe 

Consolidation locomotives now in service throughout 
the country. 

The lateral box arrangement consists of two inde- 
pendent driving boxes, whose traverse lateral centers 
are about on a line with the inside of the main engine 
frames. These two driving boxes are held in a fixed 
relation to each other by a bridge or spacing member 

fl-' ,^f 

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Heavy Freight 2-10-2 for the New York, Ontario & Western Railway 
B. P. Flory, Supt. of Motive Power American Locomotive Co., Builders 

type, becomes its logical successor in the same way as 
the Mikado type succeeded the Consolidation. The 
2-10-2 type has been hitherto handicapped by its long, 
rigid wheel base. The application to these locomotives 
of lateral-motion driving axles and boxes has been made 
for the purpose of reducing the rigid wheel base to that 
which is in common use on locomotives of smaller 

which engages the inner flanges of the boxes. The 
weight which is transmitted through this bridge mem- 
ber is applied to the boxes on their transverse centers. 
The lugs on the spacing member which engage the in- 
ner flanges of the boxes are for the sole purpose of 
maintaining the proper spacing of the boxes and do not 
transfer any vertical load. The driving springs are in 


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Wm. Schlafge, Gen. Mech. Supt. 

Freighter for the Erie Railroad, 2-10-2 Type 

American Locomotive Co., Builders 

capacity and at the same time securing the advantages 
of the 10-coupled wheel arrangement with the resulting 
increased capacity of the locomotive. 

Driving; wheel base. 

N. Y. O. & W.... 20ft. Oin. 
Erie 22 ft. 6 in. 

Rigid wheel base. 

15ft. Oin. 
16 ft. 6 in. 

These figures for rigid wheel base are well within the 
figures used on a very large number of Mikado and 

about the normal position and are carried upon a cross 
member which has a vertical movement only between 
the engine frames, a wearing shoe being placed upon 
the inner side of the main frames to prevent side 
motion. Between this cross member and the bridge, or 
spacing member, mentioned above, are interposed two 
inverted rockers designed so that a lateral force equal 
to 20 per cent of the vertical weight transmitted is re- 
quired to deflect them from their normal position. When 

May, 1916 



the boxes are deflected by a side movement of the first 
pair of driving wheels from their normal central posi- 
tion, the boxes and the bridge casting are moved later- 
ally in reference to the member carrying the springs. 
This movement deflects the inverted rockers which of- 
fer a definite resistance against the motion. It will be 
noted that the spring and equalizer work is not shifted 
from its normal position when the boxes are deflected 

It will be noted from the photograph and drawings 
that one side of the bridge member is carried down be- 

Lateral Motion Arrangement for Drivers 

low the driving axle with a bolting flange. This is pro- 
vided for the attachment of a finger to guide the brake 
beam and insure that the brake heads register properly 
with tires on No. 1 driver. 

The rod connections between the first and second 
drivers are arranged with a ball knuckle joint ahead of 
the pin on No. 2 driver, which allows for lateral deflec- 
tion of the side rods. The construction of the crank 
pin and rod bearing at No. 1 driver is clearly shown in 
our illustration. It consists of an ordinary design of 
cylindrical crank pin, on which is placed a hard bronze 
bushing, the interior being bored cylindrical and the 
outside turned to a spherical surface. Encasing this 
bushing are two half pieces of hard steel which are 
held in place in a rod end with a wedge, in the same man- 
ner as two ordinary half brasses. The bushing can re- 
volve either on the crank pin or within the two steel 
halves. When the rod is deflected from normal position, 
the spherical bushing allows the parts to rotate sidewise 
around the center of the front crank pin; at the same 
time the bushing can revolve on the cylindrical portion 
of the pin. Several oil holes are provided through the 
bronze bushing which insure lubrication of both the 
spherical and cylindrical surfaces of the bushing. 

The operation of the lateral motion axle should be 
considered in connection with the engine truck. It will 
be noted that the driving springs of the first and second 
axles are equalized in the usual manner to the engine 
truck; therefore, the weight upon the engine truck cen- 
ter pin and the lateral motion boxes on the first axle is 
divided in proportion to the arms of the front equalizer. 
The engine truck on this engine is of the inverted rocker 
type having a resistance of 50 per cent against the 
initial movement, and as stated, the resistance of the 
lateral device at the first driver is 20 per cent. These 
resistances are so chosen in relation to the weight com- 
ing upon each centering device that the lateral result- 

ants at the engine truck and the first driver are just 
about the same in amount. It will thus be seen that in 
effect the engine truck and the first driver act in prac- 
tically the same way as a four-wheel engine truck in 
guiding the front of the locomotive, except that the 
weight instead of being applied midway between the 
wheels and divided between them as in the case of a 
four-wheel truck. As far as guiding the engine is con- 
cerned, therefore, the arrangement is very similar to a 
four-wheel truck application with the rear wheel of the 
truck acting as a driving wheel. 

The resistance of the lateral motion box is propor- 
tioned with the idea of providing enough initial resist- 
ance so that for any ordinary road service on tangent 
track or road curves the first driver will remain in 
normal position and deflect only when passing through 
turnouts and yard curves. The operation of the device 
in service has clearly demonstrated the correctness of 
the design in this particular. A close inspection of the 
engines in operation discloses the fact that the lateral 
motion first driver very rarely deflects when the engine 
is upon the road. When the locomotive passes through 
sharp turnouts or is operating around yards the lateral 
motion driver will deflect, thus preventing the cramping 
of the driving wheel base in the curve and of excess 
pressure upon the driving wheel flanges. 

It should be remembered that the action of the rock- 
ers provides a limit to the lateral pressure which can 
be placed upon the first driving wheel flange. When 
this lateral resistance exceeds 20 per cent of the weight 
lateral resistance is applied in the plane of each wheel 
carried upon the lateral motion rockers the boxes will 
deflect, the excess lateral pressure being then transfer- 
red to the second driver, thus dividing the work of 
guiding the engine through curves between the truck 
and the first and second drivers, instead of between the 
truck and the first driver only, as in the ordinary 10- 
coupled arrangement. This lateral motion driving box 

Ragonnet Power Reverse Gear 

can also be applied to engines having four-wheel trucks. 
This device has been patented. 

On the ordinary design of 2-10-2 types about 80 per 
cent of the total weight of the engine is carried on the 
drivers. It is therefore interesting to note the increase 
which has been obtained on these new engines. 


N. Y. O. & W r 352,500 

Erie 401,000 

Weight on 









May, 1916 

Most careful attention was given to the boiler design. 




of boiler 




at largest 





sq. ft. 

sq ft. 



N. Y. 0. & W.... 

. . 4498 





. . . 4959 




These boilers have the added advantages of a short 
tube length and a large diameter. A short tube length 
not only gives greater evaporative value per square foot 
of heating surface, but also reduces back pressure and 
consequently increases the power of the engine. A 
large diameter combined with short tube length prac- 
tically places a large volume of water where the evap- 
orative value of the tubes is the highest. This large 
volume of water is ready to quickly turn into steam and 
so increase the reserve supply of steam. 

Both these engines have a short distance from the 
rear wheel to the draw bar. This not only makes the 
engine ride easier on curves, but it reduces the friction 
between flange of wheel and rail which helps to in- 
crease the draw bar pull. 

Both engines are equipped with superheaters, a com- 
bination Gaines and Security brick arch, Street auto- 

by a cast steel plate having an arm projecting down- 
ward. This arm is connected by a suitable link with 
the lower end of a floating lever, the upper end of which 
is pivotly connected to and supported by the valve stem. 
Through the agency of a rocker, the upper end of which 
is connected by a light rod with a small reverse lever 
and the lower through a link with the floating lever a 
short distance below the valve stem, the movement of 
the valve is controlled from the cab. The rocker is pro- 
vided with tappets which strike the end of projecting 
set screws when the limit of travel of the valve is 
reached. These screws merely limit the throw of the 
reverse arm in either direction and require no adjust- 
ment after once being set. The reverse lever is locked 
in any desired position by an ordinary toothed quadrant. 

It will be seen that the floating lever causes the valve 
to be lapped when the piston has reached a position in 
the cylinder corresponding to the position in which the 
reverse lever is placed. Assuming the reverse lever in 
mid-position and the valve normally covering both 
ports, when the lever is moved into full forward motion, 
which is to the right, as shown in our illustration, the 
valve will be moved to the right by the floating lever 
swinging about its lower end as a fulcrum, and air will 
be admitted to the left end of the cylinder. As soon as 
the lever is latched the valve will be moved to the left 
by the floating lever, swinging about its pivot on the 
connecting link, and will be lapped when the piston has 
reached its maximum travel to the right. Since the ex- 
haust or inside lap of the valve is materially greater 
than the outside lap, air pressure is held on both sides 
of the piston at the same time. The mechanism is thus 
prevented from creeping or vibrating by an elastic 
cushion. In no case does the valve open to the exhaust 
when holding the gear in any desired cut-off position. 

The entire mechanism is simple in construction and 
has proved reliable in service. Owing to the propor- 
tions of the valve lap the gear as designed is economical 
of air. When the piston and piston-rod packing is 
properly maintained the loss of air in holding the gear 
in a fixed position is exceedingly small and is practic- 
ally unnoticed. The holding of the valve gear through 

Arrangement of the Lateral Motion Journal Boxes and the Side Rods 

matic stokers, Baker valve gear, Ragonnet air reverse 
mechanism, Chambers throttle. Economy front and 
rear trucks and Vanadium frames. With regard to the 
reversing gear a word of description of the Ragonnet 
apparatus may not be out of place for the benefit of our 
readers who are not entirely familiar with the device. 
The gear is handled by the Eoconomy Devices Corpora- 
tion of New York. 

The Ragonnet device has been extensively used for 
several years. It has passed through the experimental 
stage and is an example of a practical solution of the 
power reverse gear problem. 

The gear is preferably operated by air, although an 
auxiliary steam connection is provided. Distribution is 
controlled by an ordinary D-slide valve arranged for 
ouside admission, the exhaust or inside lap being mate- 
rially greater than the admission or outside lap, which 
is very small. The cross-head gibs are held in place 

the medium of an air cushion instead of by a rigid latch 
and quardrant tends to lessen the wear and tear on the 
valve gear and its connections. 

Dimension Data, Etc., N. Y., O. & W. Engine 

Road, New York, Ontario & Western. Class, 2-10-2. 
Schnectady works. Track gauge, 4 ft. 8 x /2 ins. Fuel, 
bitum. coal. Cylinder: Type, piston valve; diam., 28 
ins.; stroke, 32 ins. Tractive power, simple, 71,200. 
Factor of adhesion, simple, 4.21. Wheel bases: Driving, 
20 ft.; rigid, 20 ft.; total, 36 ft. 9 in.; total engine and 
tender, 66 ft. 10 ins. Weight: In working order, 352,- 
500; on drivers, 298,500; on trailers, 24,000; on engine 
truck, 30,000; engine and tender, 521,200. Boiler: Type, 
extended wagon top.; out. diam., first ring, 86 ins.; 
working pressure, 190 lbs. Firebox: Type, wide; length, 
lSOVs ins.; width, 96 1 / 4 ins.; thickness of crown % in., 
tube v 2 in., sides % in., back % in.; water space, front 
5% ins., sides 5 ins., back 5 ins., depth (top of grate 

May, 1916 



to center of lowest tube) 2% ins. Crown staying, 
radial. Tubes: Material, see sheet No. 2; 337, 2 ins. 
diam; flues, cold drawn seamless steel, 50; thickness, 
tubes No. 11 B. W. G., flues No. 9 B. W. G.; length, 17 
ft.; spacing, 7 /g in. Heating surface: Tubes and flues, 
4,173 sq. ft.; firebox, 274 sq. ft.; arch tubes, 51 sq. ft.; 
total, 4,498 sq. ft. Superheater surface, 1,007 sq. ft. 
Grate area, 80.2 sq. ft. Wheels: Driv., diam. outside 
tire 57 ins., center diam 50 ins. ; material, main, C steel, 
others C steel; engine truck, diam. 33 ins., rolled steel; 
trailing truck, diam. 33 ins., rolled steel; tender truck, 
diam. 33 ins., rolled steel. Axles: Driv. journals, main, 
12 x 22 ins., others 10 x 13 ins.; engine truck journals, 
6% x 12 ins.; trailing tuck journs, 6V2 x 12 
ins.; tender truck journals, 6 x 11 ins. Boxes, 
all cast steel. Brake: Driver, Amer. W. U. 3 and B. C. 
West. E. T. 6; tender, West. E. T. 6; pump, two 11-in. 
West.; reservoir, two 20% x 114 ins. Engine truck, A. 
L. Co., Woodward centering device. Training truck, rad- 
ial constant resistance type. Exhaust pipe, single, noz- 
zles 6 3/16, 6 5/16, 6 7/16 ins. Grate: Style, rocking; 
Street stoker applied. Piston rod: Diam., 4% ins.; 
packing, gun iron rings. Smoke stack: Diam., 21 ins.; 
top above rail, 15 ft. % in. Fender frame, cast steel. 
Tank: Style, water bottom; capacity, 9,000 gals.; fuel 
capacity, 15 tons. Valves: Type, piston, 14 ins.; travel, 
6% ins.; steam lap, 1 1/16 ins.; ex., line and line; set- 
ting, Vs-in. lead. Combustion chamber: Gaines arch, 
forming combustion chamber at front of firebox. Boiler 
tubes: Material, % Spellerized steel and % hot-rolled 
seamless steel, arranged so that in each boiler the tubes 
to the right hand of the vertical center line of the boiler 
are Spellerized steel and to the left seamless steel. 

Dimension Data, Etc., Erie Engine 

Road, Erie; class, 2-10-2 S 401; Schenectady works; 
track gauge, 4 ft. 8V2 ins. Fuel, bituminous coal. 
Cylinder: Type, piston valve; diam., 31 ins.; stroke, 

32 ins. Tractive power, simple, 83,000. Factor of ad- 
hesion, simple 4.05. Wheel base: Driving, 22 ft. 6 ins.; 
rigid, 22 ft. 6 in.; total, 40 ft. 3 ins.; total engine and 
tender, 71 ft. 9% ins. Weight: In working order, 401,- 
000 lbs.; on drivers, 335,500 lbs.; on trailers, 31,500 lbs.; 
on engine truck, 34,000 lbs.; engine and tender, 585,500 
lbs. Boiler: Ext. wagon top; out. dia., first ring, 92 Vs 
ins.; working pressure, 200 lbs. Firebox: Type, wide; 
length, 160 ins.; width, lOS 1 /^ ins.; thickness of crown, 
% in.; tube, % in.; sides, % in.; back, % ins.; water 
space, front 6 ins., sides 6 ins., back 6 ins, depth (top 
of grate to center of lowest tube) 3% ins. Crown stay- 
ing, radial. Tubes: Seamless steel, 317, 2 1 / 4 ins. diam.; 
cold drawn steel, 60, 5% ins. diam; thickness, tubes No. 
11 gauge, flues No. 9 gauge; length, 17 ft.; spacing, 
3 /i in. Heating surface: Tubes and flues, 4,617.5 sq. ft.; 
firebox, 296 sq. ft.; arch tubes, 45.6 sq. ft.; total, 
4,959.1 sq. ft. Superheater surface, 1,274 sq. ft. Grate 
area, 94.8 sq. ft. Wheels : Driv., dia. outside tire 63 
ins., center 56 ins ; material, main cast steel, others cast 
steel; engine truck, diam. 33 ins., forged steel; trailing 
truck, diam. 33 ins., forged steel; tender truck, diam. 

33 ins, cast steel. Axles: Driv. journals, main 13 x 22 
ins., front 11 x 19 ins., other 11 x 13 ins.; engine truck 
journals, 6V2 x 14 ins.; trailing truck journals, 6% x 14 
ins.; tender truck journals, 6 x 11 ins. Boxes: Driving, 
main, cast steel ; others, cast steel. Brake : Driver, New 
York; tender, New York. Pump: Two, No. 5; reservoir, 
two, 2OV2 x 114 ins. Engine truck, 2-wheel, radial swing 
center; trailing, 2-wheel, radial swing center. Exhaust 
pipe: Single; nozzles, 6%, 7 and 7% ins. Grate, style, 
rocking. Piston rod: Diam., 5 ins.; packing, snap rings. 
Smoke stack: Diam., 23 ins.; top above rail, 16 ft. 3 7/16 
ins. Tender frame, Vanderbilt. Tank: Vanderbilt; ca- 

pacity, 10,000 gals; capacity fuel, 19 tons. Valves: Type 
16-in. piston; travel, 6% ins.; steam lap, 1 in.; clear- 
ance, 1/16 in.; setting, lead, 3/16 in. 


The Traveling Engineers' Association 

The Traveling Engineers' Association will meet next 
fall, according to a circular recently issued by the secre- 
tary, Mr. W. O. Thompson, New York Central car shops, 
East Buffalo, N. Y. The circular says: 

The next annual convention of the Traveling En- 
gineers' Association will be held at Chicago, 111., Sep- 
tember 5, 6, 7 and 8, 1916. 

The following are the list of subjects to be presented 
and discussed: 

1. "What effect does the mechanical placing of fuel 
in fire-boxes and lubricating of locomotives have on the 
cost of operation?" 

2. "The advantages of the use of superheaters, brick 
arches and other modern appliances on large engines, 
especially those of the mallet type." 

3. "Difficulties accompanying the prevention of dense 
black smoke and its relation to cost of fuel and locomo- 
tive repairs." 

4. "Recommended practice in the make-up and hand- 
ling of modern freight trains on both level and steep 
grades to avoid damage to draft rigging." 

5. "Assignment of power from the standpoints of ef- 
ficient service and economy in fuel and maintenance." 


Boiler Makers to Meet in May 

The annual convention of the Master Boiler Makers' 
Association will be held at the Hollenden Hotel, Cleve- 
land, O., on Tuesday, May 23, and will continue on the 
24th, 25th and 26th. Beside the regular business ad- 
dresses will be delivered by the Hon. H. L. Davis, mayor 
of Cleveland; Mr. B. R. MacBain, S. M. P. of the New 
York Central Railroad; Mr. Frank McNamany, chief in- 
spector of the Federal Locomotive Boiler Inspection 
Service, and Mr. J. T. Carroll, assistant S. M. P. of the 
Baltimore & Ohio. 

The regular program will consist of the discussion 
of fifteen reports presented by committees which have 
been at work on these topics during the year. Thirteen 
of these reports have already been printed and mailed 
to the members. Of special interest may be mentioned 
reports of flexible stays, oxy-acetylene and electric weld- 
ing and cleaning and maintenance of superheater tubes. 
The work of the committees during the year has been 
thorough and all the reports will be found instructive 
and valuable. 

Fairbanks-Morse Co. 

A couple of bulletins dealing with type Y oil engines 
(style V) and with type Y (semi-Diesel) horizontal 
pattern. The first of these well-illustrated pamphlets 
explain that in construction the type Y oil engines com- 
bine the simplicity of the two-cylinder principle with 
accessibility and good design. The various points are 
taken up in order and explained and illustrated. 

The bulletin dealing with the semi-Diesel form is also 
clearly illustrated. What are called the exclusive fea- 
tures, of which there are eight, are set forth in order, 
and the whole principle involved is explained as fully 
as can be in the pages of a pamphlet. This bulletin is 
H. 178B, and the one on type Y oil engines is H. 192C. 
The Fairbanks-Morse Co. will send these free on ap- 



May, 1916 

What A Locomotive Brick Arch Does In The Firebox 

The Origin of Fire Clay. Its General Composition. The Burning of 
Coal and The Effect of a Brick Arch in Securing Desirable Results 

To many it may seem like an odd coincidence that the 
material of a fire-brick arch, in the firebox of a locomo- 
tive, which stands above the glowing mass of burning 
white hot coal, was in distant geological times formed 
immediately below the coal seam, which in fact rested 
upon the "underclay." It is, however, more than a co- 
incidence, as a glance at the history of the formation 
of coal and fire-clay in Nature's workshop will show. 
The firebox of a working locomotive holds not only the 
highly inflammable material derived from the carbon- 
iferous period, but it also contains the most refractory 
substance known to science, and which had long been 
deposited in close association with the fuel, and in the 
same coal measures, of which it also was a product. 

The formation of coal in swampy localities was ef- 
fected by the gradual subsidence of the soil, and as it 
sank down it carried with it dense forest growths which 
flourished in the damp, warm air heavily charged with 
carbon dioxide, an essential of vegetable life. While 
the plants thrived, the ground on which these luxuriant 
forests grew was constantly drawn upon by the plants 
for those constituents required for their existence, and 
thus the soil was gradually depleted, and left purer, as 
far as the formation of clay was concerned. The proc- 
ess of rendering the soil free from what we call im- 
purities was aided by the rapid growth of the vegetable 
life which it supported and eventually by the percola- 
tion through the soil of organic solvents from above, by 
which most of the lime and the alkalis were removed. 
The clay formation below the coal seam represents the 
ground upon which the plants originally grew, and it 
was to a certain extent, cleared, by the withdrawal of 
such mineral matter as was required by the plant and it 
was further refined by the solvent action of water or 
dilute acids. 

Fire-clay is thus not only closely associated with the 
formation of coal, but its origin is part of the whole 
process in Nature, which gave us the coal measures. 
When the process of coal formation took place in tran- 
quil lakes, trees and other vegetable matter was con- 
stantly washed down the steep shore slopes into the 
land-locked lake, as described in the December, 1915, 
issue of the Railway Master Mechanic, page 393. The 
fine dust and the surface earth which had already sur- 
rendered its plant-sustaining ingredients was carried 
from the land by rain, and wind, and stream. In this 
state fine particles of "mud" were deposited on the floor 
of the lake, previous to the sinking of the water-logged 
plants and trees which had floated out on the surface 
of the lake, and which were finally turned into coal. 

The fire-clay which we use to-day and which goes into 
the manufacture of locomotive arch brick, is of the 
highest quality obtainable, as it is recognized that the 
service required of it is the most severe to which re- 
fractory materials are subjected. Fire-clay is for the 
most part composed of silica and alumina, and is, as a 
chemist would say, the silicate of alumina. An aver- 
age of four independent analyses gives the amount of 
silica at about 52 per cent and alumina at about 35 
per cent. The other constituents, consisting of lime, 
magnesia, potash, peroxide or iron, a little soda, and 
some water, are present in small quantities. 

The heat-resisting qualities of this fire-clay are prac- 
tically assured by the work of Nature in the formation 
of the clay, which has been reduced to an inert and 

highly refractory mass, but the service conditions call 
for the existence of several qualities over and above 
those which prevent melting. A locomotive arch re- 
quires to be composed of bricks sufficiently strong, not 
to break readily and to stand handling. The brick 
has to resist the powerful action of intense heat rapid- 
ly applied, and the violent contraction caused by cold 
air, suddenly thrust on and around it. It has also to 
withstand the continuous, heavy, abrasive action of a 
strong and steady flame, bearing particles of unburnt 
coal, soot or smoke and the finely divided solid matter 
which forms part of the ash. It has to stand this abra- 
sion, carried along under and over it; the heated 
stream having a velocity greatly exceeding that of a 
violent sand storm, urged on by a hurricane. The prob- 
lem is therefore to prepare the fire-brick so that it will 
meet these conditions, while preserving the heat-resist- 
ing qualities supplied by Nature. 

The fire-brick is made with sufficient strength not to 
break in the ordinary handling incident to the putting 
in or the removal of the brick. In order to save time 
when repairs have to be made, the P. R. R. issue asbes- 
tos gloves to the men who do this work, which permit 
a hot section of the arch to be taken out without hurt 
to the man or injury to the brick. The hot brick, when 
taken out, can then cool, as the faculty of "giving" a 
little under temperature changes is one of the satis- 
factory qualities it possesses. 

Plastic fire-clay is first mixed with some very hard or 
flint clay. This is used on account of its heat-resisting 
qualities, and when mixed with plastic fire-clay gives 
the necessary porosity to the finished product. This 
enables it to withstand violent changes of temperature, 
by affording the whole mass a chance for minute inte- 
rior expansions and contractions which obviate the dan- 
ger of cracking. The porous clay mixed in, adds the 
bonding quality to hold the brick together and gives 
it the resistance to abrasion, which is a necessary 
characteristic of its usefulness. The flint clay, during 
the vicissitudes of geological time has been very finely 
ground up and has become compressed into a hard 
mass. It breaks with a concoidal fracture, which is an- 
other way of saying that it separates in a series of con- 
vex elevations and concave depressions, and is in itself 
close grained and dense. 

When the mass of plastic and flint clay have been 
kneaded and formed into bricks, they are fired in a kiln, 
and here the utmost care is taken in the process, so that 
the brick may be burned and become a highly serviceable 
commercial product, possessed of the qualities which 
will enable it to oppose the action of intense heat, stand 
sudden cold, and resist powerful abrasive action. Hav- 
ing secured such a substance in useful commercial size 
and form, one may, with propriety, glance at the func- 
tion it is intended to perform in a locomotive firebox 
and thus get an outline view of the whole matter. 

In 1885 Mr. James N. Lauder, then master mechanic 
of the Old Colony Railroad, made a series of tests to 
ascertain the value of the brick arch. His conclusion 
was that the arch produced a saving of coal. This con- 
clusion is borne out by subsequent tests and the expe- 
rience of many. To understand the rationale of the 
coal-saving process, it is necessary to consider some 
of the general principles of coal combustion. Coal is 
composed in the main of fixed carbon which in burning, 

May, 1916 



combines with the oxygen. It requires a full supply 
of that gas and when burning, glows intensely and 
gives off C0=, with little or no smoke. Coal, however, 
also contains carbon in combination with hydrogen, and 
this forms, when distilled from the solid coal, a series 
of allied gases each with a different igniting tempera- 
ture and requiring various quantities of oxygen. These 
are the carbo-hydrates or volatile gases, also called the 
hydro-carbons, which contribute a large amount of heat 
when properly burnt, but they are easily lost, and when 
not consumed, tend to lower the firebox temperature. 

In order to liberate the hydro-carbons, it is necessary 
that heat be applied to distill them from the coal and 
drive them off in the form of hot gas. When they are 
thus liberated, they split up into the members of the 

Firebox Without Brick Arch 

series of gases to which they belong, and they have 
then to be supplied with appropriate quantities of oxy- 
gen. All this takes some appreciable time and requires 
a most thorough mixing of gas and air. Just here an 
analogy between the process of feeding, adopted by 
thoughtless mankind, and that of the rapidly expelled 
hydro-carbons, readily strikes the imagination. The 
gases given off near the flue sheet are drawn into the 
tubes at once with little or no time to be properly 
burnt. The gases from under the" fire door take a 
slightly longer; time before they are sucked into the 
tubes, but in either case the time is too brief to prop- 
erly allow for their combining with the oxygen of the 
air, and the engine, like the unwisely hurried man, 
bolts its food. The brick arch interposes an inclined 
baffle wall above the grate, which practically doubles 
the length of the flame-way and increases the time re- 
quired for the proper mixing of the hydro-carbons with 

Cold Air Entering from Door 

the oxygen of the air. This fact spells "coal-saving" 
by causing the fuel to give out more heat to the pound, 
and it therefore enhances the value of every square 
foot of heating surface in the boiler. 

With hand-fired engines a remarkably good result 
comes incidentally with the use of the arch. In order 
to get coal into the firebox the firedoor must be opened 

a great many times on the trip. Every time the door 
is opened a stream of cold air enters the firebox; and as 
it were, entirely cuts out a volume of hot gases already 
performing its function. The cold stream chills the 
tubes and reduces the temperature of the firebox at the 
very time that the hydro-carbons are being distilled 
from the coal and when heat is essential. This unde- 

Arrangement Showing Brick Arch 

sirable condition is practically eliminated by the brick 
arch, for by its shape it directs a flow of hot gas against 
entering cold air, and instead of permitting the cold in- 
flow to take its curved, but unobstructed sweep, to the 
upper tubes, it causes the hot firebox gases to surge 
against, around and through it, and before it reaches 
the flue sheet it has become, with the oxygen, a useful 
part of the intensely hot gases, which enter the tubes 
and ultimately deliver their heat to the water. Prac- 
tically the same result takes place when a hole in the 
fire develops, and although neither of these contingen- 
cies are desired in locomotive operation, they recur from 
time to time and the presence of the brick arch acts 
with beneficial counter play and greatly minimizes, if 
it does not entirely eliminate, the loss which would 
otherwise take place. 

In making the brick for locomotive use, the under- 
side is formed with a series of pockets something like 

Effect of Arch on Cold Air from Door 

what foundrymen would call "lightening cores." This 
is done with the important object of presenting a rough- 
ened surface over which the gas is rolled and in so 
doing thoroughly mixes the hydro-carbons with air. It 
incidentally lightens the brick, and requires less mate- 
rial. Reverting to our simile once more, we may say 
that these gases and the oxygen are not "bolted," but 
thoroughly "masticated" before entering into what cor- 
responds to the alimentary canal of the iron horse. 
The brick arch as displayed in one of our illustrations 
shows a slight appearance as if a solid drip had just 
begun. The presence of icicles, or if we may change to 
a more appropriate word, we may say the stalactites on 
the underside of the brick, are not due to a tendency 
of the brick material to melt or "run." They are caused 



May, 1916 

by impure emanations from the coal, such as ash and 
slag, which are carried up by the strong rush of flame, 
adhere to the underside of the brick, and are more 
slowly fused in the intense heat. They thus add to 
the roughening of the underside of the brick and con- 

; ^| *|! Brick Arch Showing Particles of Slag Forming Stalactites 

tribute to the gas and air the mixing action secured by 
the pockets which are a part of the design of the brick. 
The locomotive arch is based on scientific principles 
and performs a useful function in a locomotive, where 
coal is burned in larger quantity per square foot of 
grate area than in any other form of furnace. The 
area of the grate is hardly larger than an ordinary din- 
ing-room table, yet within the closely set walls and ends 
of the box, the fire rages, urged to the greatest intensity 

burning of coal, which the brick arch permits and fol- 
lowing naturally from the coal saving, is the increased 
and sustained horse power now within reach. A pound 
of coal gives off a certain quantity of heat when burned. 
The more perfectly the combustion is effected the more 
available heat there is, part is not lost by 
rapidly rushing out of the stack, nor is it 
stifled at the start and forced to uselessly 
produce soot and smoke. The brick arch pro- 
vides a way for all the available heat units 
to seek the one object — that of boiling water 
under pressure — and so increasing the ca- 
pacity of the engine for doing useful work. 
It is like the difference between dragging at a 
stone with the hands or using a lever to 
move it. 

The locomotive is not now the crude ma- 
chine of twenty-five years ago, when the abil- 
ity to haul cars even at a wasteful cost was 
permitted. To-day the object of the master 
mechanic and his staff is not only to haul 
cars, but to do it economically by the em- 
ployment of scientific methods. Based on the 
knowledge of what combustion really is, and 
how the exacting conditions of modern loco- 
motive service have to be met, and how dif- 
ficulties are to be overcome, the locomotive 
of to-day is in the hands of intelligent rail- 
road mechanical officers and men, is making 

Cold Air from Hole in the Fire 

by forced draft, which can be varied as the engineman 
alters the position of the reverse lever. In this white 
hot storm the brick arch mixes the gases arising from 
the coal, and remains itself intact, while it lengthens 
the flame-way and delays the exit of the heated gas, 
so that cinders are greatly reduced, while it curtails 
the formation of smoke, and as far as may be, all the 
heat represented by the burning of the coal is applied 
to the generation of steam. 

These facts lead naturally to the conclusion, verified 
by the statements of men familiar with conditions and 
with locomotive performance, that the brick arch not 
only saves coal, but gives a greater sustained horse 
power, permits less smoke to form, maintains the flues 
in better shape and with fewer stoppages and clog- 
gings, and causes them to last longer and that, as a 
consequence, fewer steam failures occur. The most 
important feature, depending on the more thorough 

Action of Arch on Air from Hole in Fire 

substantial progress, and may in time approximte to 
an instrument of precision. 


The Railroad Mechanical Conventions 

Atlantic City, N. J., has been decided upon as the 
place for holding the railroad mechanical conventions 
this year. The Master Car Builders' convention will be 
held on Wednesday, Thursday and Friday, June 14, 15 
and 16, and the Master Mechanics' convention on Mon- 
day, Tuesday and Wednesday, June 19, 20 and 21, 1916. 
The meetings will be held, as was done last year, in the 
Greek Temple, on the ocean end of Young's Pier. 

The Marlborough-Blenheim Hotel has been selected 
as the headquarters for both conventions. The presi- 
dent, executive committee and secretary will have of- 
fices there, and, accommodations will be furnished for 
meetings of the various committees. The registration 
booth will be in the Entrance Hall of Young's Mil- 
lion Dollar Pier. In order that a correct record may be 
made of the members in attendance, it will be necessary 
to register once for each convention. Members of either 
or both associations are advised to go to the registra- 
tion booth before attending either convention, announce 
name and badge will be issued. 

There is a new badge to be used during the conven- 
tion this year. It will be furnished after registration. 

May, 1916 



The badges for the families and guests of members 
will be of a different design from last year, and should 
be procured as soon as possible after arrival of a mem- 

Mr. Joseph W. Taylor is secretary for both associa- 
tions; his address is 1112 Karpen Building, Chicago, 
111. Further information, if required, may be had by 
addressing him. 

The Railway Supply Manufacturers' 

The secretary believes that indications point to a 
larger attendance than ever of the R. S. M. A. in con- 
nection with the Master Mechanics' and the Master Car 
Builders' Associations. A list of the hotels, with prices 
for accommodation, may be found on the circular issued 
by the secretary-treasurer, Mr. J. D. Conway, 2136 
Oliver Building, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Exhibitors may begin installation of exhibits on May 
29 and must have booths completed not later than 6 
p. m., June 13. All shipments must be prepaid and 
plainly addressed to the exhibitor's company, with ex- 
hibit space number, Million Dollar Pier, Atlantic City, 
N. J. Contract has been made with the Eldredge Ex- 
press and Storage Warehouse Company to deliver all 
freight shipments from the railroad to exhibitor's booth, 
to handle and store all empty crates and boxes, and at 
the close of the convention return them to the railroad, 
at the following rates: Consignments weighing over 
300 lbs., round trip per net ton, $6; consignments weigh- 
ing over 300 lbs., one way per net ton, $3; consignments 
weighing under 300 lbs., round trip per case, $1 ; con- 
signments weighing under 300 lbs., one way, per case, 
50 cents. Payment for delivery as above is to be made 
direct to the Eldredge Express and Storage Warehouse 
Company. A city ordinance prohibits throwing of 
papers or refuse matter on the beach or in the ocean. 

Mr. Alex. W. Porter, 813 Arctic avenue, Atlantic 
City, is the contractor for sign work. He will charge 
exhibitors 20 cents per lineal foot for the standard de- 
scriptive signs. Special work, such as gold lettering, 
trade-marks, card signs, etc., will be as may be agreed 
upon by those interested. Mr. William W. Paxson, Mil- 
lion Dollar Pier, Atlantic City, N. J., has been selected 
as official electrician to perform special electrical work, 
such as signs, etc. Those desiring electric power of 110 
volts, alternating current, which is not provided by the 
association, should make arrangements direct with him. 
Price for electric sign work is: 12-in. letters, $2.30 each; 
18-in. letters, $2.60 each. This price includes hanging, 
maintenance and current, from the opening to the clos- 
ing of the convention, during sessions. Mr. W. E. 
Shackleford, manager of Million Dollar Pier, will pro- 
vide mechanics and other workmen when called upon to 
assist exhibitors in the installation of their exhibits. 
A contract has been made with Mr. C. M. Koury of 
Atlantic City, who will rent furniture, Oriental rugs 
and other furnishings to exhibitors. Contracts for 
furniture should be closed at once. If furniture cir- 
culars and contracts have not already been received 
notify the secretary-treasurer. Mr. J. J. Habermehl's 
Sons, Bellevue-Stratford Hotel, Philadelphia, Pa., are 
the official florists for the convention. Mr. George A. 
McKeague, 165 South Chalfonte avenue, Atlantic City, 
will be the official photographer. He will have head- 
quarters on the pier, and will be available for any work 
in his line. Miss L. H. Marvel will have an office on 
the pier and will be prepared to do letter and statement 
work at special rates. Dictation may be given at ex- 
hibit booth upon request, and work delivered. Mr. W. 
E. Shackleford, manager of Million Dollar Pier, Atlantic 

City, will provide drinking water and cooler service, in- 
cluding icing and the proper attention. The Edwards- 
Bergdoll Taxicab Company, Inc., 25-27 N. North Caro- 
lina avenue, Atlantic City, has contracted to provide 
taxicabs, touring cars and garage service. This com- 
pany will also care for machines of members. 

A temporary postoffice will be opened in the execu- 
tive office of the R. S. M. A. at the front of the Million 
Dollar Pier, as a convenience to members. Mail ad- 
dressed care R. S. M. A. office, Million Dollar Pier, At- 
lantic City, N. J., will be taken care of and distributed 
to exhibitors'' booths. Members are requested not to 
send general circular matter for distribution to other 
exhibitors, which is in violation of the association rules. 

After May 29, and until the conventions are over, the 
executive office of the R. S. M. A. will be temporarily 
located on Young's Million Dollar Pier, Atlantic City, 
N. J. Mail matter may be addressed accordingly. 

American Locomotives in New Zealand 

U. S. Consul General Alfred A. Winslow at Auckland, 
New Zealand has made an interesting report to the 
Commerce Board at Washington regarding the perform- 
ance of some locomotives purchased from the Baldwin 
Works in 1915 by the New Zealand Government. His 
report, among other things, quotes a statement made by 
cne of the leading journals of Auckland: 

"The big railway engines imported from the United 
States last year have done more than meet expectations. 
At the time of the order being placed with the Baldwin 
Locomotive Co. some protests were made in Parliament 
against the giving of orders for railway engines to 
countries not part of the British Empire, but the fact 
was shown that the engines were urgently required and 
that Great Britain could not supply them as quickly 
as the United States could. The locomotives are now 
at work on the lines of this Dominion, and their haul- 
ing capacity is exciting the admiration of experts. A 
remarkably fine effort over hilly country was recorded 
a few weeks ago, when one of these engines hauled 275 
tons from Wellington to Palmerston North (89 miles) 
without having to replenish either water or coal sup- 
plies." The European war will eventually turn the at- 
tention of the countries, now engaged, to supplying 
their needs from the United States on a large scale in 
every direction. The munitions supply is and will be 
but one of the sources of large earnings. The wastage 
and destruction abroad can only be made good from 
outside the countries now being devastated. 

The Pennsylvania Railroad Pension List 

Under the pension rules of the Pennsylvania there 
were 54 employes placed on the "Retired List" as of 
March 1, 1916. Four of them had completed more than 
50 years of active service each, and 31 had been em- 
ployed 40 years or more each. On this "Roll of Honor" 
there are now 4,570 names. Since January 1, 1900, 
when the pension plan was adopted, the expenditures 
therefor have amounted to $12,474,911.44. This is a 
most interesting showing and speaks well both for the 
employes as well as the great system which put this 
philanthropic idea in vogue. 

In every person who comes near you, look for what 
is good and strong; honor that; rejoice in it; and, as you 
can, try to imitate it; and your faults will drop off, like 
dead leaves, when their time comes. — Ethics of the Dust. 



May, 1916 

Heat Characteristics and Braking Effects on Chilled Wheels 

The Effect of Unequal Heat on the Various Parts of a Wheel. The Origin of 
the Various Defects Explained and a Scientific Explanation of the Shelled out Spot 

In dealing with heat characteristics and the brake 
shoe effects on wheels, Mr. F. K. Vial in his paper on 
"The Chilled Iron Wheel," read before the Richmond 
Railroad Club, said in effect: If one looks at Fig. 1, he 
may see a variety of characteristic blemishes which 
have for their origin excessive local heating. The 
special character of any one of these blemishes depends 
upon the origin of the heat, whether between the wheel 
and rail or between wheel and brake shoe, and is the 
result of the friction being either continuous around 
the circumference of the wheel, or its being localized, 
as in the case of skidding on the rail. The terms by 
which these various defects are known were established 
by experience with chilled iron wheels, and were found 
to apply equally well to steel, although modifications 
are necessary when discussing the defects in steel 

In ordinary service, with the proper brake adjust- 
ment, to equalize the work of retardation over all wheels 
of the train, it is of rare occurrence that sufficient heat 
will deveop to cause heat checks, yet the total number 

tire circumference becomes intensely heated," and when 
the heat becomes excessive and is generated in a suf- 
ficiently short period of time, it causes -the- metal to 
break up into fine heat cracks. 

In many trains there are a number .of ears in which 
the brakes are ineffective or are cut out, -The effect of 
this is to make the tonnage to be controlled by. the cars, 
with good brakes greater than if otherwise would be„ 
and even under these unfavorable condition's,, there is 
not much danger of burning the treads .of the wheels if 
the brake shoes are in proper position and effective.; 
but for various reasons the brake be.ahi is .not always 
central, and one shoe may overlap the -rim while the 
other crowds the flange, as shown in Fig. 2, * 

The pressure on the shoe is not changed on account 
of its position, hence, when the bearing are : a is reduced, 
the pressure and the resulting heat per square inch are 
increased in the same proportion as the bearing area is 
decreased. This accounts for the number- of brake 
burnt rims and also for cracked flanges when, the shoe 
bears heavily on the flange. 

Slid Flat 


Comby from 
Slid Flat 

Fig. 1 

Shelled Out 

of wheels removed on account of metal becoming over- 
heated amounts to 10 to 15 per cent of the total wheels 
removed from freight service. 

In discussing these various blemishes it is essential 
to know the terms used, and their meaning. The fol- 
lowing are the commonly accepted terms: Brake burn, 
comby from brake burn, comby from skidding or slid- 
ing, shelled, out. 

In brake burnt wheels the tread is broken up into fine 
hair lines running parallel to each other across the 
tread of the wheel, generally covering a considerable 
portion of the circumference, and in extreme cases the 
cracks may open considerably, even though no metal is 
broken away; this is brought about by the rapid heat- 
ing and cooling of the tread over the area covered by 
the brake shoe. On heavy grades the brakes are applied 
to control the speed and therefore the action may oc- 
cupy considerable time. Under such conditions there 
is very little danger of sliding the wheels, hence the en- 


Brake Burnt 


Brake Burnt 

Comby from 
Brake Burn 

In Fig. 1 the wheel marked E shows the condition, of 
the rim of wheel when brake shoes overhang, as outlined 
in Fig. 3. This condition is quite prevalent and is 
likely to crack the plate of the wheel on account of the 
expansion at the rim while the tread of the wheel near 
the flange is cold, which produces a heavy strain, 
throwing the front plate into tension of sufficient in- 
tensity to sometimes cause the metal of the front plate 
to crack or break for a distance long enough to relieve 
the tension. 

When a chilled iron wheel has become brake burnt 
and is kept in service, the subsequent pounding disin- 
tegrates the metal which drops out little by little and 
results in a condition called "Comby from Brake Burn." 
This leaves the metal in a ragged condition, as the 
plane of cleavage is radial or perpendicular to the 
tread, and small prisms of metal break off more or less 
irregularly. This may be seen in Fig. 1, wheel F. 

When a wheel slides an intense heat is generated 

May, 1916 



almost instantaneously, and the metal is rapidly worn 
away, leaving a flat spot, often showing a fine network 
of hair cracks over the area of the flat surface. This 
condition usually appears in spots about 2 ins. long, 
either singly or at various parts of the same wheel. If 

Fig. 2. Results of Defective Hanger Arrangement 

the slid flat spot is not large enough to require removal, 
and the wheel remains in service, the metal which has 
been disintegrated by the heat may break up and drop 
out, resulting in a condition known as "Comby from 
Sliding." This is apparent in Fig. 1, wheel marked B. 

The term "shelled out" refers to spots on the wheel 
where the metal has dropped out from the tread in such 
a way that a raised spot is left in the center, with a 
cavity more or less circular around it. In this case, in 
addition to the radial lines of cleavage, there is a 
cleavage parallel to the surface of the tread, and there- 
fore the bottom of this defect is more or less smooth, 
somewhat resembling an oyster shell. 

The cause of shelled out spots does not seem to be as 
self-evident as that of comby wheels. The conditions 
which exist and give rise to this condition require care- 
ful consideration. 

Usually the maximum air brake pressure is adjusted 
for the light weight of the car, so that the wheels are 
not likely to slide under loaded cars. Sliding often oc- 
curs just before a train comes to a standstill. This is 
occasioned by the greater efficiency of the brake shoe as 
the velocity of the wheel decreases. The greatest fric- 
tional resistance between the wheel and brake shoe 
occurs just as the wheel is about to stop revolving, and 
often at this point exceeds the frictional resistance of 
wheel on rail, in which case the wheel begins to slide. 
After the wheel once begins to slide the friction be- 
tween the wheel and the rail is very much lessened, and 


Fig. 4. 






Shape and Size of Wheel Bearing on Track Under 
Various Loads 

sliding will continue until the brake pressure is re- 

When the sliding is over a distance of only a few 
feet before the car stops, the term "skidding" is applied, 
and when a small flat or skidded spot the size of the 
area of the wheel in contact with the rail is produced. 
The diagram marked Fig. 4 shows the actual size and 
shape of the contact areas under various loads. This 

was published in the "Transactions of the American 
Society of Civil Engineers," the test being made with 
new 33-in. chilled iron wheels on 75-lb. rail having a 
top radius of 14 ins. 

A flat spot no larger than the contact area shown is 
not sufficient to cause the removal of the wheel, but the 
subsequent pressures and blows received in regular 
service very often result in the metal breaking or shell- 
ing out around the center of this contact area, forming 
a shelled out spot. During the time the wheel is slid- 
ing all the mechanical energy represented in the resist- 
ance to motion is changed to heat through the agency 
of friction ; and as mechanical energy and heat are 
mutually convertible, the exact amount of heat gen- 
erated can be calculated. It is a matter of common 
observation that the melting point is often reached. 

This local high temperature causes violent expansion 
and almost as rapid contraction as soon as the sliding 
ceases. The small area on being suddenly brought to 
an intense heat while the other parts of the wheel are 
comparatively cold, is put under intense compression, 
being tightly restrained around its circumference. 
There is also a slight displacement or flowing of the 
metal on account of the enormous surrounding pressure 
on the small area of the intensely heated surface. The 
line of least resistance is toward the center of the spot 

Sketch snowing start of one brake shoe 
to bear against the flange while the other 
shoe bears on rirn . In these cases the 
points "x" and -G" show blue temper and the 
space from *x- to -xx" shows no heating. 

Sketch showing brake shoe worn in 
flange and then turned around to finish 
wearing. "This shows one shoe again 
bear ing at the throat of wheel, causing 
blue temper ort "x ". 

Fig. 3. Showing Various Improper Methods of Brake 


at the surface of the wheel. The direction of this least 
resistance starts on the surface at the center and ex- 
tends downward into the metal, sloping in all directions 
receding from the center, like the sides of a miniature 

After the expansion and contraction on this small 
area have taken place, it only remains for successive 
pressures and blows which follow in service to break out 
small pieces of metal which have been weakened by the 
excessive strain to which they have been subjected by 
intense heating and sliding stresses. After the metal 
has commenced to break out, the defect becomes a 
typical shelled out spot. 

Where the wheel slides some distance and the melt- 
ing point is reached, the metal in contact with the rail 
is rapidly rubbed away and the area of contact in- 
creases, giving a much larger area to receive the heat, 



May, 1916 

and the temperature is accordingly reduced. In this 
case the heat may be sufficient to cause a disintegration 
of the metal, forming a network of hair line cracks 
which, after subsequent pounding in service, results in 
pieces breaking out, giving a rough, jagged appearance 
at the spot. This defect is commonly termed "comby 
from slid burn." Should the sliding continue over a 
much longer stretch of track, a typical flat spot is the 

Fig. 5. 

Fig. 6. 

result, which becomes evident to those within hearing 

While it would seem that both wheels on an axle 
should be affected alike from sliding, such is not always 
the case, as may be seen by a glance at Fig. 5. In go- 
ing around a curve, or when the load in a car is un- 
equally distributed, the weight is not the same on both 
wheels; also at times, one rail may be dry or sanded, 
causing much more friction than the other, which may 
be wet or greasy. One wheel may bear on the rail at 
the center of the tread or near the throat, and the mate 
may bear near the rim at the time the sliding takes 
place. In such a case, if the flat spot is small, the wheel 
first mentioned may develop a shelled out spot later on, 
while the wheel which has become fiat near the rim may 
not, owing to the fact that this part of the tread may 
not run on the rail near the rim, in subsequent service. 
This permits it to avoid pounding on the flat spot which 
is necessary to cause a shelled out spot. A number of 
cases have been observed where a wheel was slid flat 
enough to cause its removal, while its mate was ap- 
parently not affected. 

In discussing the cause of shelled out spots we are 
often asked, "How do you account for engine truck 
wheels, without brakes, shelling out?" At first this ap- 
pears to overthrow the argument that shelling is the 
after result of sliding, but it is not conclusive. Truck 
wheels have inside bearings and the inside faces of the 
hubs are generally 10 to 12 ins. in diameter, and are 
faced off smooth to make a bearing surface. 

On examining truck wheels worn out in service it 
will generally be found that the inside face of the hubs 
shows considerable wear, often as much as 1 in. in 
depth. In fact, the face hubs of steel wheels often 
wear out before the tire, and it is common practice to 
bolt on a new face to the hub. This indicates that there 
is considerable friction between the hub of wheel and 
the bearing, especially where enough allowance for play 
has not been made. In rounding curves the lateral 
pressure on the flange and on the face hub often ex- 

ceeds the load on the wheel, and when such is the case 
sliding results. 

The load on the truck wheels is generally insufficient 
to produce a large flat spot, though they sometimes do 
occur. As a rule, however, a small skid is produced 
which occasionally develops into a shelled out spot. 
This is not of common occurrence. 

These shelled out spots occur in all classes of wheels, 
regardless of the amount of chill, the percentage by 
tape size being in proportion to the number in service. 
Wheels of all makes are apparently affected alike, and 
there is no metal suitable for car wheels that will with- 
stand the heat action which develops from sliding or 
skidding. The effect on steel and chilled iron wheels 
is shown in Figs. 6, 7 and 8. 

It is generally conceded that where this condition oc- 
curs in pairs it is conclusive evidence that the wheels 
have been slid and most contracts specify that such 
wheels will not be made good by the makers. Where 
the defect occurs singly it is just as true that it is the 
result of sliding, but this is held as evidence that the 
defect was in the wheel and bears no relation to service 
conditions, hence most contracts call for replacing the 
wheel to the railway by the makers. 

Where one wheel on an axle has developed a shelled 
spot and the mate appears to be unaffected, it will 
often be found on polishing the tread of the good wheel 
that the metal is smoothed and whiter at the point 
directly opposite the shelled spot on the defective 
wheel. This shows that the wheel has been slid on the 
rail, but not enough to produce a flat spot; in time this 
wheel would also, in all probability, shell out. The 
amount of service required to shell out wheels after 
sliding varies with different wheels, as conditions are 
not always exactly identical. 

If the above analysis is true, we would expect to find 
this defect most frequently under equipment which is 

Fig. 7. 

Fig. 8. 

required to make numerous quick stops and under 
empty cars, or where the live load is small compared 
with the dead load, such as engine and tender wheels in 
passenger and interurban service. It is a matter of 
record that a large majority of wheels with this defect 
are removed from such service. 

In the colder climates where the rail is covered with 
frost, the coefficient of friction is reduced from 25 to 10 
per cent as a result of which the wheels are skidded 

May, 1916 



more frequently and there is, therefore, a correspond- 
ing increase of shelling. 

The tendency of wheels to shell in pairs or in larger 
numbers under the same car is well illustrated in an 
analysis of the results in service under 500 refrigerator 
cars representing a total of 4,000 wheels. Of this num- 
ber, 189 were removed for shelling out. A summary of 
the relation of this defect to the mate wheel is shown 
in the following: 174 shelled in pairs; 15 shelled singly; 
under 8 cars, every wheel was shelled; under 10 cars, 
4 wheels were shelled. 

This is very effective proof that the foregoing conclu- 
sions are correct in regard to the cause of shelled out 
spots. This is that the shell out will occur at the point 
where skidding against the rail or shoe occurs, and not 
because of any inherent defect in the wheel. The cases 
just cited indicate that like causes produce like effects. 
If the trouble were in the wheel primarily, shelled out 
spots would occur at random, and the mate wheel would 
be very unlikely to show the same defect in the same 
plane. Skids, shelled out spots and comby spots are all 
developed from the same cause, and the exact type that 
is ultimately found depends on circumstances. The de- 
fect bears no relation to high or low chill, and there is 
no known way whereby the manufacturer can in any 
way control the number of these spots. 

That the metal is not at fault is demonstrated by the 
development of this defect in both the rolled steel wheel 
and the cast steel wheel. From these facts it is self- 
evident that the cause of the failure is the same for 
the steel wheel as for the chilled iron wheel, and that 
the effect is similar. Here we have three distinct types 
of wheels with a wide variation in the composition of 
the metal in the tread and yet they have identical de- 
fects arising from the same causes. 

Expediting Preferred Freight Cars 

Not long ago, at a meeting of the Niagara Frontier 
Car Men's Association held at Niagara-on-the-Lake, 
Mr. M. J. O'Connor, of the New York Central Lines, 
brought out some valuable suggestions on the question 
of ways and means of expediting the movement of cars 
loaded with preferred freight. Among other things, he 
pointed out that one of the foremost questions before 
the transportation officials of the railroads today is the 
prompt and safe movement of freight trains. It is a 
well-known fact that the car department is a prime 
factor in making this possible, and he endeavored to 
describe, from a car inspector's, or, rather, from a car 
department point of view, what the contributing ele- 
ments are as far as they can be looked at in a compre- 
hensive way. 

The inspection of air brake apparatus and the adjust- 
ment of brakes in the receiving yard, also the marking 
out of all cars on which the air brakes are not in good 
order, very materially assists when making the final 
air brake test after the road engine is coupled to train 
in the classification yard. This is an important feature 
of the inspection and it should be given special atten- 
tion, for it is an acknowledged fact that where this 
practice is followed out carefully it has been the means 
of reducing the number of burst air hose en route, and 
also the consequent damage to equipment, not to say 
how much serious delay to trains was avoided. 

Treating the journal boxes of cars after they have all 
been assembled in trains will show whether the pack- 
ing and contained parts are in the best possible condi- 
tion, and where this work is done conscientiously it has 
reduced the trouble with hot boxes to a minimum. 

Co-operation with train crews is a very valuable asset 

to the car department and considerable importance 
must be attached to this branch of the service, from the 
fact that when cars are moving over the line they are 
beyond the jurisdiction of the car inspector. This co- 
operation can be better established by having inspect- 
ors, in a special capacity, travel on the important 
freight trains, as this not only brings to light any 
irregularities but is a means of educating the train 
crews with the nature of defects on cars, and should a 
slight defect develop en route they are then much bet- 
ter qualified to judge if the car is safe to move to a 
terminal. This kind of knowledge will prevent the cut- 
ting out of cars unnecessarily when carrying preferred 

The discussion of the paper brought out the fact that 
several prominent roads, such as the Lehigh Valley, the 
New York Central and the Pennsylvania Railroads, 
have a competent car man who can be sent out with 
special or preferred shipments of important freight as 
occasion may require. Mr. O'Connor, in answer to a 
question concerning the duties of such a man, gave an 
example from his own experience. It was this, and he 
explained it by saying: What I was referring to were 
defects that develop en route, such as a chipped or 
broken wheel rim where there is still sufficient metal 
on the tread to keep it within the M. C. B. limit, which 
is measured at a point % in. above the tread, not less 
than 3 3 /4 ins. in width is safe to run. Recently I was 
advised by one of our train crews of a car being cut 
out en route on account of the wheel rim being slightly 
chipped. Next time, they took the car through. 

On the New York Central that road has accomplished 
most satisfactory results in this respect. It has brought 
the car department and the transportation department 
in closer touch. The older conductors realize that the 
traveling car man is working for the road's and the 
conductor's interest when he gets cars through, and the 
car department man will go the limit to get them 
through, and that is what has been accomplished by 
having special men riding on the trains. 

In answer to an inquiry as to what the speaker meant 
by saying that the practice of having a traveling in- 
spector brought to light "irregularities," it appears 
that it referred to inspection at the originating point. 
Something might have escaped the notice of an in- 
spector and a defect developed en route. 

Recently the N. Y. C. had some trouble with hot boxes 
on cars loaded with steel. A detailed report came from 
the superintendent's office and a man went to the point 
where these cars were placed in the train and told the 
foreman to give these cars, loaded with steel, particular 
attention, as they were the only cars giving trouble. 
Since that time this trouble has been reduced to a 

Concluding, Mr. O'Connor remarked that another 
thing in connection with the subject is to impress on 
the train crew that car men want everything right. A 
conductor made the complaint that he had a fast train 
out of a certain yard early in the morning, about half 
past four, and he was having trouble, but he did not 
say anything about it, but thought it was going to 
cease, but it did not. The matter was taken up with 
the local foreman at the yard in question, and he in 
turn interviewed the conductor who made the com- 
plaint, with the result that the men at fault were repri- 
manded and an improvement was readily noticeable to 
the conductor. This is another sample of the mission- 
ary work done by inspectors, and it also shows the 
moral effect it had on the car department staff. That 
is the spirit of co-operation. 



May, 1916 

Steel Frame Passenger Cars on the G. T. R. 

The Grand Trunk Railway system has recently ac- 
quired some steel frame first-class passenger equip- 
ment with wood finishing, designed mainly for suburban 
traffic. The cars have each a seating capacity of 96 
persons, and weigh, complete with trucks, 137,000 lbs. 
They are 83 ft. 3% ins. long over buffers and 74 ft. over 
body end sills. The framing is of steel construction. 

bolsters. The body bolster is of built-up construction, 
composed of eight %-in. pressings as side members and 
a heavy cast steel center brace, which accommodates 
the locking device. A top cover plate 5 ft. 6 ins. wide 
by 5/16 in. thick extends across the bolster. Two 7 x %- 
in. reinforcing plates extend from side sill to side sill. 
Two crossbearers are placed 14 ft. 3 ins. either side 
of the center of the car and are made from %-in. 
pressed diaphragms back to back with 10 x %-in. top 

Perspective Outside View of Steel Coach for the Grand Trunk Railway 

with all-steel vestibule and the exterior and interior 
finish is of wood. The primary object in designing 
these cars was to insure the greatest comfort and safety 
possible for the traveling public, and a number of novel 
features and modern appliances have been introduced 
with this end in view. 

The introduction of a locking device for rigidly hold- 
ing the trucks to the car body helps to prevent telescop- 
ing; it also lowers the center of gravity by adding the 
weight of the two trucks (40,000 lbs.) to the car body, 
Ihus resisting any tendency of the body of the car to 
turn over in case of derailment. The cars are lighted 
by the Stone Company's axle system, the generator be- 
ing arranged to cut in at a speed of about six miles per 
hour. The cars are heated by the Chicago Car Heating 
Company's vapor system of steam heat. 

The interior finish is mahogany, and rattan seats are 
used, thus rendering the car sanitary and eliminating, 
as far as possible inflammable material. 

By adopting the composite construction the cars are 
claimed to be warmer in winter and cooler in summer, 
on account of the provision made for insulations; also 
they are more easily repaired at points where special 
machinery is not available. 

The center sills are built up "fishbelly" type and ex- 
tend from buffer beam to buffer beam. The web plate 
is 5/16 in.. thick and has 5 x 3 x %-in. top and 3x3 x%- 
in. bottom angles with a top cover plate 30 x % ins. 
extending the full length. The depth of the center sill 
is 26 ins. in the center of the car and 16 ins. at the 

and 7 x %-in. bottom cover plates. The side girders 
consist of 1% x 4 x 7/16-in. dropper bar, Vs x 35-in. 
web plate, 2 x 2V2 x 3/16-in. intermediate angle and 5-in. 
11.6-lb. Z-bar side sill. The side plates are B 1 ^ x BV2 x 
%-in. angles and side posts 3 x 2 x ^-in. angles. Wood 

Interior of G. T. R. Coach 

reinforcement is employed with the steel construction 
of the side girders. 

Wrought iron carlins 2 x % ins. on edge are riveted 
to the steel side construction. Canvas duck is used as 
a final roof covering, and Agasote headlining is em- 
ployed. One layer of 3 /4-in. salamander is applied out- 
side the %-in. side girder plate. Two layers of sala- 

May, 1916 



mander and one layer of Neponset paper are applied 
between the upper and lower floor courses. 

The end posts are 4-in. 8.2-lb. Z-bars with wooden re- 
inforcing and the end plate is a 4 x 3 x 5/16-in. angle. 

The platform end sill is of built-up construction, con- 
sisting of 7-in. channels, while at the top the I-beams 

mote their trade there in any way possible. Firms desir- 
ing Mr. Chandler to represent them should address him 
at 322 James building, Chattanooga. No charge will be 
made for this service, the work being part of the South- 
ern's general scheme for developing the South. 

We have only to say to our friends, the railway sup- 

Steel Construction of Grand Trunk Railway Coach 

are connected to the body of the car by 6-in. channels 
running longitudinally, also 3 x 3 x x /4-in. angle diagonal 
braces from the ends of the I-beams to the corners of 
the car body. The braces themselves are attached to 
the vestibule corners by 2 x /2 x 2 x /2 x Vi-in. angles. The 
vestibule end plate is a 3 x /2 x 3% x %-in. angle and 
2 x 2% x 5/16-in. angles brace this plate to the end of 
the car body between the I-beam and the outside of the 
car. The vestibule sheathing is of Ys-in. steel plate. 

Looking Toward South America 

The vice-president of the Southern Railway at Atlan- 
ta, Ga., Mr. H. W. Miller, has recently issued notice 
that the Southern are going after the South American 
trade. With the view of extending their efforts to pro- 
mote the sale of goods in the South American countries, 
the Southern Railway, Queen & Crescent Route, and 
the Mobile & Ohio Railroad, intend to send their South 
American agent, Mr. Charles L. Chandler, on a tour 
through South America this summer. He will leave in 
July and visit Brazil, Argentina and Uruguay, where 
the opportunities are now particularly bright for ex- 
tension of American trade. 

Mr. Chandler will interview the merchants and buyers 
of the three republics and investigate trade opportuni- 
ties generally, in order to be able to advise southern 
merchants and manufacturers where and how to place 
their products with advantage. While on this trip, his 
services will be at the disposal of Southern firms who 
are anxious to have specific trade opportunities investi- 
gated for them, and will also be glad to assist and pro- 

ply men, that if they desired to have their own lines ex- 
ploited, it would not be amiss to get in touch with Mr. 
Chandler. We have no doubt that the Southern Rail- 
way, although interested in the merchants in their own 
section, would not be averse to carrying freight origi- 
nating in the Northern States. In order to secure or- 
ders from the developing railway lines below the equa- 
tor, no stone should be left unturned to secure a share 
of the trade for this country. 

Boiler Code of the A. S. M. E. 

The A. S. M. E. boiler code committee has received 
recognition by the code being used in technical schools 
as a reference book. The Stevens Institute of Technology 
at Hoboken, N. J.; the Sheffield Scientific School of Yale 
University, and the boiler design students at the 
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute at Troy, N. Y., use 
the code. At Rensselaer the code supplements the text 
and lecture notes, and in the design work the code is 
complied with for all requirements. 


The Roberts & Schaefer Co. 

The Roberts & Schaefer Co., engineers and contrac-; 
tors, Chicago, were recently awarded a contract by the j 
Pittsburgh & Lake Erie Railway Co. for the building 
of four reinforced concrete automatic electric counter- 
balanced bucket locomotive coaling plants and four 
electrically-operated cinder handling plants, for imme- 
date installation at Monessen, College, Aliquippa and 
at Newell, Pa. f 



May, 1916 

Annual Meeting of the Southwestern Car Men's Club 

Synopsis of Some of the Papers Read on That Occasion. Review of the Year. 
Promoting Acquaintances. Necessary Things for Club Success. Efficiency, What Is It ? 

Several very interesting papers were read by mem- 
bers of the Southwestern Car Men's Club at Kansas 
City, Mo., at their annual meeting, which has just 
recently been held. In the review of the year's work 
Mr. W. G. Hiel, a former president, said among other 
things that he had noticed that most of the discussions 
are carried on by a certain few members, the others 
having to be called upon for their opinions. This al- 
ways results in lost time or flagging interest. The 
fact that all are not fluent speakers need not embarrass 
anyone as an opinion in simple words is sufficient. 
When it is necessary to call on a member it narrows 
the working of the club, as it makes it necessary for a 
few members to keep up the interest. 

The subject committee provided subjects which were 
all interesting and instructive, and for the past year 
this committee has been the best the club has ever had, 
because of the interest they have taken, and caused 
others to take, in the work of the club. The commit- 
tee of welcome and introduction has performed its 
duties in a very commendable manner and has done 
much to promote the social side of the club, but this 
is a committee that is handicapped in not having any 
set time to give its work the best possible attention, 
and perhaps a ten-minute recess before starting a pa- 
per, for the use of this committee to welcome and in- 
troduce any hew members or visitors, would be good, 
and have a beneficial effect on the success of the club. 

The increase in membership during the year has not 
quite come up to expectations. It is therefore the duty 
of each foreman and inspector to put up every induce- 
ment to his fellow worker to get him to join the club 
as the experience and knowledge to be gained in such 
an organization is practically unlimited. 

How to Promote Closer Acquaintanceship Among 
Members of the Club 

In dealing with this subject, Mr. F. W. Trapnell, the 
secretary, said in effect, that the matter of acquaintance 
is the first requirement for the advancement of any 
undertaking and the membership of the club has taken 
on new life and new life means more work for the com- 
mittee of introduction and welcome. "It has been my 
privilege to be at all the meetings and to have done my 
best to make the members fully acquainted with each 
other. Acquaintance makes the business side of life 
more endurable, as if one knows the man that one is 
doing business with, there is more freedom in express- 
ing an opinion. Not knowing the man, one is apt to 
look upon him as a green-eyed monster, ready to force 
his own opinion whether right or wrong. Social ac- 
quaintance changes all this." 

"The method employed by this committee has been to 
introduce each new member to the other and to make 
them feel at home together and feel that they are part 
of the club. This has been very successful in the past. 
There must be other methods employed besides the dry 
discussion of rules, there should be more social feat- 
ures, such as a "smoker" and lecture by some promi- 
nent person and it should be relative to car work. Keep 
the committee on introduction and welcome busy, is a 
motto worth heeding." 

Some of the Things That Are Necessary to Make a Club 
of This Kind Grow 

Mr. H. G. Aughinbaugh contributed a paper on the 
subject mentioned above and practically spoke as fol- 
lows: "Having served as president of the club and one 
year as chairman of the subject committee, I have been 
in a position to know the active part each individual 
member has taken in the meetings and also in the wel- 
fare of the club. Some of the members attend regularly 
and occupy a front seat and take an active part in the 
discussion of the subjects, while others attend a meet- 
ing now and then, and when they do come they do not 
take part in the discussions. Every chair in the room 
ought to be filled each meeting, and every member in 
the room should be anxious to express his opinion, and 
he ought to get up and express it freely. I cannot re- 
frain from mentioning the good work the president and 
secretary have done in the past year. They have been 
at their posts practically every meeting during the year. 
The secretary is an adept at writing up a good resume 
of the discussions on each subject. 

"There is, in my opinion, no field that affords a bet- 
ter opportunity for men to become more thoroughly 
familiar with car department work than by being a 
member and attending the meetings of a club of this 
kind. While this club has grown considerably in the 
past two years, yet I believe that a larger membership 
could have been rolled up and we could have had bet- 
ter meetings if all of the members had spoken up for 
the club. 

"There are, no doubt, many men who are connected 
with car department work, who would be glad to join 
the club if some member would give them an applica- 
tion blank and ask them to sign it. Whenever you 
hear of a member making it a point to meet a friend 
and engage him in conversation relative to the club 
and tell him so many good things about the club which 
will be of benefit to him in his line of work that he will 
probably want to become a member. Do not hand him 
an application blank, then, with the remark, "Well, if 
you decide to join, fill out this application blank and 
mail it to me." A traveling salesman would never get 
an order from a prospective customer if he talked this 
way. What you want to do is to do as the salesman 
does. When you get the prospective member up to the 
right point, present the application blank and get him 
to put his name on it then and there and then insist on 
his coming to the next meeting. This is one of the 
things that is 'necessary to make a club of this kind 
grow. It costs money to print the minutes of the meet- 
ings and meet other incidental expenses, and at the 
present time the only way of meeting such expenses is 
through the membership dues. 

Efficiency: What Is It? 

A paper in which the meaning of the oft-repeated 
term, Efficiency, was discussed, was read by Mr. Geo. 
H. Cook in the course of which he said in effect: 

We hear so much of late about efficiency that it has 
almost become a by-word and a slang expression. Ef- 
ficiency means able, causing effect, producing results; 
according to Webster. 

May, 1916 



To many it is synonymous with speeding up, and, in 
fact that is the conception some foremen have of ef- 
ficiency applied to a railroad shop. Nothing could be 
further from the real intent of this much abused ex- 
pression. To simplify and systematize work, to avoid 
unnecessary movements, and reduce the time and labor 
to produce a given result, should be the object of any 
able and efficient foreman. 

If material is not convenient and accessible to the 
work, if the tools, such as jacks, blocking, heavy 
wrenches, etc., are not of the most approved pattern, 
or if the means of carrying heavy jacks, wheels, etc., 
are not up to date and thereby consume the time and 
energy of the workman, then the repair plant is not ef- 
ficient and the best efforts of the workmen cannot 
make it so. 

Doubtless the first and most important requirement 
is a clean, alert and sympathetic manager, or, if you 
please, an efficient foreman. The old saying "like 
prophet, like people" applies to a car shop of today 
quite as well as to affairs in old times. By clean, we 
imply not only to be clean in person and physical sur- 
roundings, office and shops, but what is of even greater 
importance, morally clean and upright. If a manager or 
foreman is a grafter or for various considerations 
shows favoritism among the men or if consanquinity 
and business or political bias warps his judgment or 
if he gives attention to favorites, there is every prob- 
ability that the morale in that shop will be about zero. 

We should be alert to take every advantage of the 
work. One cannot make the weather, but can often 
arrange work in large measure to conform to the 
weather or to other conditions. The alert and wide- 
awake foreman will use good judgment in selecting men 
for various lines of work. Because a man does not 
make good in a certain line is not conclusive evidence 
that the man is no good. Sympathetic judgment is re- 

By sympathy we mean that a person in charge of men 
must be thoroughly in sympathy with them. If he is 
not, it would be unreasonable to expect to get their 
best efforts and it is quite certain that he could not 
infuse any degree of enthusiasm into the man in the 
shop under his control. There must be sympathy for 
the workman in the shop, if the foreman expects to 
obtain the best results, for men may be lead, but not 
driven. One must have the good-will and co-operation 
of the workman in order to get the best results. Satis- 
fied honest men who have confidence in the management 
are the ones who will push the work along. 

By co-operation, I mean working in harmony and 
sympathy with one another, each assuming a proportion 
of responsibility.* 

Friction results in the loss of power and energy. 
This is true in mechanics and equally true mentally or 
physically. We must eliminate friction to have effi- 
ciency. Some men are looking only to what they can 
get out of the job with apparently little thought of what 
they should put into it. 

Possibly one of the greatest opportunities for efficient 
co-operation in railroad work today is in the car in- 
spector's work. He must be competent to determine 
whether the car is safe and serviceable to move to 
destination and if it will protect the lading. Here 
comes in the importance of carding cars, showing the 
commodities that they are carrying as well as their 
destination. The inspector must know more about law 
than the proverbial "Philadelphia lawyer" to pass 
correctly on all United States safety appliances, besides 
many other things. All employes must work harmo- 
niously to expedite the forward movement of freight, 

and of almost equal importance is to see that empty 
cars are promptly moved homeward. 

A concrete example of lack of co-operation may be 
here given; "a box car placarded linseed oil switch and 
couple with care," was kicked down the yard and 
struck some other cars rather hard and immediately oil 
began to leak. The car was at once carded "Bad 
Order," for the repair track. The car was handled with- 
out attention to contents and offered to a connecting line 
which refused it on account of leaking oil. The car 
was again offered to this line and again refused, but 
they finally took it to their platform and transferred the 
load with a loss of about 200 gallons, which was selling 
at about $1.35 a gallon. If the transferrence of the 
load had been done immediately after the damage oc- 
curred, the loss would have been trifling. Too often we 
hear the expression "The company is rich." We be- 
lieve that all will readily concede that there is room for 
improvement in the careful, conscientious and honest 
management of the car department in railroad work. 

:»> !| S 

Letters to the Editor 



Curious Wear of Journal 

Editor Railway Master Mechanic: 

Sir — I am enclosing a good snapshot of a journal 
which I think is something of a curiosity. This pair 
of wheels came to us under a car loaded with flour. 
The journal, as can be seen in the illustration, has 
been spun from the original dimensions of 5 ins. by 



■- ■ ; 

Journal Spun from 5x9 ins. to 27/s x 13*4 i ns - 

9 ins. to 2% ins. smallest diameter in the center by 
IS 1 /! ins. long. The journal is perfectly straight and 
there is no visible seam or crack in it and the journal 
on the other end of the axle has not been disturbed at 

I have never before seen a journal spun in this man- 
ner, have you; or have you ever heard of a case of 
that kind? C. E. Slayton, 

Master Mechanic St. Joseph & Grand Island Ry. 

St. Joseph, Mo. 

Cause of Slid Flat Wheels 

Editor, Railway Master Mechanic: 

Sir: — I am sending you enclosed a table on the cause 
of slid flat wheels, and trust that you may see fit to print 
it in the Master Mechanic. Frank J. Borer. 

Roselle Park, N. J. 



May, 1916 


The Cause of Slid Flat Wheels— Brake-Shoe Friction Exceeding Rail Friction 

Air Brake Foreman, Elizabethport Shops, Central R. R. of New Jersey 

Unequal Dint rib id ion of Braking 
Ratio or Non-Uniform Re- 
tarding Power. 

Loaded and empty cars in 
same train. 

Unequal piston travel. 

Variable Braking ratio be- 
tween engine and cars. 

Cut-out brake leaky, brake 
cylinder or its connect- 

Pressure retained or retainer 
pipe stopped up. 

High Speed pressure reduc- 
ing valve or safety valve, 
,-.,.,, respectively, set either too 
"' low or too high. 

Equalizer springs on passen- 
ger car trucks too weak. 

Brake shoes hung too low 
with clasp brake. 

Too obtuse angle of brake 
beam hangers ; brake beam 
safety chain wedging be- 
tween brake beam and 
sand plank. 

Flanged brake shoes used in 
connection with brake beams 
having too much deflection. 

Dragging and Improper Manipu- 
lation of Brakes. 

Sliding from a standstill (chiefly 
in yards) due to hand brake 
remaining set. 

Using engine brake alone to stop 
train, or vice versa. 

Undesired emergency application, 
with engine using steam during 
part of the time stop is made. 

Brake shoes frozen to wheels. 

Applying hand brake in addition 
to air brake. 

Sudden shocks or blows, due to 
rough handling or caused by 
poor design or defective draft 

Moving brake valve handle too 
soon from release to running 

Improper use of sand. 

Inability to Release Brakes from 
a Light Service Application. 

Excessive train pipe leaks. 

Too short piston travel. 

Too high triple piston packing 
ring leakage. 

Too high differential of pressure 
required to move triple piston 
to release position caused by 
gummy slide valve and triple 
piston, or too tight packing, 

Leaky emergency valve rubber 

Insufficient excess pressure. 

Defective feed valve. 

Train pipe strainer almost 
stopped up. 

Overcharging of brake pipe pres- 

Insufficient Rail 

Oil on wheel tread 
or rail. 

Moist, slimy 
frosty rail. 

o r 

Depression in rail. 

Chipped or skidded 

Locomotive Headlight Cover 

Editor, Railway Master Mechanic. 

Sir: — I am sending a sketch of an automatic head- 
light cover which has been in use on local night pas- 
senger service for 12 months and has given very satis- 
factory, results, the parts being simple, have caused 

Headlight with Cover for Night Service 

no repairs since they have been in operation. It meets 
with the hearty approval of the crews, as there is no 
trouble from resparking of the electrobe or the throt- 
tling of the turbine as when the switch system is used. 
The arch is burning all the time and gives passing 
crews an opportunity to see the number in front cover 
and side number in the casing, giving positive identifi- 
cation of engine in a siding. Many wrecks have been 
charged to the cause of not identifying an engine. 

A bracket attached to side of headlight casing. A 
crank journaled on bracket. A rod carrying the cover, 
cover riveted rigidly to it. The cover*is made of light 
sheet metal, the rod of %-in. gas pipe bent to form a 
crank. The crank is journaled on the bracket with lugs 
extending to clutch carrying rod on cover. The crank 
lifts the carrying rod on cover past center on top of 
headlight casing and falls by gravity to position re- 
quired. A ^-in. rod passing through Vk-in. gas pipe 
from cap to. crank shifts it readily, as the crank only 
moves through 45 degs. to shift the cover past the top 
center, having a leverage equal in amount to that by 
which crank does not parallel the rod. 

The number of the locomotive should be cut into the 
cover backed by frosted sheet mica or any translucent 
material to bring out the number plainly, making iden- 
tification of the engine number easy at night, clips on 
front and lens holder to catch cover as it falls to the 
front; a bracket is made as is illustrated to receive 
cover on the back of the casing. 

Memphis, Tenn. Julius Robbe. 




Bessemer & Lake Erie Blacksmith Shop 

Construction and Dimentions of the Shop. The Ventilating System Employed to Secure 
a Clear Atmosphere; The Tools and Machines Used. Class of Work Turned Out 

The Bessemer & Lake Erie Railroad Company has 
completed at Greenville, Pa., in connection with its gen- 
eral repair shop, a blacksmith shop which is a good 
example of what can be done in this direction. 

The building is constructed of steel frame and brick, 
120 ft. wide by 128 ft. 6 ins. long, center to center cor- 
ner of columns, with a height of 21 ft. under the trusses. 

On account of the swampy nature of the ground in 
the Greenville locality, it was found necessary to use 
88 first-class piles, 32 to 38 ft. lengths, which were 
driven as near to the cut-off elevation as possible by the 
use of a follower. These piles were distributed so as 
to bring two under each end column of intermediate 
trusses, three under end column of end trusses, four 
under each pedestal supporting center columns of inter- 
mediate trusses, two under each center column of end 
trusses, and forty additional piles, spaced about 12 ft. 
center to center, under end and side walls. These piles 
were cut off at an elevation of 1 ft. above the bottom of 
the foundation and a single string of 60-lb. rails laid on 
top of them, excepting under columns, where short 
rails were laid at right angles to the center line of 
foundation walls. 

The roof trusses are of Pratt type, 128 ft. 6 ins. center 
to center of end columns, with a supporting column 

ft. deep at the ends and 15 ft. in the middle, giving the 
roof a slope of 1% ins. to 1 ft. All the steel was fur- 
nished by the American Bridge Co. 

The Walls are of common red-shale building brick, 13 
ins. thick, excepting pilastrs, which are 17 ins. thick. 
The brick are laid in cement mortar, clean river sand, 
Universal Portland cement, and just enough lime to 
make it work smooth; 168,000 bricks were used in this 

The windows in the sides and end of the building are 
made up of nine sashes, each of 16 lights, 12x14 ins; 
are 16 ft. high and are placed 3 ft. 10 ins. above the 
floor level. There is a total of 3,211 sq. ft. of glass in 
the lower walls, or 23 per cent of the wall surface below 
the square. In addition to the above there are two 
monitors, each with 38 sashes of 9 lights, 12x14 ins., or a 
total of 798 sq. ft., or a grand total of 4,009 sq. ft. of 
glass, giving almost perfect light and ventilation. 

A special effort has been made to make this shop com- 
plete in ever detail. The windows are of the three-sash 
type, the upper sash being swung on pivots, so that the 
top swings in and the bottom swings out. There are 
4,475 sq. ft. of window space in all in this shop. Venti- 
lators are also provided at the roof of the building, which 
gives exceedingly good ventilation, preventing direct 

General View of Bessemer & Lake Erie Blacksmith Shop at Greenville, Pa. 

under center. These trusses are of extra heavy con- 
struction, as specifications called for sufficient steel to 
carry one vertical concentrated load of 10,000 lbs. ap- 
plied at any point on lower chord of any truss, and one 
horizontal concentrated load of 12,000 lbs. acting in any 
direction and applied at panel points on the lower chord 
of any truss. This was to take care of the swinging 
cranes. The lower chord is 21 ft. above the floor level, 
which is on top of the foundation. The trusses are 7 

draughts. All the lintels and sills in this building are 
of reinforced concrete, made on the ground and placed 
when the bricks were laid. 

The roof is four-ply, Warren-Ehret built-up type, on 
2 ins. S. 1 S. T. & G. yellow pine sheathing. The inside 
finish is white, three coats of special paint, manufactured 
by the Illionis Steel Co., being used on the walls and two 
coats of white-lead paint on the underside of the roof. 
All steel work in the trusses is painted black. 



May, 1916 

The blower lines are of vitrified sewer tile laid with 
standard points. Special care was taken to have all joints 
watertight under a pressure of 10 lbs. per sq. in. These 
joints were made by packing a strand of oakum, of a size 
not to exceed one-fourth of the available space in the bell, 
dipped in a neat cement grout, tightly around spigot end, 
taking care to have spigot well seated. After this the 
remainder of the bell was filled with a stiff cement mortar 
and neatly beveled. The sewer tiles vary from 4 to 15 ins. 
in diameter, and were tested by putting up a 6-in. pipe 
in the manhole. This pipe was filled to a height of 23 
ft. above the blower line. 

The exhaust line, which is necessary on account of 
down-draft forges, is also of vitrified sewer pipe laid in 

Down-draught Forge, B. & L. E. Smithy 

the same manner as the blower line, but tested under 
water pressure to 3 lbs. per sq. in. This line is from 
12 to 36 ins. in diameter. 

This building was erected entirely by the company's 
forces, under the supervision of the engineering depart- 
ment of the railroad. 

Upon entering this shop one cannot help but be agree- 
ably pleased at the absence of smoke and gas, due to tne 
use of the down-draft forge system. The interior of this 
shop is painted white, except the roof trusses, which are 
painted with a special preparation to avoid corrosion. 
All the tools and machinery are painted black. The white 
interior helps to reflect and distribute light during the 
day and greatly assists in the diffusion of the rays from 
nine electric arc lamps suitably suspended from the roof 
trusses. Large doors are on all four sides, making it con- 
venient to enter or leave on any side; also giving direct 
connection to the erecting shop, machine shop, boiler shop 
and roundhouse. Entering from the south side, through 
large doors, one finds a standard-gauge track extending 
the length of the shop, which connects with the main lead 
track, by the use of which the handling of all machines 
and heavy material is taken care of by a locomotive crane. 

Our illustration of the down-draft forge shows how the 
smoke is carried away. There are fourteen of these 
forges in the. shop. The smoke and sulphur fumes pass 
up into the hood, and then pass through the suction pipe 

into the fan and up through the stack. The fan not only 
draws smoke and fumes into the hood, but also air from 
the vicinity of the hood, which air is naturally replaced 
by air coming in through the doors and windows, resulting 
in a constant change of air throughout the whole shop. 

The master blacksmith's office is placed near the west 
entrance, and is 10 by 16 ft. by 14 ft. high. The office is 
built of concrete, the outside finish being white plaster 
while the interior is painted white with glazed finish. The 
floor is raised 1 ft. above the shop floor level, and large 
windows are installed, so as to afford the master black- 
smith a commanding view of the entire shop. 

The forges are of the latest down-draft type. The ex- 
haust fan is direct connected, and is a 15-h.p. motor, 825 
r.p.m. being used. The blower fan is also direct con- 
nected, and has a 30-h.p. motor running at 2,000 r.p.m. 
All other power tools are direct connected, motor driven, 
no shafting or belting being used. 

The tool equipment consists of the following: One 300- 
ton high-speed hydraulic forging press; one 2,000-lb. 
steam hammer; one 600-lb. steam hammer; one 200-lb. 
power hammer; one 125-lb. power hammer; one No. 6 
double-ended bulldozer; one 1%-in. bolt-heading machine; 
two 2-in. triple-head threading machines ; one 8-in. alli- 

300-Ton High Speed Hydraulic Press, Made by United En- 
gineering Co., Used at B. & L. E. Shops, Greenville, Pa. 

gator shears ; one 12-in. alligator shears ; six gas-heating 
furnaces ; sixteen forges ; one hot saw ; one electric grind- 
ing machine; also numerous forming tools, such as eye 
benders, riveters and benders operated by compressed air. 
Ample provision has been made for the handling of 
heavy material at the forges, furnaces and hammers by 
the use of numerous jib cranes suitably placed in the shop. 
Special attention has been given to the "safety-first" idea, 
all moving parts of machinery being enclosed where pos- 
sible. The forges are arranged along the east side of the 
shop, with the exception of two, which are near the center 
and are used for heavy work. 

The hammers are convenient to all the forges and fur- 
naces, and the jib cranes are placed so as to reach all the 
tools. The forging press is in the center, near the north 
end of the shop. The 2,000-lb. steam hammer is at the 

May, 1916 



center of the shop. Midway between and a little to the 
east the 600-lb. steam hammer stands. South of the 
large steam hammer are the 125-lb. and 250-lb. power 
hammers. The furnaces are located near all of the above- 
named machines where it is necessary to heat material. 
Natural gas is used for fuel in all the furnaces. 

A case-hardening furnace is situated at the west side 
near the center of the shop. The material to be case- 
hardened is packed during an evening and placed in the 
furnace. The gas flame is then regulated to give a uni- 
form heat and the material is left over night. In the 
morning it is taken from the furnace and is quenched 
in a vat of water. With a furnace of this kind, the cost 
of a man to look after and regulate it is eliminated, the 
only expense being for the gas consumed and for tne 
carbonizing compound. A concrete vat 4 by 4 by 6 ft. 
is placed near the case-hardening furnace, and it has an 
inlet valve and an outlet valve, in order to keep the water 
cool. This vat is not only used in connection with the 
case-hardening furnace, but is also used for cooling 
heavy material which could not be cooled in the small 
cooling vats at the forges. 

The bulldozer stands south of the case-hardening fur- 
nace. Just south of the bulldozer is the 1%-in. bolt- 
heading machine and furnace, and directly south of this 
machine are the two bolt-threading machines, and east 
of these machines is the 6-in. and 12-in. alligator shears, 
with a track between them. This affords a handy ar- 
rangement, because material does not have to be moved 
any great distance to reach the bulldozer, bolt header 
and the threading machines. 

The installing of a forging press has simplified the 
making of many forgings, with a great reduction in their 
cost, also giving a good quality of forgings. With 
a machine of this description, adjusting yokes for loco- 
motive driving brake connections are made from solid 
stock, the center being punched out. Jaws for outside 
valve gears and boiler brace anchors, main reservoir 
heads of x 2-in. material, spade ends for side rods, chan- 
nels bent in U-shape for side stakes of steel cars, arch 
bars and angles of all shapes are made on this machine. 
Steel ties, which were badly bent and were heretofore 
considered as scrap material, are being straightened cold 
with dies of gray iron, which were designed for that pur- 
pose at a low cost. Seventy-five per cent of the dies used 
on this machine are made of gray iron, which are made 
at a low cost and require very little machine work. Dies 
made of this material could not be used on steam-hammer 
work, and the work turned out on this forging press, with 
the use of gray iron dies, requires very little machine 

We show in one of our illustrations the 300-ton United 
Engineering Co. high-speed hydraulic forging press. The 
photograph from which our engraving was made was 
taken during working hours in the shop, under normal 
conditions, and shows the clearness of the atmosphere. 

The shop organization is as follows. One master black- 
smith, one master's assistant, one master's clerk, one tool 
dresser, one tool dresser helper, one forging press smith, 
one forging press helper, one forging press heater, one 
forging press driver, two steam hammer drivers, one bull- 
dozer operator, one bulldozer operator helper, one bolt 
maker, one bolt heater, one shearman, twelve blacksmiths, 
fifteen blacksmith helpers ; total in all, 43 men. 

A bubbling drinking fountain situated near the center 
of the shop furnishes pure drinking water from a drilled 
well 187 ft. deep. Ample steam heat radiation has been 
provided to insure sufficient heat for the comfort of the 
employes during the winter months. The welfare of the 
employes, which is one of the policies of the United States 
Steel Corporation, which controls the B. & L. E. has been 

given special attention. The design and erection of the 
shop, as well as the arrangement and installation of tools 
and machinery, was executed entirely by company forces, 
who are all proud of the results. 

Safety Arch Inculcating Safety Always 

A unique safety arch is in use at the Buffalo, N. Y., 
plant of the Lackawanna Steel Company. It is a seri- 
ous attempt on the part of a large industrial concern 
to conform to the spirit of kindly interest in the welfare 
of the worker, which has been abroad, and is growing 
throughout the country at large. The arch will no 
doubt interest many railroad men engaged in locomo- 
tive and car work in the various repair and construc- 
tion shops in our broad land. It is impossible to enter 
the establishment where these arches have been set up, 
without at least seeing them, and although it is often 
said that familiarity breeds contempt, or perhaps more 

"Safety Always" Arch, Lackawanna Steel Co. 

correctly familiarity leads to disregard, the character 
of the sign is such that disregard is probably removed 
to a great extent from the minds of those who see the 
arch and to whom its appeal must always be of vital 

There are two so-called safety arches, one just inside 
each of the entrances to the works. These are so placed 
that the men pass under the arches to and from their 
work. The arches are away from buildings and struc- 
tures and are in view for a considerable distance and 
from many directions. The picture and the lettering 
appears on both sides alike and the entire arch is illu- 
minated by eight 100-watt tungsten lamps equipped 
with effective metal reflectors. The arches are 30 ft. 
6V2 ins. high over all. Both the columns and signs are 
18 ft. 4% ins. wide. 

On the sign or large display view the artist has 
painted a huge picture of a man in workman's clothing, 
with the notice, "Use your brains, eyes, ears, hands, 
feet to prevent injuries to yourself and fellow work- 
men." Arrows point to the part of the body referred to 
in the notice. Each of the thirty-six departments and 
shops in the establishment are represented by a steel 
plate 21 ins. long by 15 ins. wide bearing the name of 
the department or shop, and appended to the outer end 
of the plate is a representation of the American flag 
properly colored and made of steel. These plates are 



May, 1916 

arranged one above the other on each side of the sign. 
The men can read them at a distance of about one hun- 
dred feet. 

Each day at noon a black metal slide, representing a 
black flag, is placed over the flag of any department 
having had a personal injury during the previous twen- 
ty-four hours. This black flag remains up until the 
following day at noon. A daily exhibit of the personal 
injury record of each department shown up in this man- 
ner has caused a desirable and very beneficial rivalry 
among the superintendents and foremen at the plant. 
This friendly rivalry tends to keep down the number 
of employes injured. 

The safety arch notice bears the name of Geo. F. 
Downs, General Superintendent. There is a department 
of safety in this works, of which Mr. N. B. Ludlum is 
chief. A rough idea of the size of the arch may be had 
by observing the relative height of the two watchmen 
shown in our illustration, as compared with the arch 
and the colossal proportions of the "painted workman," 
who stands there whole of body and limb, to be judged 
by the same standard. Our railways have taken up the 
matter of "safety first" in earnest, yet this slogan 
almost implies the presence of some emergency and 
consequent prompt action, but the more persistent idea 
of "safety always" is exemplified by the arch, and the 
suggestion it contains may be found useful at the large 
shops of many of our iron roads. 

Standardization of Chilled Crane Wheels 

At a meeting of the A. S. M. E. not long ago Mr. F. K. 
Vial of Chicago pointed out that in the earlier stages 
of crane construction wheels of the general design as 
were used on railroads were adapted to crane service 
by adding a second flange of about the same section as 
that of a railroad wheel. This worked well enough 
while the wheel loads did not exceed those used in rail- 
way service. In the heavy types of bridge cranes con- 
centrated wheel loads five times greater than in rail- 
road service loads are required. 

The most common troubles with crane wheels are: 
Wheels becoming out of round on account of unequal 
wear; breaking down of metal on account of loads ex- 
ceeding its bearing power; distortion and binding of 
flanges on account of irregularity in gauge of track. 
These defects in wheels produce heavy strains through- 
out the structure, including worn and broken propelling 

All of these defects are expensive as they interrupt 
the service of important machinery. 

The Griffin Wheel Co. undertook an investigation into 
these matters by testing to destruction a large number 
of full size wheels of various designs in the R. W. 
Hunt & Co.'s 300,000-lb. Riehle testing machine. Use 
was also made of a considerable number of tests made 
at Purdue University and at the University of Illinois. 

It was evident that the vertical load carried on any 
wheel is not limited by the capacity of the wheel, but 
by the carrying capacity of the rail. The bearing power 
of chilled iron is far in excess of that of a steel rail. 
The tests show that under like loads the ratio of de- 
pression in the rail is inversely as the diameter of the 
wheel. The larger diameter of wheel makes a larger 
area of contact, which reduces the pressure per square 

Tables show that on a new A. S. C. E. rail the safe 
maximum limiting load for a 12-in. wheel is 23.000 lbs. 
and for a 33-in. wheel, 38,150 lbs. If the too of the rail 
is flat, 2 ins. wide, the limiting load on 12-in. wheels is 

78,300 lbs. and on 33-in. wheels, 130,000 lbs. It was also 
brought out that the power required for locomotion 
decreases as the diameter of wheel increases. A 24-in. 
wheel requires 25 per cent more power than a 33-in. 
wheel. A 16-in. wheel requires 68 per cent more power 
than a 33-in. wheel. 

The strength of flanges increases with the increase 
in diameter of wheel. With the same dimensions of 
flange and tread the flange on a 33-in. wheel is from 
26 to 34 per cent stronger than the flange on a 24-in. 
wheel and from 62 to 92 per cent stronger than the 
flange on a 16-in. wheel. The tests also show that the 
relation of flange thickness to tread thickness should 
be as 2 is to 3. Assuming the strength of a flange 
which is 1% ins. thick with tread thickness of 1% ins. 
as 100, a flange having a thickness of 1 3 4 ins. and tread 
thickness of 2% ins. would be 200. Every Y 8 in. added 
to flange thickness with the relative increase in tread 
thickness increases the flange strength 25 per cent. 
Chilled iron flanges were tested to above 1,000,000 lbs. 
horizontal pressure without breaking. 

Various designs of 12 to 36 ins. double flange wheels 
were made, from which the maximum safe vertical load 
and the maximum safe flange pressure for each design 
were ascertained. 

Altering Locomotive Front Ends 

When a locomotive is reported as not steaming the 
first move made in the roundhouse is to examine the 
front end, and if there are no leaks or other plain indi- 
cations of the cause of the trouble either the nozzle is 
reduced or the diaphragm is shifted. It is well known 
where such indiscriminate "fooling" with front ends 
leads. There are many roads on which it is doubtful 
if two locomotives of the same class have the same 
front end arrangement. The engines have been changed 
in one way at one terminal and in another way at an- 
other terminal. A bridge is put in the nozzle at one 
enginehouse and is taken out and the diaphragm shifted 
at the other end of the run. Some of the roads that 
have gone into an extensive programme of fuel econ- 
omy have found it necessary to re-standardize the front 
end arrangement of practically all of their locomotives. 
There should be some kind of prohibition placed on t-he 
indiscriminate front end alterations, if this work is to 
have any satisfactory results. The tendency should be 
toward standardization, within reasonable limits. There 
was a time when- little or nothing was known about 
front end design, and it may have been justifiable at 
that time to let every master mechanic and engine- 
house foreman work out his own ideas about the draft- 
ing of locomotives ; but now that there is sufficient 
definite information available to guide the designer in 
determining on a satisfactory front end arrangement 
which will result in a free steaming engine, this infor- 
mation should be put to use. Whatever adjustments 
or alterations may afterwards be found necessary 
should be made under the direction of a mechanical 
department officer who can investigate matters suffi- 
ciently to be sure what condition needs correcting and 
then to have that correcting done in a manner that will 
riot tend to demoralize the front end arrangement of 
?11 the locomotives on the system. 

Some happy talent and some fortunate opportunity 
may form the two sides of the ladder on which some 
men mount, but the rounds of that ladder must be made 
of stuff to stand the wear and tear. — David Copperfield. 

May, 1916 



High Speed Points on Soft Steel Shanks 

By HECTOR HARRIS, Rock Island Lines, Horton, Kan. 

Method of Forming Tools with Cutting Portion Renewed from Time to Time. 
Roughing, Finishing, Side Tool and Parting Tool Methods Explained and Illustrated 

A method of applying high speed steel tips or points 
to soft steel shanks for roughing, finishing, side and 
parting tools for lathes, planers, sharpers, tire turning 
machines, etc., is in use at the Horton, Kan., shops of the 
Rock Island lines. 

Fig. 1' shows a finished tool. Fig. 2 shows the slugs 
punched hot from high-speed steel, varying in size from 
% to % in. in thickness, according to the size of the 
tool to be made. Fig. 3 shows punch used for this op- 
eration. The size shown in the drawing is for a rough- 
ing tool % x VA ins. Other tools of different size are 
made on the same plan. The punch shown in Fig. 3 
and die shown in Fig. 4 are used on the punch press. 
Attention is called to the manner of making the shear- 

, h- ? -H 

cd g 

Fig. I. _>jj«-6° 

Finishing Tool. 

h - a- 



I /■£' 

i "i 

Fig. £. Shank. 


Fig. 4. 

r -L J.. 

5 I 


Fig. 7. Plunger. 

Pointing Steel Tools 

ing edge of the punch whereby a small fin is formed and 
later used in holding the slug in place during welding. 
However, hundreds of tools have been made without 

the fin, the operation being merely drawing out the 
high speed steel to proper width and thickness, then 
knicking and breaking off and applying. 

Soft steel shanks, Fig. 5, are tapered about the shape 
of high speed steel tips. They are then heated to a 
white heat in an oil furnace. They are covered with 
welding compound, the high speed steel tip is applied 
cold, with a light blow from a hand hammer, then re- 





Fig. 8. 


L -_, 



< — 3K- — -r-'— —4"— 

. d 

Roughing Slof 


a r 




— i ~ ,( ^ 



Fig. 10. Roughing Tool 


Hit- F ' 9 "- 


Fig. IS. Tip. 


Slot - 

finishing S/of 





Fig. 9. Dies. 

MH-7-a— - H 



?-AV- Fig. 13. Finishing Tool. Fig. 14. Plunger. 

Figs. 8 to 14. Dies and Plunger Used 

turned to the oil furnace and heated to the welding 
point, inserted in an Ajax forging machine, in dies as 
shown in Fig. 6. One revolution of the machine com- 
pletes the work and forms the tool. Fig. 7 shows the 
plunger which is used after the tool is placed in the die. 
In the side tool method the soft steel shank is fi^st 
forged to the size of a tool ; it is next heated to a white 
heat, then inserted into dies, Figs. 8 and 9, marked 
roughing slot, thus forming the tool in the shape shown 
in Figs. 10 and 11. The welding compound is next 
placed upon the tool where the tip is to be placed, and 
tip is next added, Fig. 12. The tool is then returned 
to the oil furnace, where it is heated to a welding heat, 
then inserted into dies, Figs. 8 and 9, in the finishing 

No. of 
No. on 

Size of 


— in 



of tip — 


H S. 

steel at 








axle, at 
JKc lb. 


new tool. 



Labor to 


1 V2X2% 














1 x2 














%xiy 2 














%xiy 2 














%xiy 4 














1 xl 














1 xl 



















» • 









%xiy 4 





, r 









%xiy 4 





• « 










May, 1916 

slot, and one revolution of the machine completes the 
tool as in Fig. 13. 

The plunger, Fig. 14, forms the end of the tool, mak- 
ing it more nearly the correct shape of the tool. The 
key in die, Fig. 8, is placed in there so as to form a 
square and a more perfect edge on the end. 

The parting tool dies and method is similar in treat- 
ment to the others. The soft steel shank is first heated 

* i 

. t 



* I 

CVJ j 






* I 



-»lj h- Fig. IT. Shank. 

M 11 

Fig. 15. Roughing Dies. 

^ 4 *i 

Fig. 19. Plunger for Roughing Dies. 

r >£~- 

— i 






< -4" -> 



— h? i 






i-i • 

» l 







Fig. 16. Roughing Dies. 

> -X— 


, I 






«—. 3 '!—> 

< — 4 > 

-r- c 





— J — 

Fig. 18. Finishing Dies. 

Fig. 20. Finishing Tool. Fig. 21. Fig. 22. Plunger for Finishing Dies. 

Figs. 15 to 22. Finishing Dies and Plunger 

and then inserted in the roughing dies, Figs. 15 and 
16, which makes the shank into a form which is shown 
in Fig. 17. A welding compound is then added and the 
high-speed steel tip is next applied, and the tip is 
knocked down as shown in Fier. 17. It is then heated to 



t ,<_- .—, 7 !L p ^_ 




1 — N 


t t<~ -is-- 


cm ! 



No. 2. 


< m „ _ . 







h< io"- 

No. 4. 


"- ">'- 72* 

* T" 







No. 6. 

— 8" ^=->J 







/ fl)lc 

No. 8 

-J T ' 


— 8 - 




V JL. 


No. 9. 


No. S. 

No. 10. 

Nos. 1 to 10. Various Styles of Tools 

•a welding heat and put into the finishing die, Fig. 18, 
and with a revolution of the machine the tool is com- 

After the tools are taken from the forging machine 
they are thrust into a tank having about 6 to 8 ins. of oil 

on top of water, with the soft steel shank in the water 
and high speed steel tip in the oil. This tank is made 
with a drain to draw off hot water while cold water is 
running in at the bottom, thus keeping oil and water 

If a tool should be a little too cool for tempering or 
hardening when taken from the forging machine it 
should be reheated and then inserted in the tank. Any 
flashes that are found thereon are knocked off when 
cold. After grinding the tools are ready for use. 

By making these tools this way there are several ad- 
vantages. By using the forging machine the work is 
done more economically, particularity when the tools 
are made in large quantities. The intense pressure of 
the forging machine results in a very dense, close- 
grained tool being formed. And again the forging 
machine method produces a better weld and a more uni- 
form shaped tool, and it is superior to the hand-made 

These tools have stood the most severe tests in the 
Rock Island shops at Horton, Kan. These dies are made 
of scrap driving axles, and the plungers are made from 
scrap tires. The making of the dies and the handling 
of the tools is done by Harry Harris, blacksmith fore- 
man at the Rock Island shops at Horton, Kan. 


Evolution of the Wedge Type Packing 

Discussion of Effective and Non-effective Areas in Packing. The 
Importance of Closing Components. The Utility of the Wedge 

The efficiency of any metallic piston-rod packing de- 
pends upon the kind of metal used and on the design of 
the packing. The ideal packing metal should have anti- 
friction qualities and should be sufficiently malleable 
to deform itself readily and thereby continue to con- 
stantly make a steam-tight fit on the piston-rod, as wear 
takes place. It should have sufficient tensile strength 
not to break during this process and should have a suf- 
ficiently high melting point to withstand the tempera- 
tures to which it may be subjected. 

In design, metallic piston-rod packings may be 
divided into two general classes. First, those with a 
wedge-shaped cross-section, in which spring pressure 
and the steam pressure tend to force the packing rings 
into a cone-shaped cup, thereby closing the packing 
tightly on the rod; and second, those of square-shaped 
cross-section, in which a circumferential or tangential 
spring tension, in addition to the steam pressure, closes 
the packing on the rod. 

In the first mentioned case the amount of closing ef- 
fort depends on the angularity of the cone, the angular- 
ity of the individual rings and the intensity of the 
spring and the steam pressures. By angularity, as here 
used, the slope of the rod-packing where it enters the 
vibrating cup is meant. This slope, whether great or 
small, is the main reason why this type of packing is 
effective. The packing ring, when pushed into the 
vibrating cup, being beveled or wedge-shaped, causes 
a pressure to be exerted on the rod. Mathematicians 
would speak of this as the vertical component of the 
horizontal pressure of spring and steam. 

The effort of spring and steam is to push the pack- 
ing along the rod, and this is opposed by the vibrating 
cup. Using what is called the "parallelogram of 
forces," the horizontal push of spring and steam may be 
"resolved" into a force acting up and down, or at right 
angles, to the length of the rod and also a force approxi- 
mately parallel to the rod. These two "resolved" forces, 
together balance the horizontal thrust resulting from 

May, 1916 



spring and steam. That portion of the spring and 
steam force which bears vertically on the rod is the only 
effective force for keeping the rod steam-tight. The 
other is here practically thrown away. 

The metal used must be capable of grasping, but not 
seizing, the rod, and it must also have the ability to 
"flow," that is, it must maintain its grasp of the rod, 
sustain or take up wear and still keep tight. It is quite 
possible to make packing tight at first, but it may not 
remain so when the effects of wear become pronounced. 
The latch of a door may be tight when it is new. It 
has the regulation wedge-shape, but as it has no ability 
to take up wear the latch eventually becomes loose, and 
allows the door to rattle. 

Looking at our illustration Fig. 1, it will be seen 
that the packing has a single closing component. In 

ponent is obtained, which has less intensity per unit of 
area of bearing. Both of these conditions tend to lessen 
the inevitable wear of the packing and the rod. 

An illustrative diagram, Fig. 4, exhibits the packing 
as the starting point. It has two qualities, design and 
metal. Supposing the metal to be all that is desired, 
the design branches into those rings which have square 
cross-sections, and those which have wedge-shaped sec- 
tions. The wedge-shaped group may have one, two or 
three closing components, according to the number and 
bevel of the rings. In this simple analysis of packing 
rings of the wedge type it becomes evident that the 
vertical component of spring and steam pressure is the 
really effective factor. The horizontal thrust of spring 
and steam must be here ignored as producing no "pack- 
ing" effect, and the greater the vertical component can 

V ibrating Cup 

Vib rating Cup 


A \ 

Fig. 1 

Vib rating C up 

° ° ^Spring 


A B D 


Closing Closing 
Component Component 


Fig. 2 

B I D 
Fig. 3 

this figure the portion of the packing within the vibrat- 
ing-cup is wedge-shaped and the contour of the back 
end of the packing is a quadrant, with its centre on the 
piston-rod surface. The vibrating-cup is the closing 
agent, and the packing outside the vibrating cup is not 
acted upon in any way tending to close it on the rod. 
If the back end of the packing was flat, that is, 90 degs. 
to the longitudinal axis of the piston-rod, there would 
still be only one closing component. It is immaterial 
whether the packing is made in two or three or more in- 
dividual flat rings. The angular face of the vibrating- 
cup projected down on the rod is readily seen to be the 
total bearing A. B. C. of the packing on the rod. Only 
the portion A. B. is actually performing the work of 




reasonably be made, the better it is, as any increase in it 
reduces the non-effective work of spring and steam. 

The more extended the bearing area of the rings, 
which follows as a consequence on an increase of the 
closing components, reduces the amount of wear on any 
one piece in a given time. The closer the packing can 
be made to encircle the rod, with a reduction of spring 
pressure, has the practical effect of putting off the day 
of trouble, when the packing must be renewed, and if, 
during this time of successful service, the packing re- 
mains tight, one may say the packing has given good 
service and that it owes us nothing. The metallic pis- 
ton-rod packing, in common with every other mechan- 
ical device used on locomotives, is like a strong fort, 
not intended to be everlasting or to permanently resist 
continuous and long-continued assault, but to stand a 
seige for a considerable time, or hold out until relief 
comes. To work a thing effectively and delay renewal 
is one of the secrets of good design. 





Wedge Ends 
Sec Hon 


I Component 2 Components 3 Components 

Diagram Showing Elements in Metallic Packing Design 

"packing" the rod, the portion B. C. does not help to 
secure a close steam-tight fit. 

In Fig. 2 the back end of the packing has been bev- 
eled off to give this portion a closing component. This 
form of packing has now two closing components and 
the effective bearing of the packing on the rod has been 
increased by the addition D. C, so that the total effect- 
ive bearing is A. B. plus D. C, with a non-effective bear- 
ing B. D., on the rod. 

In Fig. 3 the angularity of the cone-shaped or triang- 
ular packing-ring has been changed from 90 degs. to 
the longitudinal axis of the piston-rod, to 45 degs. This 
produces a third closing component, which bridges over 
the non-effective bearing B. D. of the packing rings on 
the rod, as in Fig. 2. In Fig. 3 the entire bearing of the 
packing on the rod becomes effective and the aggregate 
closing effect of the packing is better distributed than 
is possible with other designs of wedge-shaped packing. 
The actual results accomplished are that a lighter 
spring may be used and a more uniform closing com- 

Specializing Enginehouse Work 

Many people writing on enginehouse subjects lay 
stress on the value of having specialists for the dif- 
ferent classes of work in the enginehouse. There can 
be little doubt as to the value of organizing an engine- 
house force in this way, particularly if the terminal 
is a large one. The man or gang of men who attend 
to, say, nothing but electric headlight repairs, soon be- 
come expert in the determination of what is wrong 
with this equipment and what should be done to rem- 
edy it. Air brake work has long been specialized and 
it is probable that the desirability or even necessity of 
having experts in air brake work led to the extension 
of the practice as terminals increased in size and the 
locomotive became more complicated. One class of 
work that should be taken care of by specialists, where 
possible, is the reducing and fitting of main rod 
brasses. If this work is assigned to men who do noth>- 
ing else, except in cases of emergency, they become 
so apt at the job that it will be found that trouble 
from heating at either end of the rod will be greatly re- 
duced, if it is not entirely eliminated. While the prac- 
tice of specializing the work is not so readily carried 
out in the small enginehouse, it is possible even there 
to obtain very satisfactory results by assigning to one 
man two or three lines of work that are closely allied. 



May, 1916 

New Trade Literature and Appliances 

111 ■ ■ | MIIH' : " ■ ■ IIMil: ■ ■■ Il!i: '!| ■;. ■ , ■ ■- ■!! : . ■■ ■- ,, ,: ■ < ,,, ..,„:! ,: If:,. "■: ,:::ii :/!::::". /\. 'TliiiJIIIiHIIIIilllllinillllH 

The National Machinery Co. 

Tiffin, 0., have recently issued National Forging Ma- 
chine Talk No. 9, describing a new design for grip slide 
alignment by which the weight of the gripping slide in 
their forging machines is carried by bearings above 
the scale and water-line. By this construction the 
slides are not subject to excessive wear and sagging 
and consequent development of "fins" are eliminated. 

Westinghouse, Church Kerr & Co. 

37 Wall street, New York City, have recently issued a 
16-page illustrated circular tracing the progress of the 
construction of the new Taylor-Wharton plant at Eas- 
ton, Pa., consisting of 5 buildings, an office building, 
pattern shop, a foundry, a blacksmith shop and the 
main or finishing shop, together with yard facilities, 
fire protection, water supply, sewers and lighting. The 
size and completeness of this plant illustrates the wide 
scope of W. C. K. service. 

The Roberts & Schaefer Co. 

engineers and contractors, Chicago, have been awarded 
a contract by the Chicago Great Western Railway Com- 
pany for a Counterbalanced Bucket Locomotive Coaling 
Plant at Hayfield, Minn., a duplicate of one recently 
erected at Red Wing, Minn. 

The Ingersoll-Rand Co. 

The Ingersoll-Rand Co., of 11 Broadway, New York, 
N. Y., have recently issued three new bulletins. The 
first is Form 3036, on Turbo Blowers. These blowers are 
suitable for any air service where the capacity require- 
ments range from 3,000 to 35,000 cu. ft. of free air per 
minute at pressures of 1 to 2% lbs., and are particu- 
larly adapted to such work as foundry cupola blowing; 
atomizing oil for oil burners; supplying blast to vari- 
ous kinds of heating and annealing furnaces; blowing 
air for water gas generators ; pneumatic conveying sys- 
tems and for ventilating purposes. 

Form 3029 describes the "Ingersoll-Rogler" class 
"ORC" Corliss steam-driven air compressors of the 
familiar duplex type, with the steam cylinders next to 
the frames and separated from the air cylinders by 
open distance pieces. This type of machine is offered 
in four different combinations of cylinders. Cata- 
logue gives sizes and capacities. 

Form 4120 describes the Leyner-Ingersoll water 
drills, both the No. 18 and No. 26 type. Catalogue ex- 
plains the construction in detail and illustrates the dif- 
ferent types, including numerous installation views. 
Copies of these bulletins free on request to the nearest 
branch office. 

Acme Supply Co. 

The Acme Supply Co., of Chicago, announce the ap- 
pointment of Mr. Franklin M. Nicholl as sales repre- 
sentative, with office at the general sales office, Steger 
building, Chicago. Mr. Nicholl has been for the last 
seven years Eastern and Canadian sales representative 
for the Dayton Manufacturing Co. Previous to that he 
was for five years sales representative with the O. M. 
Edwards Co., and before that he was sales representa- 
tive for the Curtis truck. Mr. Nicholl has sold railway 
supplies for twelve years. 

Metals Production Equipment Co. 

The Quigley Furnace and Foundry Co., of Spring- 
field, Mass., and 105 W. 40th street, New York, has re- 
cently added to their business a brass rolling mill de- 
partment for the production of fiat brass. The stock- 
holders decided at the last annual meeting, held in 
January, to adopt a new and more comprehensive name 
for the company. The new name is Metals Production 
Equipment Co. No change has been made in general 
policy or management. The furnace, foundry and pow- 
dered coal departments will be continued as heretofore, 
and the Quigley Furnace and Foundry Co. hope to con- 
tinue to serve the public under the new name. 

The Searchlight Co. 

A folder has recently been issued by the Searchlight 
Co., of Chicago, in which the difference between what 
is called dry and wet acetylene is explained. The com- 
pany set forth the use of dry acetylene in the operation 
of welding by the oxy-acetylene flame. Searchlight 
acetylene is the trade name for the dry acetylene han- 
dled by this company. Among other things, the folder 
gives information as to the storage of this material in 

Quigley Furnace Specialties Co. 

Announcement is made that the Quigley Furnace 
Specialties Co., Inc., of 26 Courtlandt street, New York, 
N. Y., is the new name of an old concern. The new 
company of which Mr. W. B. Quigley is president, are 
doing business by specializing in the fuel and furnace 
line. Their furnace specialties department manufacture 
and deal in furnace materials, equipment and appliances 
for the improvement of furnace construction, operation 
and methods. 

The engineering and contracting department handles 
comparative statements of operating costs of powdered 
coal, hand or stoker-fired coal, gas and fuel oil. This 
department also contracts for industrial furnaces. 

National Tube Co. 

The April issue of the National Tube Co.'s publica- 
tion for April deals with autogenous welding of "Na- 
tional" pipe. The word autogenous means self-produc- 
ing or independent. The systems employed commer- 
cially are electric welding; blow-pipe welding; and 
thermit welding. These may all be classed under the 
term autogenous. The pages of this issue are devoted 
to an analysis of the whole process and there are many 
illustrations to make clear the letter press. The sub- 
ject matter deals exclusively with the welding of "Na- 
tional" pipe. 

Lodge & Shipley Machine Tool Co. 

The Lodge & Shipley lathes are the subject of a 
bulletin issued by the Lodge & Shipley Machine Tool 
Co., of Cincinnati, O. It is practically a manual for 
operating these tools and is of standard catalogue size. 
The erection and oiling of the machines, the accuracy 
of the work, the "manufacturing" lathe, tool grinding 
and many other details are the topics to which a few 
pages, on each, is given in the manual. The company 
will be happy to send a copy to anyone interested. 

May, 1916 



Practical Suggestions from Railway Men 

Oil Press 

C. & N. W. Shops, Winona, Minn. 

In connection with renovating old journal packing, 
when the oil-soaked waste is picked over, the short and 
soggy waste that is considered unfit for another renovat- 
ing is thrown to one side and afterwards burned up to 
reclaim whatever babbitt it contains. In so burning the 
waste there is a loss of oil, which has gone up in the 
flames instead of preserving journal brasses. We have 

Set pail 

fi~to o >- 

Oil. P/f£.s^ 

Arrangement for Squeezing Waste, C. & N. W. Ry. 

now made a press, illustrated in the accompanying draw- 
ing, whereby we reclaim this oil, by squeezing it out of 
the waste before burning it. The drawing ought to be 
self-explanatory, but a few words will help to make it 
still clearer in the matter of its construction. 

The outer vessel is made of No. 16 galvanized iron, and 
the inside one is composed of No. 20 wire cloth, having 
3-16 in. mesh and an annular separator marked "B" of 
No. 16 galvanized iron is riveted to both vessels to keep 
the inner one rigidly in place. Reinforcing bands "C" 
of % x 1%-in. iron are riveted to each vessel. Two ribs 
"A" of y 4 x 1 in. iron are riveted to the inside of the 

inner vessel, being a continuous piece from the top, down 
one side, across the bottom and up along the other side to 
the top. These two ribs are at right angles to each other, 
and act both as reinforcements and as guides for the 
piston, the ends being chamfered so that the piston has 
not a chance to engage in them; the rivets holding these 
ribs are countersunk so the piston cannot strike them. 

The device is fully worth the cost of construction, as it 
is not at all expensive, and practically everlasting, and 
therefore will pay for itself in a short time. 

Taking Weight Off Springs 

By M. J. McCABE, Machine Fore- 
man Mo. Pac. Ry., Sedalia, Mo. 

Putting springs in locomotives without using jacks 
to take the weight off of springs when engine can be 
moved by her own steam is an improvement on present 
methods. No doubt many of the readers of this article 
have raised engines by running the drivers up on 
frogs, and thus taking the weight off of the springs, 
and the device I speak of is along the same lines. 

On one of the tracks in the round house make a de- 
pression in the rails of about five inches, on an incline 
both ways from this depression for a distance of five 
feet, as shown. For example, take a 2-6-0 engine and to 
remove main spring place main drivers over the depres- 
sion in the track and block up between top of box and 
frame, move engine and place front pair in depression, 
or hole as we term it, block on top of box, move main 

Depression in Rail for Removing Springs 

pair to hole, and the saddle will be down on the frame. 
If springs have much draw, it may be necessary to put a 
chain around end of spring and around a spoke of the 
wheel, moving engine carefully until the gibb is loose. 

In most cases it is only necessary to raise one side, 
but in many cases it is advisable to raise both sides, 
keeping the engine up level, just as sometimes when 
raising with jacks, we use one at each end on one side, 
and sometimes it is advisable to use a jack at each end 
on both sides. You can remove front or back spring in 
the same way, and also the truck springs. 

This simple device has been used in the Missouri, 
Kansas & Texas round house for the past seven years. 
It can be used on almost every class the M., K. & T. 
have; the idea was conceived by Mr. G. P. Letts, fore- 
man for twenty years at that point. The writer was 
employed there for fourteen months as machinist, and 
found this device very convenient, having changed a 
spring quite often in from twenty to thirty minutes, 
counting time for raising and lowering the engine, re- 
moving and replacing the spring. The only spring we 
changed by using jacks were the springs on a four- 
wheel engine truck. 

Scrap nuts and washers are used and in some cases 
a small wrought plate may be required. If I had charge 
of a round house I would have one such track. 



May, 1916 

Device for Holding Distributing Valves 

By E. H. WOLF 
Air Brake Machinist, A. C. L. Waycross, Ga. 

The stop-pin shown rests on top of the vise and the 
valve is then bolted to its face. By loosening the 1-in. 
nut the valve can then be swung round so as to get the 






i . " l 

I '# ! 


Stud for Distributing Valve Holder 



man can see his work more clearly. This jig can be 
made of thrown-away pieces of iron and will prove use- 
ful in many places where good light is needed in doing 

this class of work. 


Segment Valve 

Erie Railroad, Huntington, Ind. 

Attached sketch is of Yergens quick-acting valve, 
patented by W. F. Yergens, master mechanic on the Erie 
Railroad at Huntington, Ind. 

The Yergens Valves are used for any purpose, such 
as the conveyance of steam, gas and water, and are 
used as main valves. The print shows a special valve 
for steam, and is a quick-acting blower valve, which is 
applied and operated in the cab, attached to the blower 
line with lever for engineman and fireman, so from 
either side a simple and easy movement by hand will 
open valve quickly. This valve constitutes an improve- 
ment, and is maintained more cheaply than other valves, 
as you note by sketch this valve is simply constructed 

rr? i.- 


Jig for Holding Distributing Valve 

« 8 " 

1 1 


i ' 
i J 

i ! 
i I 

— r J ^r 

i i 
i i 
i i 
i i 
i i 






- - - S^'~ 



— >i 






Wholes for f "bolts 

Clamps for Jig 

best li^ht on the seats, when grinding or fitting the 
packing rings. The valves are held firmly by this 
method and better work will result because the work- 

Elevation and Plan of Segment Valve 

and easily made. It has a segment valve which opens 
a port at 45 degs. ; it has two working parts, one a shaft, 
the other a segment valve which continuously forms its 
own seat. 

Among all these valves that have been installed not 
one has had to be removed for repairs, and some of them 
have been continuously in service for eight months. 

May, 1916 




Personal Items for Railroad Men 

Mr. W. E. Belter has recently become assistant super- 
intendent of locomotive performance on the St. Louis 
& San Francisco, with headquarters at Oklahoma, Okla. 
Beginning as a fireman, he had four years on that work 
and was twelve years employed as a locomotive engi- 
neer. He succeeds Mr. Bates, transferred to other ter- 
ritory in the same service. 

Mr. N. B. Corbett has been appointed shop superin- 
tendent at Denison, Tex., on the Missouri, Kansas & 
Texas Railway. On December 1, 1915, he was trans- 
ferred from roundhouse foreman at Denison, Tex., to 
general foreman at Smithville, Tex., and recently he 
suceeded Mr. B. C. Nicholson, assigned to other duties. 

Mr. Herbert R. Craswell, Jr., has been appointed 
locomotive foreman on the Great Northern at Sioux 
City, la. He has been employed by the Great Northern 
Railway for almost thirteen years, starting as an ap- 
prentice machinist on June 1, 1903, at Sioux City, la., 
and has been employed at this point ever since. His 
predecessor, Mr. Herbert R. Craswell, Sr., was pro- 
moted to the position of master mechanic on the same 
road, with headquarters at Sioux City, la. 

Mr. Oscar Culbreth has been appointed and is to 
assume the duties of road foreman of engines for the 
entire Cairo division of the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chi- 
cago & St. Louis Railway, with headquarters at Mt. 
Carmel, 111. 

Mr. M. A. Gleeson has been appointed general fore- 
man on the B. & O. at Grafton, W. Va. He entered 
railroad service April 1, 1902, as machinist apprentice 
on the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad at Piedmont, W. Va. 
Served four years' apprenticeship and was out April 1, 
1906. He then worked as machinist at Piedmont, and 
later at Keyser, W. Va., to which point the shops were 
moved, until September 1, 1914, at which time he was 
appointed day engine house foreman at M. & K. Junc- 
tion, W. Va. He served in that capacity until February 
1, 1916, at which time he was transferred to Grafton, 
W. Va., Monongah division of the Baltimore & Ohio 
Railroad, to fill a vacancy caused by the promotion of 
Mr. M. E. Mullen, transferred to Brunswick, Md., as 
assistant master mechanic. 

Mr. E. H. Hall has been appointed general car in- 
spector on the Chicago Great Western at Oelwein, la. 
Prior to his present appointment he was in the service 
of the Chicago & Alton as traveling car foreman, with 
headquarters at Bloomington, 111., for the past four 
years. He was also in the service of the Santa Fe at 
Albuquerque, N. M., as head car inspector, for two 
years, and prior to that time was assistant chief joint 
car inspector at St. Louis for the American Association 
of Railroad Superintendents for two and one-half years, 
and six years prior to this he was in the employ of the 
Terminal Railroad Association of St. Louis as car re- 
pairer, then inspector, and later was promoted to assist- 
ant M. C. B. clerk in the office of superintendent of car 
department. He succeeds Mr. T. M. Baughan, resigned 
on account of ill health. 

Mr. H. P. Hass recently received the appointment of 
engineer of tests on the New York, New Haven & Hart- 
ford Railroad, with headquarters at New Haven, Conn. 
He was born at Newport, R. I., March 6, 1885; grad- 
uated from the Sheffield Scientific School of Yale Uni- 
versity in 1907, having completed the course in me- 
chanical engineering. Since graduation he has been. 
in the employ of the New Haven Railroad, beginning 
by entering the railroad shops at New Haven July 1, 
1907, as a special apprentice. Later he became con- 
nected with the department of tests as a material in- 
spector, August 1, 1909, and was appointed chief in- 
spector, department of tests, November 1, 1911. He 
was lately appointed engineer of tests. Mr. E. H. 
Raquet, his predecessor, left the service of the railroad 
company to enter that of the Lundin Co., New York,. 
N. Y. 

Mr. J. A. Hutchins has recently been appointed gen- 
eral foreman on the Southern Railway at Winston- 
Salem, N. C. He was first employed in railroad service 
with the Southern Railway Co. at Spencer, N. C, on 
April 3, 1908, leaving there on August 1, 1910, to ac- 
cept a position as machinist with the Central of Geor- 
gia Railway at Macon, Ga. He later left Macon on 
September 1, 1910, and returned to Spencer, N. C, with 
the Southern Railway as machinist, at which place he 
remained until promoted as general foreman at Win- 
ston-Salem, N. C. His predecessor was Mr. W. J. Mur- 
rian, who resigned his position with the Southern Rail- 
way Co. to accept a position with the Interstate Railway 
Co. at Stonega, Va. 

Mr. W. E. James has recently been appointed general 
traveling fireman and assistant traveling engineer on 
the Denver & Rio Grande at Grand Junction, Col. He 
entered the service as fire cleaner for the D. & R. G. at 
Tucker, Utah, in February, 1907, and was later pro- 
moted to the position of locomotive fireman, September, 
1907; then promoted to the position of locomotive engi- 
neer, September, 1911; and in October, 1912, he was 
made traveling fireman of D. & R. G. system (new 
office), holding this position up to November, 1915. He 
was then appointed to the position of general traveling 
fireman and assistant traveling engineer for the system- 
Mr. M. Jefferson, who has been assistant master me- 
chanic of the New Jersey and Lehigh division on the 
Lehigh Valley Railroad at Easton, Pa., has been pro- 
moted to the position of master mechanic, vacated by 
Mr. T. Lewis' promotion. 

Mr. Harvey Jeffrey has recently returned to his for- 
mer position as car foreman on the Great Northern at 
Grand Forks, Dak. He had been appointed valuation 
inspector July 1, 1915, and went back to the car de- 
partment February 22, 1916, having completed the val- 
uation with the I. C. C. inspector and the taking of an 
inventory of the rolling stock for the road. 

Mr. John Jacob Kelker has been appointed superin- 
tendent of shops on the Oregon Short Line Railroad, 
with headquarters at Pocatello, Ida. He was born at 
Effingham, 111., July 21, 1874. From July 21, 1891, to 



May, 1916 

May 30, 1903, he was machinist apprentice, machinist, 
machine shop, roundhouse and general foreman D. & 
R. G. at Pueblo, Col.; from June 1, 1903, to February 1, 
1904, he was utility foreman C., R. I. & P. at Horton, 
Kan.; from February 10, 1904, to March 10, 1905, he 
was general foreman D. & R. G. at Salida, Col.; from 
March 16, 1905, to October 14, 1909, he held the posi- 
tion of assistant master mechanic and superintendent 
of shops C. H. & D. at Lima, O.; from October 20, 1909, 
to March 2, 1911, he was assistant master mechanic 

D. & R. G. at Salt Lake City, Utah ; and from March 5, 
1911, to March 15, 1916, he was master mechanic South- 
ern Pacific Co., Oakland, Cal. His predecessor was Mr. 

E. E. Crysha, who has left the service. 

Mr. Thomas Lewis, master mechanic of the Auburn 
division on the Lehigh Valley Railroad, with headquar- 
ters at Auburn, N. Y., has been appointed general boiler 
inspector for the system, with headquarters at Sayre, 

Mr. J. H. Lynch has been appointed road foreman of 
engines on the Chattanooga, New Orleans & Texas Pa-